St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Missouri, August 11, 1907
I thought this article was interesting for this line:
The milkmaid, accidentally vaccinated by her trade, escaped smallpox, and so gained the repute for fresh complexion..
Milkmaids, from their close proximity to cows, would commonly get cowpox at some point, and would then be immune to smallpox. The first smallpox vaccine, introduced by
Edward Jenner, was brought about in this way:
In 1796, Sarah Nelmes, a local milkmaid, contracted cowpox and went to Jenner for treatment. Jenner took the opportunity to test his theory. He inoculated James Phipps, the eight-year-old son of his gardener, with material taken from the cowpox lesions on Sarah’s hand. After a mild fever and the expected local lesion James recovered after a few days. About two months later Jenner inoculated James on both arms with material from a case of smallpox, with no effect; the boy was immune to smallpox.
Edward Jenner, the scientist who invented the polio vaccine and many others funded everything himself and he didn’t get a patent on it so that Scientists all over the world could produce it and give it to people. It was a horrible pandemic and what he did saved millions of lives. The fact is that civilization has grown so much and so vast that our immune systems can’t possibly adapt fast enough to new mutations and viruses. Vaccines help to speed up the process and make sure that simple influenza or scarlet fever won’t kill us. It’s science, fact, and logic. It’s undeniably important and undeniably irresponsible to not get vaccinated.
Furthermore, there have been several studies confirming that vaccines do not cause autism. People turned correlation into causation but you can do that with literally anything if you try, if you’re looking for it. For example, AIDS was called “the gay disease” because the first person that contracted it happened to be gay and he infected fellow gay men in his LGBTQ community. However we know now that AIDS has nothing to do with homosexuality beyond that because of research. As far as autism goes nobody really knows what the cause is and it doesn’t matter. There is nothing wrong with autistic people, their brains are just wired differently. It doesn’t mean they are damaged or any less valued as human beings.
El del médico y cirujano inglés Edward Jenner (1749-1823) es un caso de constancia y método, pero también de una audacia que hoy le habría llevado a prisión. Contrariamente a lo que a veces se presenta, la idea de la vacunación no le surgió de un momento “eureka”: en su época se practicaba la variolización, o inoculación de costras o pus de la viruela en personas sanas para protegerlas de lo que entonces era una terrible plaga.
En ocasiones funcionaba, pero en otros casos los resultados eran fatales. Varios médicos antes que Jenner habían notado que los ganaderos contraían una versión benigna, la viruela vacuna, permaneciendo inmunes a la enfermedad humana, e incluso habían ensayado inoculaciones con este material. El de Jenner fue el primer estudio extenso sobre la materia, para el que eligió como primer paciente a un niño de ocho años, James Phipps, hijo de su jardinero.
Por fortuna, el método funcionó: la vacunación, o inoculación con la viruela vacuna, protegió al niño de la posterior exposición a material de la enfermedad humana. Sin embargo, los experimentos de Jenner inicialmente suscitaron escepticismo e incluso burlas. Desde sus ensayos iniciales en 1796, tuvieron que transcurrir 44 años, con Jenner ya fallecido, para que el gobierno británico adoptara oficialmente la vacunación.
En 1979 y como fruto de una extensa campaña, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la erradicación de la viruela. El trabajo de Jenner ha salvado unos 530 millones de vidas, pero a ellas deberíamos añadir las muertes evitadas por otras vacunas contra numerosas enfermedades mortales. Estas vacunas tienen sus propios héroes, pero todas ellas se derivan del trabajo pionero de Jenner.
The First Vaccine — The Art of Chinese Viriolation
Smallpox was one of the worst diseases to ever afflict mankind, claiming hundreds of millions, if not billions of lives throughout all of history. Thus, it is no wonder that the first vaccines were developed to guard against smallpox. The first proto-vaccines were practiced in China in the 15th century, perhaps as early as the 10th century. The Chinese method was nothing like modern vaccination methods, but was an early form of viriolation (inoculation against smallpox), a method first coined by the English physician Edward Jenner. The early Chinese method of viriolation was to take the dried out scabs of smallpox victims. The scabs would then be ground into a powder, then blown through a pipe into the nostrils of the patient. There was a bit of ceremony behind the act; typically viriolation was done with a decorative silver pipe, and boys were viriolated through the right nostril while girls were viriolated through the left nostril.
While the Chinese at the time had no knowledge of germ theory and little knowledge of immunology, the purpose of this was to infect the patient with a mild form of smallpox. Indeed, the dried out scabs would contain weakened or dead smallpox virus, which the human immune system could easily fight off or at least obtain an immunological memory from its antigens. Viriolation became popular in China, especially among nobles and the upper class. One doctor named Zhang Yan boasted that he had successfully viriolated up to 9,000 people. In the 18th century a Japanese physician reported that around 80%-90% of China’s upper class families had their children viriolated.
The practice of Chinese viriolation was not without risks, as the virus could mutate and the patient become infected with full blown smallpox. However, the benefits far outweighed the risks in an age when smallpox decimated entire societies. Over time the Chinese would perfect their technique, finding easier and safer ways to infect patients. Their methods would spread across the Silk Road, being adopted in India, the Middles, and by the 18th century in Europe. It was then that Dr. Edward Jenner would experiment with various viriolation methods. It was in 1796 that he would develop the first modern vaccine by inoculating patients with cowpox, a disease similar to cowpox but much less deadly, and thus make them immune to smallpox. Today, the use of vaccines are a staple of modern society. The last case of smallpox occurred in 1977.
Part of the human stomach dissected by Edward Jenner (1749-1823). The stomach has been flattened & injected with wax to highlight veins and arteries and the stomach wall, likely to be used as a teaching aid. (c.1790-1823).
Alright, I’m not gonna reblog/deal with it anymore. But know this: This Blog Willl Defend The 1D Girlfriends/Ex-Girlfriends Until The End Of Time. Because considering how much the fandom brags about being a safe space and LGBT+ friendly and feminist, the slut-shaming and horrifying sexism targeted at these girls is out of control and really fucking vile.
What if Tuck Everlasting Began Like Every Teen White Movie Ever?
Hi! My name’s Winnie. And I’m…not like those other girls. Oh no, I’m not exciting, adventurous, or able to leave the house, I’m just…Winnie. *Jesse Tuck enters* and that’s Jesse. He is sooo hot! How does one describe the hotness of the great Jesse Tuck? He’s like if you combined Oscar Wilde and Edward Jenner. But, I’m…just Winnie and this is my story. *dirty little secret plays in the background*