On Aug. 21, the Moon will cast its shadow down on Earth, giving all of North America the chance to see a solar eclipse. Within the narrow, 60- to 70-mile-wide band stretching from Oregon to South Carolina called the path of totality, the Moon will completely block out the Sun’s face; elsewhere in North America, the Moon will cover only a part of the star, leaving a crescent-shaped Sun visible in the sky.
A total solar eclipse happens somewhere on Earth about once every 18 months. But because Earth’s surface is mostly ocean, most eclipses are visible over land for only a short time, if at all. The Aug. 21 total solar eclipse is different – its path stretches over land for nearly 90 minutes, giving scientists an unprecedented opportunity to make scientific measurements from the ground.
Within the path of totality, the Moon will completely obscure the Sun’s face for up to 2 minutes and 40 seconds, depending on location. This will give people within the path of totality a glimpse of the innermost reaches of the Sun’s corona, the outer region of the atmosphere that is thought to house the processes that kick-start much of the space weather that can influence Earth, as well as heating the whole corona to extraordinarily high temperatures.
In fact, scientists got their first hint at these unusually high temperatures during the total solar eclipse of 1869, when instruments detected unexpected light emission. It was later discovered that this emission happens when iron is stripped of its electrons at extremely high temperatures.
This region of the Sun’s atmosphere can’t be measured at any other time, as human-made instruments that create artificial eclipses must block out much of the Sun’s atmosphere – as well as its bright face – in order to produce clear images.
We’re funding six science investigations to study the Sun’s processes on Aug. 21. Teams will spread out across the path of totality, focusing their instruments on the Sun’s atmosphere. One team will use a pair of retro-fitted WB-57F jets to chase the Moon’s shadow across the eastern US, extending the time of totality to more than 7 minutes combined, up from the 2 minutes and 40 seconds possible on the ground.
Our scientists are also using the Aug. 21 eclipse as a natural science experiment to study how Earth’s atmosphere reacts to the sudden loss of solar radiation within the Moon’s shadow.
One region of interest is Earth’s ionosphere. Stretching from roughly 50 to 400 miles above Earth’s surface, the tenuous ionosphere is an electrified layer of the atmosphere that reacts to changes from both Earth below and space above and can interfere with communication and navigation signals.
The ionosphere is created by ionizing radiation from the Sun. When totality hits on Aug. 21, we’ll know exactly how much solar radiation is blocked, the area of land it’s blocked over and for how long. Combined with measurements of the ionosphere during the eclipse, we’ll have information on both the solar input and corresponding ionosphere response, enabling us to study the mechanisms underlying ionospheric changes better than ever before.
The eclipse is also a chance for us to study Earth’s energy system, which is in a constant dance to maintain a balance between incoming radiation from the Sun and outgoing radiation from Earth to space, called the energy budget. Like a giant cloud, the Moon during the 2017 total solar eclipse will cast a large shadow across a swath of the United States.
Our scientists already know the dimensions and light-blocking properties of the Moon, and will use ground and space instruments to learn how this large shadow affects the amount of sunlight reaching Earth’s surface, especially around the edges of the shadow. This will help develop new calculations that improve our estimates of the amount of solar energy reaching the ground, and our understanding of one of the key players in regulating Earth’s energy system — clouds.
Mars rules Aries and Scorpio, exalts in Capricorn Mars is reckless, free, excited, and fighting for a personal cause in Aries. They battle against life and the forces that stand in the way of pure, undiluted self-expression and triumph. Mars is not alone with Scorpio, Mars is there with Pluto and those daggers can feel like they are being thrown into sheer darkness. The fight is for larger-than personal causes, the battle is for the truth that is revealed to them from behind the veil, fighting death. These conflicts are taken partly under water where they cannot breathe, and partly on land where the smoke is too dark to see through, daggers are thrown from the invisible Mars comes to fruition in Capricorn, it evolves from the child in Aries to the Capricorn parent in a powerful, profound, and influential manner. The only way forward is in an upward direction, climbing up the mountain in sheer determination The Ram and the Goat both have horns. So does the devil that Scorpio battles.
Venus rules Taurus and Libra, exalts in Pisces
Taurus is the creator and lover of beauty with Venus, standing in marvel at the natural design and mimicking these practices with the material and the mind. Taurus envisions, conceives, paints, and brings to life the sensory delight of the universe, Aphrodite plays with Taurus when they light a fragrant candle, soak in a sugary bath bomb, and dance to a song. Love is a tangible display Taurus decorates the room, Libra makes it warm, inviting, and personable. The beauty of Venus is integral to the Libra’s inner balance, but that means balancing beauty with the grotesque, softening its sharp edges, using its shadow to reflect beauty in the light of the Venus mirror. Love soothes the whole world. Venus is a mental dreamer in Libra, a mind that paints idyllic lenses over their eyes, they can oscillate between two worlds - the real world, and the imaginary Pisces doesn’t just imagine the dream, Pisces lives in it. Pisces is inspired by beauty and the beautiful act of creating it, infusing the spirit of Neptune being the higher octave of Venus. Love is an experience of bringing and experiencing God
Mercury rules Gemini and Virgo
Mercury is childlike, restless, wild, witty, informative, clever, and mischievous in Gemini, delighting in Gemini’s multiple interests, curiosities, and minds. Gemini learns out of self-satisfying indulgence and the instant gratification of sharing new information before it becomes tedious and swiftly forgotten, they can become lost and distracted in nervous energy The twins have grown up into a seamlessly multifaceted, steady and adaptable in Virgo, Virgo is Gemini wearing the focused and analysed glasses, capable of remembering and applying important and applicable facts. Virgo sublimates nervous energy into productive outlets. Virgo is a mutable mercurial sign like Gemini, so they are many people inside Virgo, but they are better at hiding them and utilising their qualities at the correct moments than Gemini is. Unlike airy Gemini, those Mercury wings are chained to the earth, it makes the picture much clearer
rules Sagittarius and Pisces, exalts in Cancer The Jupiter temple is reached by foot, flight, mind, intuition, and experience with Sagittarius. Jupiter is the publisher and the philosophies of Sagittarius are stored by the Jupiter’s pen in the collective cultural mind. There is a real opportunity to rule their world, because they know as it stands that their positivity, optimism, faith, and generosity is rewarded by fortune and their hostility, anger, self hatred makes the skies turn grey Jubilance and rapture is the peak Jupiter experience in Pisces generated by faith, unity, and belief. Pisces is the celebration of spirit, evangelical song, and courting the mystical, the saviour that Sagittarius writes about in their myths. Pisces is the temple Sagittarius searches for. The expansive quality of Jupiter is experienced through Cancer’s imagination, dream, and internal experience where the seven seas reside when they shut their eyes. The temple is the light inside.
Saturn rules Capricorn, Aquarius exalts in Libra Capricorn materialises spiritual law through form and structure. Capricorn is an earth sign so it’s also the construction of laws of land. This is Saturn reaching and expressing its ultimate and peak potential, so anything is possible with Capricorn. Aquarius materialises cosmic and celestial law through consciousness. Aquarius threatens the structures of Saturn. Aquarius is Capricorn who has climbed to the top and mastered the system, Aquarius has inherited this expertise, and so it can be detonated from the inside Libra materialises karmic law. Libra also negotiates and compromises the rigid laws of Capricorn by integrating and shaping the human perspective, ethic, and moral righteousness. Capricorn has implemented the law, but is this law fair and reflect a human value system? Capricorn is the judge, but Libra is the prosecutor, defender, the witness, and the conscience
You must first understand that lighting interacting with different surfaces in different ways. This is for skin and other materials with sub surface scattering.
Skin has 5 or 6 parts to the lighting depending on if you want to include bloom or not.
Select an area within your outlines and fill for the base color. This color should look fairly drab. It should never appear too bright, too saturated or be pure black either. It should never be 0 saturation, but it should never be high saturation, either.
Sub Surface Scattering(also called SSS) iswhen light penetrates an area on the inside which shows a second color inside. For a stylized look I like to make this color a brighter and higher saturation than the base color. In skin this second color is pink or red because of the flesh, however it can be any color. In the case of eyes it’s blue, green, yellow or red. Use an normal or overlay layer at any opacity. Do not use multiply or luminosity.
SSS can sometimes appear as an area of high saturation along the edge of a shadow.
For the Diffuse lighting I then use a luminosity layer on 50 opacity. Use the eyedropper to select the base color. If your lighting has a color shift your base color a bit in the direction of that color on the color wheel. Color the area getting direct lighting with the water brush. the water brush can be use to make both blurry or unblurred strokes. Also include the rim light, which is on the opposite side of the main light.
Use the water brush and select the base color to paint the shadow on a multiply layer at about 50 opacity. If you are painting realistically you should use near black or gray, but if you are painting cartoony you should shift your color wheel over to be a tiny bit more purple or blue.
Do not make everything extreamly blurrybecause this is a really fast way to make your drawing look supper crappy. This is why I like to include soft and hard edges to my shadows.
There is also a rule that the father away the shadow is being cast from the more blurry it will appear.
On a luminosity layer at fully opacity paint the specular highlight with a pen brush. Use either white or whatever color your light source is. Then use the airbrush to paint the fuzzy bloom around it. Sometimes I use the water brush, too.
If you want your artwork to have outlines, this is the point I color the black outlines. Click the preserve opacity box which is above the layer stack. Then use the eye dropper to select the darkest color of the object you are filling, or you could pick a lighter color to define its shape. It really depends on what color makes your object stand out the best. Color it in and you have your cartoon outlines.