How a solar eclipse first proved Einstein right

“The largest mass we have close by Earth is the Sun, which normally renders starlight invisible during the day. As starlight passes near the edge of the Sun, according to Einstein, it should travel along that curved space, causing the light-path to appear bent. During a total solar eclipse, however, the Moon passes in front of the Sun, blocking its light and causing the sky to become as dark as night, enabling the stars to be seen during the daytime. When an observer on Earth sees these stars during an eclipse, their positions will appear to be shifted by a progressively larger amount the closer they are to the Sun, culminating in double the Newtonian prediction at the Sun’s edge.”

If ever you attempt to come out with a new scientific theory, there are three criteria you must fulfill:

  1. You must reproduce all the successes of the old theory, the one you’re looking to replace.
  2. You must explain at least one observation or measurement, successfully, that the old theory failed to explain.
  3. You must make a new prediction, different from the old theory’s prediction, that you can go out and test.

When Einstein’s General Relativity first came out, it met those first two criteria, but the third proved exceedingly difficult. The only practical test that people could come up with involved measuring the position of distant stars during the day: very close to the Sun. According to Einstein, the curved space around a large mass would bend the starlight, causing its position to shift in a measurable way. While VLBI radio observations can do this today, there was no such technology a century ago. And yet, a total solar eclipse made exactly those critical observations possible.

Come get the story on exactly how that works, and learn how you can see the same evidence for yourself this August!

anonymous asked:

Hey! Just wondering, how did a solar eclipse prove the theory of relativity?

According to the theory of relativity space is not static. The movements of objects can change the structure of space.

In Einstein’s view, space is combined with another dimension - time - which creates universewide “fabric” called space-time. Object travel through this fabric, which can be warped, bent and twisted by the masses and motions of objects within space-time.

One prediction of general relativity was that light should not travel in a perfectly straight line. When traveling through space-time and approaching the gravitational field of a mass object, the light must bend-but not too much.

Then the English astronomer Sir Frank Watson Dyson proposed that the total solar eclipse of 1919 could prove, because the Sun would cross the bright Hyades star cluster. Star light would have to cross the gravitational field of the sun on the way to Earth, but would be visible due to the darkness of the eclipse. This would allow precise measurements of the positions displaced by the gravity of the stars in the sky.

Because of this, teams of researchers strategically positioned themselves in two locations that would initially provide the best conditions for observing the eclipse. One group stayed in Ilha do Príncipe, in São Tomé and Príncipe, and other researchers settled in Sobral, Ceará (Brazil).

Eddington, who led the experiment, first measured the “true” positions of the stars during January and February of 1919. In May, he went to remote Prince Island (in the Gulf of Guinea, on the west coast of Africa) to measure Positions of the stars during the eclipse, seen through the gravitational lens of the sun.

The total eclipse lasted about 6 minutes and 51 seconds, during those few minutes the astronomers captured several photos of the total eclipse. When Eddington returned to England, his data from Príncipe confirmed Einstein’s predictions. Eddington announced his discoveries on November 6, 1919.

Images: x ,x ,x ,x 


A nifty tutorial on some watercolor techniques by Kelly Eddington.

Markiplier Theory: The Final Showdown

I think all these ego pop-ups / cameos (idk) are going to lead up to something big, and here’s my theory on it. (Buckle the fuckle up my dudes this is a pretty girthy theory that I hope you enjoy!)

We all know that the alter-egos (I’m calling them ‘ipliers’ to make it easier) are trying to take over mark’s channel hence the whole dark thing saying “How does this help us take back control? We’re the heart and soul of this channel after all.” These fuckos kNoW how much power they truly have over us I mean c’mon they would have probably picked up on it by now (and by they I mean google could have found it easy seeing as we were all and still are freaking the fuck out) and now they’re trying to steal the channel from Mark.

I’m stating this next sentence very loosely so just kinda ignore it if it makes no sense but: Maybe, they’re gonna pull and Anti and by ‘pull an Anti’ I mean they’re probably gonna find anyway they can to eliminate Mark and take over his channel, so probably killing him.

Ok the Anti thing doesn’t really make a lot of sense but let’s continue: We do know that they are trying to take control or to be ‘let in’ to be able to wield the power that Mark and his fans (us) hold could lead to chaos and they want as much of it as they can get.

Here’s how I see it: something bigger than just ‘Ooo evil yet hot characters coming back to be all evil and stuff, haha murder’ I’m thinking like a civil war type show-down. (Bear with me it may be completely ridiculous) i’ll leave that there for now cause I have other things to say.

Let’s examine the teams (if this is what I’m theorising)

Team Dark:

Let’s face it this is Dark’s team 100% will not share he is like a toddler with candy. Mark said it himself in a live stream that “ He’s a social manipulator. He is literally, 100% manipulative. He leads you into this false sense of security, and he wants you to trust him because he wants to take advantage of you.” He will legitimately do anything for you (“I can give you anything”) or, in this case, will literally do anything to make sure that the people on his side, STAY on his side and he’s willing to put up with it all to make sure he WINS.

Wilford: Well this should be pretty obvious: Will wanted famed way to make his mark (pun not intended) on the world, forget about all the murder and such (bUBBLES). He is an important ‘iplier’ and is obviously not new to the whole killing thing. Plus he is one of the oldest characters on the channel, revealing even dark himself, and if not contained he could become a deadly enemy. Which is why Dark wants him: (I’m sorry new darkstache shippers) to use him. c’mon do you really think that whole ‘Will’ thing was real? Pfft nO throughout the whole Dark encounter we see he’s barely keeping his calm. As Mark would say, he’s ‘cracking’ and is barely managing to keep up with Wilford’s shit because all he wants to do is take Mark’s channel and to him this is a complete wast of time. I’m also thinking that Dark is saving most of the gory details for when he’s closer to reaching his goal because Wilford seems more fixated on the tv show more so than the initial plan.

Google: Well I’m guessing Dark managed to convince him that the plan was to take over Mark’s channel and ‘destroy man-kind’ which just so HAPPENS to be his secondary objective which guessing by the “this deviated from our primary objective” Dark either messed with his programming or google just went full evil robot all on his own. (you do you boy, I’m proud) Also, who wouldn’t want a powerful murderous robot with a brain that’s literALLY GOOGLE ITSELF. I’ve made my case I think.

The Host: (personally one of my faves and I hope to see more of my son soon) well I’m not 100% sure what drives the Author/host (if you haven’t seen Mark legit confirmed they were the same person) but I’m guessing it has something to do with control (as in the fans) as in manipulations (his experiments) to see how far he could go to actually drive a person insane. Or he wants to write more books, who knows. But by the constant if almost forced narration is anything to come by he is very important and is either psychic (from other theories I’ve read, sorry can’t remember who but it was good) or can alter/shape reality by just talking which makes him very powerful.

Dr. Iplier: I have two possible Dark manipulation tactics Dark may have used. 1) He never really wanted to be a doctor but maybe parents forced him to (very loose theory here) but his true heart was in show business so like I’m thinking the opposite of Joey from F.R.I.E.N.D.S like the over dramatisation of the “I’m sorry. You’re dying” plus the inexperienced eye movement thing (which may have just been Mark fucking around. Probably the case tbh) or he just really wanted to act but never really knew how and was inexperienced so Dark promised him an acting job and judging by the “it wasn’t actually that bad, featured my ideas quite well” he probably doesn’t care / isn’t aware of the initial “end game” but is content where he is right now.

Ed Eddington: (really fucking last name that I can’t remember how to spell adoptalotakids???) he did mention it himself and I quote, “I know this is of topic, but I still need to sell my son.” He’s definitely aware of whats to come (well probably as much as Dark told him, which probably isn’t a lot tbh) but he ws promised he would A: sell his son and B: get a thirty second spot which is probably the only reason why he’s onboard.

Bim Trimmer: (I’m skipping silver sheppard and you’ll soon find out why) well Bim is probably only after one thing: fame and he’ll probably do as much if not anything he can to reach it and that makes him an easy target for Dark. He isn’t too happy about not being able to host that game show but I still think he’ll stay on board (for now anyways)

Silver shepherd: who could forget him? Well every evil super villain team needs a mole. Yes, I said mole and who better to be that mole then Mark himself. Let’s go back to that Cyndago sketch shall we? I think the silver Shepard is one of the only ‘ipliers’ that is ever referenced as mark himself. I know this is kind of a long stretch but Wilford himself confims it by saying this “it’s for everybody, not you” gestures to the Silver Sheppard as if to say “I know it’s you Mark, come on” which in return receives a double finger defence (signature move idk just wanted to put that there) and I’m pretty sure the rest of team (or a couple) know it as well but they’re keeping it from Dark for some reason. A back-up plan or escape route if it all goes to shit.

Septiplier: well maybe just Mark’s way of killing it forever or Dark promise to kill it or something. Sorry guys, Septiplier is dEAD once and for all

We’ve talked about the who now let’s cover the why, let’s examine this quote shall we? “So Completely unironically, Darkiplier is a completely separate entity from who I am. But, he admires what I’ve accomplished” there is no denying that Dark does in fact admire Mark’s work and al that he’s accomplished but not in the way that most people think. Dark isn’t some mega fanboy of Mark. No, he’s an evil version of Mark so the reason why he admires Mark and stuff is not because of all the good he’s done, it’s cause the channel itself could be seen as a power source, And Dark wants it. Badly. Seeing as he’s reappeared at least three times this year even. Going so low as to try and manipulate US for his cause because I’m guessing he’s been planning this for a long time and I’m sure he and the other ‘ipliers’ will make a reappearance real soon. As for why he’s trying to take Mark’s channel, I’m not sure. So for now, I leave you with this, Buh-Bye!

What have eclipses ever done for science? Quite a lot, actually!

The first measurement of the width of the Atlantic ocean in the 16th Century

When British settlers arrived in Virginia in the US, they weren’t sure how far across the globe they’d gone. They recorded the local time of a total eclipse of the moon - which is seen all across the night-time side of the planet. Their colleagues in London did the same, and when the travellers returned they could figure out the five hour time difference.

Edmond Halley discovered that the moon is moving away from the Earth

Halley realised you could back-calculate when previous eclipses would have occurred. But he noticed a mismatch between his predictions and the history books. The reason, he discovered, what that he was assuming the moon stayed the same distance from the Earth. It is actually getting further at about the rate your fingernails grow. And that means that one day (in a few million years, that is), the moon will be too far away to create any more total solar eclipses.

In 1919 a solar eclipse proved Einstein’s theory of relativity

Einstein’s theory predicted that the sun’s gravity should bend the light of nearby stars, meaning that in theory we should be able to see stars that are hidden just behind the sun. However, sunlight always blocks our view of these stars, and it was only during a solar eclipse that there was a short window to see if hidden stars were visible, as predicted. Astronomer Arthur Eddington travelled to West Africa and took photos that proved Einstein right.

Scientists still use solar eclipses today

It’s very hard to study the sun’s corona - a tenuous hot gas, which just one millionth of the light intensity of the sun. The shapes and lines of the corona show the nature of the sun’s magnetic field, and are only visible to study during an eclipse. NASA are also using this opportunity to help create the first thermal map of Mercury!

Want to know more? Watch our full video.

derbyluna  asked:

How visible will the stars be compared to a normal night sky if I'm in the path of totality? (Sun completely covered)

I’m not entirely sure, but you will be able to see some stars that you normally wouldn’t see. https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Eclipse_brochure-bookmark_508.pdf In fact, during the 1919 eclipse, Sir Arthur Eddington and others used our ability to see stars close to the Sun during the eclipse to help confirm Einstines’ theory of general relativity. https://eclipse2017.nasa.gov/testing-general-relativity

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The Cigar Galaxy, also known as M82, is located 12 million light years away. It is a Starburst Galaxy, which means it is currently undergoing rapid star formation. This is thought to have been triggered by the neighbouring galaxy M81. Located in the constellation of Ursa Major, it is ~5 times more luminous than the Milky Way. It is also home to M82 X-2, a dull name for an extremely bright neutron star; so bright, that it breaches its Eddington luminosity (How bright an object of a given mass can be).

Happy Miss Marple Monday Everyone!

Joan as Miss Marple in The Murder At The Vicarage (1986) with Paul Eddington as Reverend Leonard Clement