economics and history

shituationist  asked:

What are some good sources on the Inca economy?

I asked a friend and he told me,

“Well both D'Altroy’s (2002) and McEwan’s (2006) Inca books have chapters on the economy - that’s a good start for them, with plenty of sources referenced to get them deeper into it.  Not a terribly exciting answer but they’re rock solid sources.  Though I would still say D'Altroy is more robust”

Here are the specific sources from his answer,

  • D’Altroy, Terence N. “The Incas. The Peoples of America.” Malden: Blackwell Publishing (2002)  
  • McEwan, Gordon Francis. The Incas: new perspectives. Abc-clio, 2006. 

Hope this helps!


Pa-rant lang po.

Hindi na natapos yung pag-compare sa iba’t ibang strands eh. As far as I know at marami ring nagsasabi nito, each strand has its own difficulty and uniqueness. Kaya nga may specialization ang isang strand kasi ayun yung napag-aaralan ng isang particular strand na hindi napagaaralan ng iba pang mga strand. Bakit kailangan pang mag-compare eh pare-pareho lang naman tayo nag-aaral?

Una sa lahat, kaya HUMSS ang napili namin kasi inclined siya sa course na kukunin namin at pati na rin sa interests namin. We study liberal arts and the branches of Social Science: psychology, literature, philosophy, anthropology, sociology, history, economics, political science, geography, and law. Oh ayan, sinabi ko na para malaman mong hindi “basic” ang HUMSS. We are those who will transform this society. We are those who’ll serve for the country and love our nation.

Kaya ikaw ate, napaka-immature mo to think na STEM student ka, sabi mo nga sabi iba mong tweets, pang-matatalino lang ang STEM, pero bakit ganyan yung pinapakita mong asal? Halatang hindi ka nag-aaral nang matino. Shame on you. At isa pa, poser account ka, hindi ka na nahiya sa kinuha at ginamit mong picture. Mag-aral ka na lang nang mabuti.

P.S. Believe me or not, hindi ako gaanong triggered sa mga tweets ni ate. Haha. Lagi na lang kasi ako nakakabasa na minamaliit strand namin.

Stop strand shaming! Jusko. Senior High School na kayo. Isipin niyo nang mabuti mga pinagiisip at pinagsasalita niyo.

I recently saw a video of a young woman talking about all of the reasons our generation, the Millennials, sucks and that’s she’s sorry for what we’ve become. Here is my, a fellow Millennial, response:

You say we’re just ‘existing’ and not ‘contributing anything to society.’ The oldest Millennial is 34, the youngest is 12, we haven’t had time to contribute anything yet. We’re trying to survive in a world that no other generation has had to grow up in, with a tanked economy and most of our childhood hearing nothing but war in the Middle East on the news while also being profoundly connected. We didn’t do that.

You say we’re no longer polite, we don’t say ‘no, sir’ or ‘no ma’am’ anymore and we no longer hold the door open for our elders or women. We also don’t expect low-paid workers to break their backs for us, or at yell at them when they make a mistake, like my 60-year-old grandfather does. We say ‘no problem’ when there’s a mistake in order, and politely stand by while the 40-something-year-old soccer mom huffs and rolls her eyes as the new girl struggles to punch in the correct code.

You say our music objectifies women and glorifies drugs and criminals. There has been no significant change from the songs that were once sung or the singers who sang them. Many of the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s performers were drug addicts, womanizers, and criminals in their own right. Elvis Presley was child abuser, John Lennon raped his many girlfriends and most of the music I grew up listening, which was 80’s rock, were performed by habitual drug abusers. Let’s not pretend like human nature took a drastic turn when 1983 rolled around.

You say we cuss to prove a point. We, as a generation, have learned it’s not the words we fucking use, it’s the passion in them that we care about. As a generation, we’ve become more interested in politics and the world around us, cursing is minor problem when we consider the political climate the older generation has plunged us into.

You say we use ‘bae’ to describe the ones we love. Bae, originally, means ‘before anyone else’ which is incredibly romantic in my opinion. Bae is also hardly ever taken seriously, it’s a jokey way to talk about someone you love. Language changes, I doubt people were happy when we changed ‘wherefore’ into ‘why.’ The greatest injustice we can do to our language and culture is not allow it to evolve and grow with us.

You say we idolize people like Kim Kardashian and shame people like Tim Tebow. Kim Kardashian is a business woman who had a private video she made with a lover illegally revealed. Instead of fading into obscurity, she stood tall and did not let the sexual shaming she endured stop her and now runs a multi-million dollar industry, is married to one of the richest men in the world, and had two beautiful children. Tim Tebow is a Christian who was criticized by a few people for praying in an open stadium while most people just wanted to see a game.

You say we’re lazy and entitled, we want to make a lot of money and get a free education but we’re not willing to put in the work. We are not lazy. I cannot tell you how many people I meet who have gone to school full time while working a part or even full-time job just to make ends meet. We’re not entitled, we’re bitter. In the 70’s, you could work a part time job over the summer and pay your way through four years of school because tuition was $400, now just to walk in the door of your local community college you need to drop $14,000. We have kids who aren’t even old enough to drink, yet are already $20,000 deep in debt. Debt that won’t go away because even filing for bankruptcy won’t erase it. And even with that education, there’s no guarantee you’ll find something in your field. I have a friend who has a degree in microbiology and she’s making $9 an hour selling $15 candles. I have another friend who has a masters in Sport Psychology and Counseling. She’s a bartender. My parents bought a three bedroom house in the suburbs in the late 90’s while my generation is imagining apartments with breezy windows and trying to get enough money to get food while we scrounge up less than $8 a week.

You say we spend more time online making friends and less time building relationships and our relationship’s appearance on Facebook is more important than building the foundation that relationship is based on. We are a generation that is profoundly connected and no other generation has seen this before. We have more opportunities to meet people from all over the world and better chances to understand other worldviews and lifestyles. Being able to stay home and talk to people over the internet is cheaper and more relaxing than having to force yourself to interact with people in public settings after a long day of minimum wage labor. The people I talk to more over the internet are people I have been friends with for years. It’s easier to talk about the day’s events over Skype or Facebook Messenger than arrange a day to meet in person when you have conflicting schedules. I truly don’t believe most people care what others think of their friendship or how their relationships ‘look’ on social media. Most often what you are calling ‘our relationship’s appearance on Facebook’ are documented and searchable memories.

You say our idea of what we believe in is going on Facebook and posting a status on Facebook. Not everyone can join in with the crowds of protesters. It’s easy to see what others have to say through the comments and argue back without the threat of violence. And when this generation does organize events to stand up for ourselves, it’s met with childish name-calling or being reduced to a ‘riot.’

You say we believe the number of follows we have reflects who we are as a person. It’s nice knowing there’s 20 or 50 or maybe even 100 people who care what you have to say or think. We live in an age where we can and will be heard.

You say we don’t respect our elders, that we don’t respect our country. Our elders grew up in one of the greatest economic booms in history and in turn made it the worst economic situation since the 1930’s all while blaming kids who were only five at the time for it. We stand on our flag because it means nothing, it’s a pretty banner for an ugly lie. We’re a country that says you can make it if you just work hard enough while, in the end, that will almost never happen. We’re a country that becomes irate at the idea of 20-something college kids standing on some canvas dyed red, white, and blue but seem to shrug off the millions of homeless, disabled veterans.

You say we’re more divided than ever before. Ever before what? When black folk couldn’t drink from the same fountain as white folk? When women couldn’t vote? When white southerners fought for the idea that they could keep black people as slaves? We’re a generation that is done with injustice and when you fight for social change, you will divide people.

You say everything that was frowned up is celebrated. What does that mean? We frowned up gay marriage. We frowned upon wives being able to say no to sex with their husbands. We frowned up interracial marriage. We frowned up black folk being allowed to go to school with white folk. We frowned upon women being allowed to vote. Are those things not worth celebrating?

You say nothing has value in our generation, that we take advantage of everything. We value friendship more, we value the fists of change, we value social justice and family and the right to marry those we love. We value the right to be yourself, wholly and fully. We value the right to choose and we value the idea of fighting what you believe in, even when everyone older than you is telling you you’re what’s wrong with the country.

You say we have more opportunities to succeed than those before but we don’t ‘appreciate’ them. We are a bitter generation. You can finance a boat for 3.9% but you have to pay back college tuition plus 8.9%. We may have more opportunities but those opportunities cost money we don’t have.

You say you can see why we’re called ‘Generation,’ but we’re not Generation Y, we’re Millennials and we do feel entitled. We were promised a strong economy and inexpensive education. We had the world in our hands and we were going to make it better. And it was ripped away from us because of incompetent rulers, illegal wars, and greedy corporations and we get blamed for it. Crime has gone down, abortion and unintended pregnancy has lowered, people are living longer, people are more educated, people are less likely to die from violent crime or diseases, yet my generation is touted as the worst generation and for what? Crimes that we’re accused of that happened before we could even wipe our own ass? We were raised better, and we were raised in a society that treated, and continues to treat, us like garbage. And we are done. We are not sorry, we did nothing wrong.

Sciences that best match the signs
  • Aries: Chemistry
  • Taurus: Geology/Geography
  • Gemini: Psychology
  • Cancer: Philosophy
  • Leo: Biology
  • Virgo: Economics/mathematics
  • Libra: Sociology
  • Scorpio: Astronomy
  • Sagittarius: Archeology
  • Capricorn: Chronology/History
  • Aquarius: Physics
  • Pisces: Oceanology
The Invention Of Prices

It used to be that anytime you wanted to buy something, you had to haggle. The store owner and the potential buyer started out at different prices, and through negotiation – or argument – came to agree on a single price. And that single price would be different for each buyer who walked into the store. The Quakers were not fans of this. Since everyone was equal, according to their religious beliefs, it was un-equal to charge different prices. So they invented the price tag. In the mid-1800s in Quaker stores, each item in the store cost exactly the same thing, no matter how rich you were or how good you were at haggling. Revolutionary!


2/100 Days of Productivity


Today was majorly productive - I’m still a bit behind but I got so much done! The book in the middle “the Cold War” is one I’ve been reading on the train the past few days to try and expand my knowledge for history, but in a more novelised way because I find I take in information from books and textbooks differently. I also managed to finish f my ecologist notes as well as type up some history work and convert them all to pdf’s to print (Never let pdf converting build up - I had over forty files to convert) Also during the day I managed to cram in planning a history source question and a Ecologism question to consolidate some of my knowledge. Late tonight I think I’m going to do some more economics and maybe start writing my history questions and I’m super looking forwards to tomorrow because it’s Starbucks Thursday’s!! :)

Thursday, 23/02/2017 (2/100)

Plans for today:

  • finish reading article;
  • rewrite and complete my notes on history of international relations and international economics.

If I have time, I will also start my presentation for international economics buuuuut that’s very unlikely since those two tasks will take some time to finish.

studygram: raquelstudies

  • 1600s aristocrat: Can you point to one successful example of a capitalist republic in the history of time? You can't, and that's because democratic election of leaders goes against human nature. It might work on a small scale, but all notions of individual liberty are just idealistic pipe dreams. Any time it's been attempted on a large scale, capitalism has killed more people than feudalism ever could. We've already reached the end of history.
  • Radical peasant: *looks at the audience of the stage play like James from The Manor*


This horrific incident has been well documented, everywhere: from YouTube videos of survivor interviews to PBS Lesson Plans for school teachers. Please do your Google diligence:

  • From May 30 to June 1, 1921, white citizens of Tulsa bombed burned and shot up the “Little Africa” section of Tulsa FOR 18 HOURS STRAIGHT
  • Why would they do that? That same old lame excuse, a Black man supposedly did something to a white woman. But the real reason was ECONOMIC JEALOUSY. Whites may have called it Little Africa derisively, but there is a reason that Black Tulsa is known as Black Wall Street
  • In addition to the 300 Blacks killed, and over 1,000 residential homes burned to the ground, also destroyed were:
  • The Mt. Zion Baptist Church and five other churches; the Gurley Hotel, Red Wing Hotel, and Midway Hotel; the Tulsa Star and Oklahoma Sun newspaper offices; Dunbar Elementary School; Osborne Monroe’s Roller-Skating Rink; the East End Feed Store; the Y.M.C.A. Cleaners; the Dreamland Theater; a drug store, barbershop, banquet hall, several grocery stores, dentists, lawyers, doctors, and realtors offices; a U.S. Post Office Substation, as well the all-black Frissell Memorial Hospital. All told, marauding gangs of savage whites destroyed 40-square-blocks of Black economic and entrepreneurial prosperity!

64 years after the first bombing of an American city was committed against the Black residents of Tulsa… the second bombing of an American city took place in Philadelphia when the city bombed the black members of the MOVE organization. (see the blackourstory archive for details). 

Isn’t it a shame that 76 after the bombing of Tulsa, when Timothy McVeigh blew up the Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City, most historically illiterate Americans - including American “journalists” - responded as if it were the first time such a horror had been visited on Oklahoma. If only we knew.

While there are many lessons to be drawn from this, a few questions that stick out to me are these:

  • If the answer to Black second-class treatment from whites in America is supposedly to become the ultimate American capitalists…the ‘model minorities’… how do you explain Tulsa 1921?
  • For those Black folk who think that the sole answer to Black people’s problems is simply more Blacks becoming business owners and more Blacks spending money with other Blacks… how did that work out for our people in Tulsa in '21?
  • Considering not only Tulsa, but Rosewood, Florida, and many other thriving all-Black towns that you may know of that all met the same fate at the hands of murderous, envious, lazy crackers… WHEN ARE WE GOING TO ACKNOWLEDGE AND TAKE SERIOUSLY THE IDEA THAT BLACK WEALTH (ESPECIALLY ALL-BLACK WEALTH) WILL NEED TO BE PROTECTED WITH PHYSICAL FORCE?

There is a reason that Marcus Garvey AND Elijah Muhammad had armies of trained Black men as a huge part of their organizations. Many of us Black folk took those great men as jokes, yet NO BLACK LEADERS SINCE THOSE TWO have reached the same heights of economic and ideological success and unity of Black people. 

Not only do we need to LEARN THIS HISTORY, we need to start taking these events men and movements MORE SERIOUSLY, and doing some CRITICAL HISTORICAL ANALYSIS if we are ever to stop being on the bottom rung of every metric in American life. Not just some casual or accidental reading of history; some CRITICAL. HISTORICAL. ANALYSIS.

We’ve had many examples before us, but were often too undisciplined or brainwashed or lazy to follow them. Shame on us. If even one-fourth of the people who claimed to love Brother Malcolm in his day had at least one-tenth of Malcolm’s discipline, he might not have needed to hire an FBI Agent named Gene Roberts whom he didn’t have time to scrutinize properly beforehand, because all the Black folks who gassed him up to leave the Nation of Islam and who joined Brother Malcolm’s MMI were too damned undisciplined and untrained IN ANYTHING USEFUL TO PROTECTING BLACK PEOPLE to even serve as proper security for him. Read it again, in context of this entire post, and let it marinate.

AMERICA NEEDS TO PAY US WHAT THEY OWE FOR ALL OF THIS TORTURE ROBBERY AND MURDER that they’ve visited on us since they brought our people here as captives and bred us for profit.

TULSA 1921 was real. PHILLY 1985 was real. Will it happen again?

I began to study hard about two years ago, when I started my final GCSE year and when I started my studyblr. Since then, I’ve discovered how I like to write my notes and the organisational techniques that work for me. However I’ve always struggled with finding a strategy of how to actually learn information for a test in an effective way. Hopefully by the end of this post you’ll have a few more ideas you can implement so you can see how you will learn over this next academic year!

Ask questions

This is the best way to understand a topic - and you need to understand it before you attempt writing notes on it and then studying it. I know that lots of people don’t like to ask questions during class, so stay behind for a few minutes at the end or email your questions to your teacher. Sometimes them just telling you 1:1 what they said in class can make more sense and once a topic clicks in your head and you understand it, you’ll be able to study it so much more effectively!

Write notes that work for you

This is the first step to understanding a concept! Though it may take a few attempts before you find a way of making notes that works for you (check out my post all about writing notes here), it will help tons in the long run as you can then re-read these multiple times and have them as a clear resource where everything you need to learn is is one place.


Mindmaps are really useful for visual learners; I made mindmaps and read them so much I memorised them so that in exams you can simply pull up your mindmap to the front of your mind and read from it! Even if that’s not possible for you, this is a great way to actively study as you can try to write out your mindmap without looking at your notes, see how far you get relying on your memory and then you’ll know what you struggle with and need to learn!

Brain dump

Similar to mindmaps above, but done on a broader level, testing yourself is the best way to actively learn a subject! This can be done by a brain dump; once I finish making topic notes, I then make a mind map with only a few prompt words around it. Whenever I come to revise, I get a plain piece of paper, and my prompt words to write down everything I can remember. This is my brain dump of the topic. I then go through my brain dump with my proper notes and use a coloured pen to correct what I wrote down wrong and annotate it with anything I missed out. The act of writing everything down you know, everything you don’t know in a different colour and reading through your notes really gets the information in your head. 

Have others test you verbally

A quicker way to test yourself is to give your notes to a family member or a friend and have them test you on the content. This works in the same way as the brain dump but is quicker as you’re talking the answers, not writing them down. A way you can test yourself when you’re alone is to explain a process or topic to something/someone around you; I use my dogs, a cuddly toy or even just a lamp and explain the concept as clearly as I can to them.

Mind palace

Lots of people use a ‘mind palace’ technique to memorise a process or list of things. This is when you choose an object or room that you know extremely well and assign different parts of it to a step of the process or item on the list to. For example, I could memorise the factors affecting short term aggregate supply and assign them to my alarm clock; so labour costs is the face of the clock, price of raw materials is the ‘hour’ button and levels of tax and subsidies is the ‘minute’ button, etc. I haven’t used this technique myself before as I only discovered it recently, but I fully intend to use it over the next year for my a-levels!

Create acronyms

This is the method that I use for memorising lists and it works similarly to the mind palace technique above. I use these in economics mostly for factors affecting different markets, supply and demand, etc. As well as being extremely useful in the exam itself, they’re great beforehand as they don’t have to make sense and you can have fun creating them and testing yourself on them! So for macroeconomic evaluation points, I use CCCREEMTTT - it sounds a bit like ‘cream tea’ and makes me smile whenever I use it! They are a genuine lifesaver for me!

Use actual tests

After making sure that you know the content using the above methods, using practice papers or textbook questions really is the best way to perfect your exam technique. Mark your own work so you can see the mark scheme and get accustomed to the way in which they mark and what they’re looking for in your answers.

Focus on what you don’t know

It’s easy to summarise all the above points in just a few words; focus on actively studying what you don’t know. It’s all too easy to revise the same first chapter of your textbook each week because you know the content and it makes you feel good to get the answers right, however that isn’t helping your future self as you’re neglecting the topics that you don’t know. 

Try and be true to yourself and really question whether you’re studying in the most efficient way possible (’has reading the textbook for half an hour really helped me to understand this?’). Once you get into the habit of actively studying and finding which of the above methods works for you, you’ll find that you know and understand the topic and enjoy testing yourself and finding what you really know.

Thank you for reading and let me know which tip was your favourite or if there are any others that you’d like me to add! Go to my masterposts page here to see individual posts on how to study history, economics, maths and for GCSEs!