effects of radiation

Fun fact: The reason why most of the footage from the Chernobyl disaster looks so grainy and low quality is due to the radiation it was exposed to, as it was so strong it heavily degraded the footage captured by the cameras, to the point it even broke the cameras themselves. Igor Kostin, one of the first journalists to arrive to the site, tells that all of his cameras stopped working after just a few shots, and almost immediately he too began to feel the effects of radiation, in the form of dizziness and a metallic taste in his mouth. 

Igor Kostin (27 December 1936 – 9 June 2015) with one of his photos of the disaster

The Biorobots of Chernobyl

In the last pic you can clearly see the radiation, in the form of the white stripes at the bottom of the frame.


Clarke receiving the Nightblood injection does not mean she’s going to take the chip and become the next commander, remember at this point Clarke doesn’t even know where the chip is. I also think the Nightblood injection will be good for Clarke personally and for Bellarke:

Why this will be good for Clarke and why she won’t be taking the chip:

Clarke doesn’t need the chip to become a leader, she already is-think back to Ep 1 of this Season when Kane told Abby: “The youth shall inherit the earth.” Clarke and Bellamy are taking over leadership of the Arkadians from Kane and Abby and this is just another step forward on that journey. To have Clarke take the chip would be a step back on her leadership journey. 

Clarke needs to become a leader in her own right, not one who just follows the advice she got from L/xa. so Clarke injecting herself with Nightblood could possibly be one of the first real steps we see Clarke make to becoming her own kind of leader, not just one who parrots the advice of the leaders shes known. 

To extrapolate on this idea that Clarke is going to finally begin to come into her own. One of L/xa’s key pieces of advice was: “You have to be willing to send others to fight and die for you” (paraphrasing). Well, Clarke’s already tried this method twice now: the first time with the Grounder guy and then in even considering Emori. In choosing to use the Nightblood on herself, she shows hat she is willing to sacrifice herself (something we haven’t seen Clarke do before) for her people, which…is extremely reminiscent of one Bellamy Blake. 

I also suspect that the Nightblood will wind up protecting Clarke from the ill effects of radiation at some point in the future. 

Why this will be good for Bellarke:

Back in November (around the time they were filming 409 and 410), Bob gave an interview where he said that Abby and Bellamy are always united in wanting Clarke’s safety and something we would see in the later episodes of the Season. 

Clarke will obviously be a radiation test subject now, they have no choice it would be a waste of perfectly good Nightblood if they didn’t and so, like Luna, she too will suffer temporarily from radiation poisoning. I believe Bellamy will be informed/figure out that Clarke is suffering from radiation poisoning and come to her. 

I think this will bring the foreshadowing in 406 (Bellamy: “Clarke, if we don’t see each other again…”, Clarke: “We will.”) full circle and open the door for emotional (possibly romantic) confessions. 

In honor of black history month which starts Wednesday, I’d like to submit this fine black man named Ernest Everett Just. <3 He was a biologist and educator who pioneered multiple areas of the physiology of the development of living cells. This included fertilization, experimental parthenogenesis, hydration, cell division, dehydration in living cells, and the effects of radiation on cells. During his time, a fellow black scientist named Charles Drew called him “a biologist of unusual skill and the greatest of our original thinkers in the field.” He also looks a little like Rami Malek, so that doesn’t hurt him AT ALL.

  • liam: any family involved in the first contact war?
  • vetra: how is this supposed to help
  • liam: it's small talk
  • vetra: small talk is 'how's the weather,' not
  • vetra [southern accent]: did yer elder shoot mah grandpa
Molecule of the Day: Cisplatin

Cisplatin [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] is an metal complex that is used as an antineoplastic agent (anti-cancer drug). It is one of the archetypal transition metal complexes, being well-known and having a long history.

Cisplatin was first synthesised in 1845 by Michele Peyrone, and was known as Peyrone’s salt. Its medicinal effects, however, were not known until the late 20th century, until it was discovered by chance.

In 1961, a physics professor by the name of Barnett Rosenberg at Michigan State University embarked on a project to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on cells during mitotic division. To his surprise, the setup caused the E. coli to elongate instead (below right), without undergoing cell division.

Eventually, the suspicion fell on the platinum electrodes. They were indeed the culprit; in the presence of oxygen, it had produced cisplatin. The researchers then decided to test its effects on mammalian cells by injecting it into mice with tumours; the results are remarkable, as can be seen from the images below. The tumour of the mouse that was injected with cisplatin (2nd row) had completely regressed by day 8, while the mouse that was not (1st row) eventually died on day 21.

Currently, cisplatin is used to treat various, but not all, forms of cancer, such as breast, lung, testicular, and ovarian cancer. When administered, the Cl atoms are displaced by water molecules, which themselves are displaced by guanine or adenine molecules in DNA. Since two ligands can be displaced, cross-linking of DNA occurs, interfering with cellular division.

Interestingly, its geometric isomer, transplatin, does not have any medicinal effect; it is believed to be due to its rapid hydrolysis when administered, causing it to be unable to react with the DNA to cross-link it. Additionally, the inter-strand cross-linking it causes could be more easily repaired by DNA repair mechanisms than the intra-strand cross-linking that cisplatin causes.

Cisplatin is synthesised from potassium tetrachloroplatinate via multiple ligand exchange reactions with potassium iodide, followed by ammonia, silver nitrate, and potassium chloride respectively.

ok let’s talk Apocalypse AU..

First of all, what’s different?

Zombies ? Nah, the whole “apocalypse” thing mostly revolves around the premise that the Galra invaded Earth, but whilst you’re probably thinking Super Intense Alien Invasion, i’m leaning more towards the idea of them sending some nasty virus and staging attack after attack after attack on Earth…. just to weaken their defenses.

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phantomavenger  asked:

Hi, do you have any recs when Bucky is able to lift Mjolnir?

i’m pulling together a masterpost

Effects of Obliteration by geneticallydead

“I watched a documentary on the bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima a while ago. In the blast radius, sometimes a… a person blocked the bleaching effect of the radiation. So the person was vaporized, but a shadow was left behind, on a bridge or a wall – their shape, their outline, when they were completely gone,“ Steve said. “It’s called a nuclear shadow.”

“If you’re implying the Soldier is like a nuclear shadow, then that is seriously fucking dark, man,” Sam said dryly.


Before the fall of the Soviet Union, the Winter Soldier was sent to the American arm of Hydra - only there was a malfunction in the cryo-unit that meant it couldn’t be opened, and it was left, powered but abandoned, in an underground base.

25 years later, the Avengers find it.

if ye be worthy by hitlikehammers 

“Do you know what that is?” Bruce asks, voice low, but that’s not really new, for him.

“It’s Thor’s hammer-thingy,” Bucky shrugs. “Look, man, I know it was shitty to give it a swing without him knowing, I’m sor—”

“You swung it?”

If Ye Be Worthy (the Stubborn as a Brick Wall Remix) by Taste_is_Sweet 

“Well, you’re right,” Steve said, only barely surprised. “So why the hell are you still down here?”

The look Bucky threw him was too resigned for a glare. “Because we both know that’s bullshit.”

The Hammer and The Sickle by theredstarofjustice

Inspired by the Scene in the AoU trailer where the Avenger’s are trying to lift Thor’s Hammer. In my head, this is what really happens-

The silence in the room now broken, Clint snaps out of his shock and just looks comically annoyed.

“Seriously? I mean… Barnes of all people!? That’s… That’s just Rude! That’s what it is-

Worthy by Lemon1105

I saw a tumblr post saying something like “What if Bucky lifted Mjölnir?” and this kinda happened.

I am sorry in advance.

2,199 Days and You’re home.

Warning, this is probably going to be a long but cute asf fanfiction!

Clarke had never loved anyone as she had loved Bellamy, watching that rocket and knowing he was on his way to safety, she felt relief wash over her. She didn’t mind dying as long as it meant the people she cared for went on. Clarke had been sure the radiation would kill her, the memory of the searing pain she felt from her bubbling skin, the feeling of the burning blood choking up in her throat would forever be planted in her mind. She’d been so sure she’d die that day, dying on a dying planet. But then Madi found her, the girl only young then, barely able to take care of herself let alone nursing Clarke until she was at full health. Those were some of the most painful days of her life. Not just the radiation seeping through her but the fact that she’d let Bellamy go, she wouldn’t see him for years to come, no more warm hugs reminding her of home, no more playful smile crossing his face even though she knew he wanted to be mad at her. Everyone she loved so far from her but they were safe and that’s all Clarke could ask for.

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Requested by dead–joker

Magneton evolves into Magnezone through the exposure of a “special magnetic field”, which is not possible to recreate in a laboratory environment. Magnetic Field strength is measured in a unit called a Tesla, named after the famous Serbian-American scientist.

Let’s start by giving you an idea about the strength of a magnetic field:

  • The magnetic field of the Earth ranges from 0.000031 to 0.000065 Teslas depending on your latitude.
  • typical refrigerator magnet has a field of about 0.005 Teslas
  • neodymium magnet has a field of about 1.25 Teslas
  • A Medical MRI machine works at about 3 Teslas (Research MRI machines go up to 9.4 T)
  • 16 Teslas can levitate a frog
  • The largest ever lab-generated field was 45 Teslas
  • The largest ever lab-generated pulse field was 730 Teslas, which destroyed the equipment used.
  • A neutron star has a field of more than 1,000,000 Teslas

As you can see, the Magnetic Fields generated in a laboratory setting are much larger than anything that occurs naturally in our solar system. If Magneton’s evolution was based on field strength alone, there’s no reason why scientists could not recreate it in a laboratory setting.

So there must be something we’re missing. Let’s take a closer look at the locations we know Magnezone will evolve:

  1. Mt. Coronet – The highest mountain in Sinnoh and the location of the Spear Pillar, home of Arceus.
  2. Chargestone Cave – A cave in Western Unova that is full of glowing, floating stones.
  3. Kalos Route 13 – A barren wasteland that is the site of the manmade Kalos power plant.
  4. New Mauville – Another man-made powerplant located under Mauville City in Hoenn.

At first, these locations seem to have nothing in common. Two of them are power plants, one is a mountain, the pokémon found in the areas aren’t even the same. Three out of the four you can find thunderstones, which might say something, but nothing that really solves our problem. And yet, we know all of them have some sort of strong magnetic field.

For both power plants, the source is relatively obvious. Any moving charge creates a magnetic field, whether its an electron around a nucleus, or a current through a wire. These power plants must manufacture and distribute massive amounts of electricity, which generate a massive magnetic field appropriately. Somewhere around 5 million amps of electric current from my estimations.

Chargestone Cave appears to be a deposit of diamagnetic superconductors. Basically, this allows the stones to easily float as discussed in Magnemite’s entry. As for Mt. Coronet, it’s probably either a strong magnetic pole, contains lots of ferromagnetic ores, or perhaps there’s something about Arceus that generates a big magnetic field. In any case, all four locations have a Magnetic field in the order of around 1 Tesla. About 10 Teslas will kill a person, and since the areas are frequented by trainers, it’s definitely closer to 1.

And that’s totally reproducible in a lab setting. But because Magnezone’s evolution its not, there has to be something else unique about these sites that triggers Magneton’s evolution. I’m willing to bet the answer lies in how Magneton’s magnets interact with the environment around it; not the other way around.

Every material has a quantity called magnetic moment, which determines the magnetic force it will feel. During the experiment the unnamed scientists performed, they likely isolated and insulated their experiment from any other factors. So while the strong magnetic field could interact with Magneton, Magneton’s own magnets did not act on the thing generating the magnetic field.

But what does this change? Essentially, Magneton’s own magnetic field interacting with its environment around it (the thing that’s generating the field) would take the already large magnetic field and make it into a changing magnetic field. Changing magnetic fields have lots of interesting effects that stationary fields do not. If a field is changing fast enough, it can even have the same effect as bombarding you with radiation. And that’s what would give Magneton the energy it needs to evolve.

Magnezone gets the energy it needs to evolve from a strong, changing magnetic field. It is not re-creatable in a lab setting because Magneton’s own field is not allowed to interact with the equipment generating the external one; which would likely harm the equipment anyways.

Because of this, you should definitely stay away from Magnezone while its evolving in these areas, and keep it in the pokeball unless absolutely necessary. As I said, a changing magnetic field is comparable to sticking yourself in a microwave. 


Originally posted by themagicthatsme

Pairing: Kirk x reader

Warnings: angst, a little bit of language (at this point you should expect a some)

Words: 1489

A/N: Let me start with sorry, then end with you’re welcome. This is a bit of a rewrite of the end of Into Darkness with a little fluff at the end for you <3 As always, comments are appreciated!

When Spock orders you to abandon ship, you roll your eyes. “Not likely.” You state, jumping out of your seat. “But I will find Jim and Scotty and help fix this.” Your eyes flash and you run out of the bridge as fast as possible. Things and people are flying around as the artificial gravity fails, and your face bloodies as a piece of equipment bashes your cheek, slicing the skin open. Grunting, you continue onward, finally catching up with your boyfriend and the head engineer as they dangle over the railings in the engineering section of the ship. You and Chekov help them up, and in the moment, you can tell Kirk’s face is unsure whether he is relieved to see you’re still alive, or upset to see that you won’t evacuate.

“I’m not going anywhere, Jim, so let’s get this ship back online.” You tell him, and you race with him to the warp core. You watch as Jim unlocks the door, and you set your mind to it. While he punches out Scotty and races back to buckle him in, you bolt through the door and seal it from the inside.

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Junkrat and Roadhog’s Eyes

Some people have noted that in dimly let areas that sometimes Junkrat and Roadhog have “bright eyes” (i.e. pupils).

This was just a fun addition I put in there for anyone who suffered radiation effects to the point that their genome began to express dormant and or mutated genetic chains that allowed for the tapetum lucidum to form (either partially or completely) thus providing some junkers better eyesight at night compared to most other humans.

This is just my fun little insert of semi-bullshit science. :’) Plus it just looks cool on Junkrat and Roadhog in certain shots.

Junkrat has a more formed tapetum lucidum than Roadhog does so his pupils are brighter when reflecting light.

S.T.A.L.K.E.R. is a series of survival horror first-person shooters set in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone encompassing the Nuclear Power Plant and town Pripyat, as well as the surrounding areas. Developed by GSC Game World, each entry has different protagonists with varying goals but it all takes place in a very unforgiving patch of Ukraine.

If you find yourself a fan of late cold war aesthetics or enjoy post-apocalyptic settings, as well as a challenge that is unfair at times, the Zone is for you. Experience the journey of a lifetime: emission storms, wildlife, soldiers, cultists, derelict buildings, incredible vistas, and trench coat enthusiasts.

I said come in, don’t stand there!

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I’m still thinking about Lance’s funny reaction to Pidge’s gender reveal in S1E6 and I low-key want to draw a comic where he’s still dumbfounded and surprised. It’d go something like, Lance: “So you’re a girl, huh?” Pidge: “Yes I already told you that.” Lance: “Are you sure you’re not a guy?” Pidge: “I think I would know.” Lance: “Ok but are you 100% SURE?” Pidge: “Lance, I have a pink room and I frolic in a field of daisies every morning. I’m so female that I eat rainbow unicorn cereal for breakfast and I shit pure femininity. If you were to hit on me, you would die because I radiate so much girl energy that the effects of radiation poisoning would be too much for you. Is that clear enough?” Lance: “Oh I think I get it. So you’re a girl?” Pidge: “Yes.” Lance: “And you were a girl the entire time we’ve known each other?” Pidge: “Right.” Lance: “………ok but how do I know this is legit?”

Please fire me. I work at the front desk of a pediatrician’s office. Today, I received a panicked phone call from the parent of a 7 year old who has “been around his grandfather who is currently going through chemo.” When I asked the parent why she felt the need to bring the child into the office for a visit for simply being around a chemo patient? “Well, I’m scared my child is catching the side effects of the chemo.”

Cancer / Thelma & Louise update:

(Everyone’s calling it cancer now - i.e. the endocrinologists and neurosurgeons and stuff, so I am too). (Also I’m cutting and pasting from my Facebook update because I’m  too tired to rewrite for Tumblr, apologies!) .

Yesterday I saw the neurosurgeon, and things went about as well as I expected them to go. It wasn’t a total worst case scenario, which is if they couldn’t do surgery at all, so that’s something.

But everything else is kind of shitty, so let’s talk about that.

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Surveillance Screens and the Mt. Weather Trio

I love how when I go back to re-watch certain episodes or sections for one meta thing I always come across an entirely different thing I’d never noticed before. This is one of those things.

What I noticed is where each of our three members of the Mt. Weather Trio are when it’s being irradiated.

The first person that we see is Clarke

the screen in the control room she’s looking at is the one that is showing the dorm room where their people were getting drilled into

The screencap for the dorm footage actually comes just before showing Clarke, but either way the point is this is the screen Clarke is looking at. I’m wondering if Clarke noticed Jasper running out, or if she saw someone and couldn’t tell exactly who it was. Maybe she didn’t notice at all. I’m guessing the third. She sees a few guards effected by the radiation, but more importantly, to her, the end of the torture to her mother, which she feels responsible for, and ultimately her people.

The next person we see after Clarke is Monty

his eyes are fixed on the computer screen

He isn’t looking at one of the cameras, but he’s still seeing the damage done, just in a different way. There isn’t a face to put with what they’ve done here. 

Finally we have Bellamy

Bellamy is looking at the screen that is showing the Mt. Weather mess hall where the citizens of Mt. Weather are all gathered, including Maya.

Bellamy is the first one to see just what it cost to save their people. He sees what pulling the lever truly meant doing. He watches as children, the people that helped them, and every other citizen inside of Mt. Weather die. Not just die, but suffer by his hand. If you go back and watch the scene watch Bob’s face closely. It’s maybe just a second or two, but there’s a moment where Bellamy is watching the screen and you can see his eyes widen just slightly at the sight of what they’ve done. It’s so subtle yet so powerful. 

We have a few scenes elsewhere (I believe it’s the Jasper/Maya scene, and then Octavia going to the dorms) before we come back to the control room.

This time we see Bellamy and Clarke looking at the same screen. The screen with the feed from the mess hall. It’s possible that this means that Bellamy has not turned away from this screen the entire time. Ugh even in a screen cap that’s dark you can see the tears in his eyes. GDI BOB MORLEY WHY ARE YOU SO AMAZING? I also think this is the first time Clarke is looking at this screen. There’s a sense of ‘what have I done?’ on her face. This is the moment, I think, that leads her to tell her mother that she tried. She did. She wanted to be the good guy. She didn’t want anyone to die. She was left with no choice though, and this is the moment she’s realizing that even though her people are alive, that no one won here.

Bellamy then looks over at one of the other screens, while Clarke’s eyes stay on the dorm. 

the image Bellamy sees is Emerson. Bellamy sees a man who has just lost everyone he has ever known and loved. I know it sounds weird, but I do wonder if Bellamy feels for him in this moment in a familiarity sort of way. Bellamy was in this position once back on the ark, though not in the same way. Bellamy’s entire world on the ark was his mother and Octavia, and one day that was all taken from him. 

We then cut to Clarke who is still looking at the Mess Hall, but what I want to point out here is the fact that Monty is looking at a different one. From his body placement, I believe it’s the dorm room that he’s looking at. Is he looking to see if he can see who of their people is there? Is he looking for Jasper or Harper or Miller? Unlike Bellamy and Clarke, Monty never looks at the Mess Hall screen. When they enter the Mess Hall later to get to the dorms you can see a look of almost shock on Monty’s face at the sight. 

@ginalou16 @raincityruckus @ravensluna @the-ships-to-rule-them-all @abazethe100 @insufficient-earth-skills @sherlockvowsontheriverstyx @bellamypotter @thelovelylights

The One They Left Behind (Nuclear Throne Fanfiction)

I.D.P.D Mission #19-21-9-3-9-4-5 13-9-19-19-9-15-14, Log #1:

This is the first time they’re sending me in alone. I would say i’m scared but, frankly I asked for it. Litterally. This shouldn’t be too difficult of a mission. Just take out the target, and return back home. They say it’s a creature that’s extreemly volitiale, made out of pure radiation and is a huge threat to our very way of life. I don’t know much about these Mutants other than what i’ve heard in passing but they say this one is a Class 5 Threat. Which must mean it’s high priority. They nicknamed this one Horror, after what it could possibly do if it ended up here at home base. I think it’s pretty obvious how much damage a being made of pure radiation could bring, especially with how high risk things are now with the rift we opened up. A lot of people said that creating that machine was worth it, that travelling to other dimensions could mean so much in the way of science. In my opinion they were just asking for this to happen. Who am I to complain though, what’s done is done. I just need to remember to delete the last few sentences of this log. If I come back to home base after this mission is done and the first log they see has me shitting on one of our main areas of expertise, that’s just a one way ticket to getting demoted. Like hell I want to be in the Grunt Squadron again.

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