This horrific incident has been well documented, everywhere: from YouTube videos of survivor interviews to PBS Lesson Plans for school teachers. Please do your Google diligence:
From May 30 to June 1, 1921, white citizens of Tulsa bombed burned and shot up the “Little Africa” section of Tulsa FOR 18 HOURS STRAIGHT
Why would they do that? That same old lame excuse, a Black man supposedly did something to a white woman. But the real reason was ECONOMIC JEALOUSY. Whites may have called it Little Africa derisively, but there is a reason that Black Tulsa is known as Black Wall Street
In addition to the 300 Blacks killed, and over 1,000 residential homes burned to the ground, also destroyed were:
The Mt. Zion Baptist Church and five other churches; the Gurley Hotel, Red Wing Hotel, and Midway Hotel; the Tulsa Star and Oklahoma Sun newspaper offices; Dunbar Elementary School; Osborne Monroe’s Roller-Skating Rink; the East End Feed Store; the Y.M.C.A. Cleaners; the Dreamland Theater; a drug store, barbershop, banquet hall, several grocery stores, dentists, lawyers, doctors, and realtors offices; a U.S. Post Office Substation, as well the all-black Frissell Memorial Hospital. All told, marauding gangs of savage whites destroyed 40-square-blocks of Black economic and entrepreneurial prosperity!
64 years after the first bombing of an American city was committed against the Black residents of Tulsa… the second bombing of an American city took place in Philadelphia when the city bombed the black members of the MOVE organization. (see the blackourstory archive for details).
Isn’t it a shame that 76 after the bombing of Tulsa, when Timothy McVeigh blew up the Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City, most historically illiterate Americans - including American “journalists” - responded as if it were the first time such a horror had been visited on Oklahoma. If only we knew.
While there are many lessons to be drawn from this, a few questions that stick out to me are these:
If the answer to Black second-class treatment from whites in America is supposedly to become the ultimate American capitalists…the ‘model minorities’… how do you explain Tulsa 1921?
For those Black folk who think that the sole answer to Black people’s problems is simply more Blacks becoming business owners and more Blacks spending money with other Blacks… how did that work out for our people in Tulsa in '21?
Considering not only Tulsa, but Rosewood, Florida, and many other thriving all-Black towns that you may know of that all met the same fate at the hands of murderous, envious, lazy crackers… WHEN ARE WE GOING TO ACKNOWLEDGE AND TAKE SERIOUSLY THE IDEA THAT BLACK WEALTH (ESPECIALLY ALL-BLACK WEALTH) WILL NEED TO BE PROTECTED WITH PHYSICAL FORCE?
There is a reason that Marcus Garvey AND Elijah Muhammad had armies of trained Black men as a huge part of their organizations. Many of us Black folk took those great men as jokes, yet NO BLACK LEADERS SINCE THOSE TWO have reached the same heights of economic and ideological success and unity of Black people.
Not only do we need to LEARN THIS HISTORY, we need to start taking these events men and movements MORE SERIOUSLY, and doing some CRITICAL HISTORICAL ANALYSIS if we are ever to stop being on the bottom rung of every metric in American life. Not just some casual or accidental reading of history; some CRITICAL. HISTORICAL. ANALYSIS.
We’ve had many examples before us, but were often too undisciplined or brainwashed or lazy to follow them. Shame on us. If even one-fourth of the people who claimed to love Brother Malcolm in his day had at least one-tenth of Malcolm’s discipline, he might not have needed to hire an FBI Agent named Gene Roberts whom he didn’t have time to scrutinize properly beforehand, because all the Black folks who gassed him up to leave the Nation of Islam and who joined Brother Malcolm’s MMI were too damned undisciplined and untrained IN ANYTHING USEFUL TO PROTECTING BLACK PEOPLE to even serve as proper security for him. Read it again, in context of this entire post, and let it marinate.
AMERICA NEEDS TO PAY US WHAT THEY OWE FOR ALL OF THIS TORTURE ROBBERY AND MURDER that they’ve visited on us since they brought our people here as captives and bred us for profit.
TULSA 1921 was real. PHILLY 1985 was real. Will it happen again?
via a friend of mine:
Hey folks, I just called Mayor Libby Schaaf to demand her support of undocumented immigrants in the city of Oakland.
Yesterday, Mayor Murray of Seattle made a statement saying that the city will be a sanctuary for undocumented immigrants, even if it means losing federal funding. Please call your Mayor’s office and demand similar actions of support. Deetz below.
McMansions 101 Revisited: Aesthetics Aside, Why McMansions Are Bad Architecture
I get a lot of emails. The vast majority of them are good, but every once in a while I get those mainly consisting of “You’re making aesthetic judgements aka That’s just like, your opinion, man.” (A subset of these are “HOW DARE YOU INSULT RONALD REAGAN!”)
As a response to these emails, I would like to provide an objective list of reasons why McMansions are bad architecture that ignores aesthetics.
(house tip courtesy of my dank Twitter follower @keowmb)
What are these mysterious reasons the McMansion is bad?
Imma sum it up for you:
Why McMansions Are Bad Architecture Aesthetics-Free Remix
1.) BAD craftsmanship! 2.) BAD investment! (This one’s for you, Wall St.) 3.) BAD for the environment! (That’s right, I said the e word) 4.) BAD for the spirit! (That’s right, architecture affects how we feel!)
Before I begin, I would like to take the time to say that this post is about the McMansion itself.It is not about the suburbs, urban planning, sprawl, etc. There are literallytenmillionreally superawesomebooksaboutthissubject. (Admittedly, I have a whole row on my bookshelf devoted to the subject and also no life whatsoever.)
McMansion Pitfall No. 1: BAD CRAFTSMANSHIP!
The signs of shoddy construction aren’t always easy to identify.
However, when big building corporations such as Toll Brothers and Pulte Homes, consistently push the “More House for Your Money!” angle, it’s a safe bet that corners are being cut somewhere, and you know they ain’t messing with that double-sink in the master bath!
At face value, building materials are a good primary indicator as to whether or not a house was built cheaply. Houses built from brick, stone, wood, or real stucco are generally more reliable than those built with cheap trendy materials commonly marketed as being “no-maintenance.” (All houses require maintenance. Sorry to burst your [housing] bubble!)
That’s not to say that all new building materials are bad - often, they are very energy efficient, and can look rather wonderful with proper maintenance. However, McMansions tend to use the cheapest materials possible, installed in dubious ways (EIFS lawsuit anyone?) in order to satisfy their builder’s profit margins.
The thing about good design, is that it’s well-thought out - it shows that care has been put into the details and quality of what is being designed. If builders skimp so much on the external design (literally how a house looks) of a home, it’s usually indicative of other problems: it shows that the house wasn’t carefully planned, and often this is revealed not only in inefficient (try re-roofing one of these houses) exterior form, but interior form as well.
The inside of McMansions are designed in order to cram the most “features” inside for the lowest costs. Often this is done inefficiently, resulting in odd rooflines, room shapes, and hastily covered up contractor errors. These lead to major upsets years down the road such as leaky roofs, draft problems, and structural deficiencies leading to mold, mildew, and other problems costing thousands of dollars to repair.
Because we started treating our houses as disposable during the mortgage booms of the 1980s, 90s and 2000s, we ended up with houses built to last not even 25 years. This leads us to our next point: McMansions are a seriously bad investment.
To some, it is definitely a newsflash. After decades of rhetoric about what makes a home valuable (spurred in part by HGTV and other media outlets claiming that stainless steel and other trivial pursuits LITERALLY add ten gazillion dollars to the value of your home!!1), it’s come to light that SURPRISE, the aesthetic trends of 10 years ago aren’t fairing so well today.
The fact is, these houses are entering their dark years, where costly repairs such as re-roofing are looming just around the corner, contributing to their market stagnation. In addition, the rich and powerful who desire super-sized houses are building new ones, with all of today’s bells and whistles (warm gray walls and pseudo-mod furniture anyone?) Nobody wants someone else’s outdated, used luxury.
And so, on the market they sit after thousands and tens of thousands of price cuts. Meanwhile, according to the linked Bloomberg article at the top of this section, small and medium sized homes are appreciating at a rapid rate. This, coupled with the tiny house craze, indicate that, for the first time in a long time, people are starting to see that bigger isn’t always better.
While this is good news for the environment and for those who desire more affordable housing, it’s pretty bad news for the poor souls who bought 5,000 square-foot houses in 2005.
Unsurprisingly, having a ginormous house is bad for the environment. Yes, even if you “build it green,” a 9,000 square-foot house is still bad for the environment.
Living in huge houses on the fringes of society consumes massive amounts of resources: from the CO2 emissions from power plants that keep the lights on and heat your Pringles Can of Shame, to the emissions from your car as you sit in gridlocked traffic trying to get to the office park in Edge City, USA, the huge house lifestyle is no doubt impacting climate change in its own, if small, way.
Building huge houses on the fringes of society consumes massive amounts of resources.
One of the issues with McMansion design is their relative ignorance of the spaces around them. Often, when these houses are built, their lots are rid of any significant foliage (read: pretty trees) and replaced with a resource-gobbling lawn and a dinky stick tree.
Not to mention the amount of energy spent to extending roads and utility services to new lots and tearing down houses that get in the way of “luxurious progress.” Not to mention the fact that the entire idea and economy of suburbia is reliant upon fossil fuel consumption and the car, a totally unsustainable way of life.
[I guess none of this matters, unfortunately, to those who believe that climate change and global warming aren’t real, and these people who live lives of conspicuous consumption are exactly the type to buy a giant house in the exurbs and think that the environment only exists to ruin business and extend the arm of the gubment.]
McMansion Pitfall No. 4: BAD for the spirit!
I know, I’m totally going to come off as one of those hippie types, but architecture does, in fact, have a huge impact on how we feel and live our lives.
The fact is, big houses can make us feel incredibly isolated. (The McMansion is a small scale version of what critics of sprawl attribute to modern suburbia, which is entirely reliant on the car to do everything from go shopping to visit friends.)
A family of four in a 6,000 square-foot house can go days at a time without having to interact with each other in any real respect. When I was in the sixth grade, I remember visiting a friend who, rather than traverse down the massive, useless staircase, would text her mother, who was making dinner in the kitchen, or her sister who was 4 (mostly empty) rooms away.
Being able to hide away from the woes of family life hinders our ability to cope with others and learn important skills like conflict resolution, anger management, and empathy. In the house I grew up in, (1800 square feet, one story, 3bed/2ba, four people) my sister had to deal with my practicing the violin, and I had to deal with my sister’s incessant horror movie binges at top volume, and we all had to deal with my dad when he got way too into surround sound.
The (mostly BS) accusations older generations make about Millennials is that they are overly-sensitive and mollycoddled; stuck in a perpetual childlike mentality. Those generations’ decision to isolate their children from the comings and goings of everyday life, including exposure to people different than themselves out of a combination of fear and prejudice no doubt has had some adverse effects on their children.
Diversity is more than just racial quotas and pretty words - it’s an active participation in the world around us, interacting with people who come from backgrounds different than ours. Monocultures benefit no one.
The rise of the gated community and certain financial restrictions (e.g. building a community of houses in a certain price range to deter “riff-raff”) since the 1980s are just two of many ways people used property and planning to keep out undesirables (read: practicing legal racial prejudice), resulting in an echo-chamber NIMBY (”not in my backyard!”) mentality.
If anyone is interested in further reading, the development of land as a practice of gatekeeping and prejudice is wonderfully covered in the book Privatopia.
POINT BEING: SURPRISE! By fostering a culture of loneliness and isolation, the oversized house hurts not only the environment and our wallets, but our psyche as well.
So there you have it, folks. Four reasons McMansions are bad architecture, aesthetic taste aside.
I plan on doing special posts about each of these facets and how they came to be this way in due time. (I have a long list of things to write about.)
As for next week, don’t miss the Dank McMansion of the Week which will be in Encino, CA, and next Sunday’s McMansions 101: McMansion Cheat Sheet, which goes down the line of tell-tale signs that yes, in fact, what you’re looking at is probably a McMansion.
It’s never too early to start studying for AP’s! Here’s a list of all the classes we have taken or will be taking this year. These are credible resources and we hope they help you as much as they helped us. Good luck! (an asterisk* is used to indicate purchase is necessary)
welcome to my night, where i basically sat down for a whole hour typing this entire thing down. wtf am i even doing.
Japan is an island by the sea, filled with volcanos and its
♪ beautiful ♪
In the year negative a billion; Japan might not have been here.
In the year negative forty thousand; it was here and you could walk to it, and some people walked to it. Then it got warmer some icebergs melted and it became an island, and now theres lots of
♪ trees ♪
because its warmer.
So now there’s people on the island that’s basically just hanging out in between the mountains, eating nuts off trees and using the latest technology like
stones and bowls.
Ding dong ♪
It’s the outside world and they have technology from the future like, really good metal and crazy rice farms.
Now you can make a lot of rice, really, really quickly.
That means if you own a farm,
you own a lot of food,
which is something everybody needs to
So that makes you king.
Rice farming and rice kingdoms spread across the land all the way to here.
The most important kingdoms were,
But this one was the most, most important.
Ruled by a heavenly superperson
or Emperor for short.
get the door, its
The new prince wants everyone to try this hot new religion from
“Please try this religion.” he said.
“No” said everybody.
“♪ Try it ♪” he said.
“No” said everybody again, quieter this time.
And so, the religion was put into place and all the rules that came with it.
Then the government was taken over by another clique and they made some reforms like,
making the Government govern more.
And making the Government more like China’s Government, which is a Government that governs more.
“Hi China.” they said.
”Hi dipshit.” said China.
“can you call us something else other than dipshit?” said Japan.
“Like what?” said China.
“♪How about sunrise land♪” said Japan.
And they stole China’s alphabet and wrote a book.
And then they made lots of poetry and art and another book about themselves.
Then they stopped moving the capital every time the emperor died and kept it in one place for awhile.
and they conquered the north, finally.
Get that squared away.
A rich hipster named Kukai is bored with modern buddhism, visits China and learns a better version which is more
comes back, reinvents the alphabet and causes art and literature to be
for a long time.
And the royal palace turned into such a dream world of art that they really didn’t give a shit about running the country.
So if you lived outside the palace how are you supposed to protect your shit, from criminals?
♪ h i r e a s a m u r a i ♪
Everyone started hiring Samurai.
rich,important people hired samurai.
poor people who could not afford to hire samurai did not hire samurai.
The samurai became organised andpowerful.
More powerful than the government.
So they made their own military government
They let the “Emperor” still be “Emperor” but the Shogun is actually in control.
The Mongols have invaded China!
“We’ve invaded China.” said the Mongols. “Please respect us or else we might invade you as well.”
“okay.” said Japan.
So the Mongols came over, ready for war and–
died in a tornado(typhoon).
But they tried again, and had a nice time fighting with the Japanese but then–
died in a tornado(typhoon).
Then the Emperor overthrows the Shogunate and Shogunate overthrows them back and moves to Kyoto and makes a new Shogunate.
And the “Emperor” can still dress like an Emperor if he wants.
♪ now there’s more art♪
like painting with less colours
its time for–
~who’s going to be the next shogun?~
Usually its the Shogun’s kid. But the Shogun doesn’t have a kid so he tries to get his brother to quit being a Monk and be the next Shogun.
He says “ok"
But then shogun has a kid.
So now who’s it gonna be?
~vote now on your phones!~
And everyone voted so hard that the palace caught on fire and burned down.
The Shogun actually didn’t care,
he was off somewhere doing poetry.
And the whole country broke into pieces. Everyone is fighting with each other for local power and
its anybody’s game.
No, they’re not here to take over (yet) They just wanna sell some shit, like clocks and guns.
and ♪ Jesus♪
so thats cool.
but everyone’s still fighting each other for control.
~now with guns~
and wouldn’t it be nicetocontrol the capital? Which right now is puppets with no one controlling them.
This clan is ready to make a run for it. But first, they have to trample this smaller clan which is in the way.
smaller clanwins and the leader of that clan steals the idea of invading the capital and invades the capital and it goes very well.
He’s about halfway through conquering Japan when someone who works for him, kills him and then someone else who works for him, kills them
and that guy finishes conquering Japan.
and then he confiscated everybody’s swords, and made some rules.
“and now I’m going to invade Korea, and then hopefully China”
he said and failed and also died.
But before he died he told these five guys to take care of his five year old son until he’s old enough to be the next ruler of japan.
And the five guys said,
“yeah, right. its not gonna be this kid, its gonna be one of us, cuz we’re grown ups.“
And it’s probably gonna be this guy who happens to be way more rich and powerful than the others.
A lot of people support him but a lot of people support not supporting him. They have a fight, and he wins and starts a new Government.
and he still lets the Emperor dress like an “Emperor” and have very nice things. But don’t get confused, this is the new government and they’re very strict.
So strict they closed the country.
No one can leave and no one can come in.
Except for the dutch because they wanna buy and sell shit but they have to do it right here.
Now that the entire country is not at war with itself, the population increased a lot.
schools were built
roads were built
everyone learnt to read
books were published
there was poetry
and dutch studies.
People started to study European science from books they bought from the Dutch.
and maybe even electricity.
Over time the economic and cultural prosperity began to gradually slow do–
its the united states. with huge boats with guns,
“open the country. Stop having it be closed.” said the United States.
Theres really nothing they could do so they signed a contract that lets United States, Britain and Russia visit Japan anytime they want.
Chōshū and Satsuma hated this.
“that sucks.” they said.
And with almost very little outside help, they overthrew the shogunate and somehow made the emperor the emperor again and moved him to Edo which they renamed, Eastern Capital.
they made a new government which was a lot more western.
they made a new constitution that was pretty western.
and a military that was pretty western.
And did you know what else was western? Thats right, its conquering stuff.
So what can we conquer? Korea, they conquered Korea.
Taking it from its previous owner, China. and then go a little bit further and Russia rushes in out of nowhere and says,
“stop, no, you can’t take that. We were gonna build a railroad through here to try to get some warm water.”
and Russia builds their railroad supervised by a shit ton of soldiers.
and then when the railroad was done they downgraded to a fuck ton.
Did i say downgrade?
I meant upgrade.
And Japan says,
“can you maybe chill?”
and russia says,
“How About Maybe You Chill?”
Japan is kinda scared of Russia. You’ll never guess who’s also kinda scared of Russia.
So Japan and Great Britain make an alliance together so they can be
a little less scared of Russia.
Feeling confident, Japan goes to war against Russia. Just for a moment. and then they both get tired and stop.
♪ it’s time for World War 1♪
The World is about to -Have A War-
Because its the nineteen hundreds and weapons are getting crazy. and all these Empires are excited to try them out on each other.
Meanwhile Japan has been enjoying conquering stuff and wants–
and the next thing on their list is this part of China and lots of tiny islands.
And all of that stuff belongs to Germany which just had war declared on by Britain because Britain is friends with Belgium which is being trespassed by Germany in order to get to France to kick France’s ass because France is friends with Russia who is getting ready to kick Austria’s ass because Austria is getting ready to kick Serbia’s ass because someone from Serbia shot the leader of Austria’s ass or–
actually shot on the head.
and Britain is currently friends with Japan so you know what that means.
Duh,♪ Japan should take the islands ♪
which they wanted to do anyway.
So they called Britain on the tele(gram) to sort of let them know. and then they did it, and they also helped Britain a little here and there with some errands and stuff.
Now the war is over.
You technically fought in the war, which means you get to sit at the negotiating table with the big dudes where they decided who owns what.
And yes, Japan gets to keep all that shit they stole from Germany, you also get to join the,Post-War Mega alliance–
♪ the League of Nations ♪
Whose mission statement is to try not to take over the world.
The great depression is bad and Japan’s economy is now crappy. But the military is doing just fine and it invades Manchuria and the league of nation’s just like–
“No don’t do that, if you’re in the league of nations you’re not supposed to take over the world.”
and Japan said “♪ How bout I do anyway? ♪”
And Japan invaded more and more and more and, more of China.
and was planning to invade the entire east!
~You got mail~
Its from Germany. the new leader of Germany, he has a cool moustache and he’s trying to take over the world
and needs friends.
This also got forwarded to Italy,
they all decided to be friends because they had so much in common.
♪ it’s time for World War 2 ♪
Germany is invading the neighbours. Then they invade the neighbour’s neighbours. Then the neighbour’s neighbour’s neighbours who happened to be Britain said, “holy shiit” and United States started helping Britain because they are
♪ good friends♪
and started not helping Japan because
♪ their friends and our friends are not friends ♪
♪plus they’re planning on invading the entire ocean ♪
The united states is also working on a large very huge bomb.
bigger than any other bomb, ever™.
Just in case.
But they still haven’t joined the war. War looks bad on TVand united states has really started to care about their image.
But then Japan spits on them in Hawaii,
and challenges them to war.
and they say yes, and then Germany,
as a symbol of friendship,
declares war on the United States also.
So the United States goes to war in Europe. and they help the gang chase Germany back into Germany. and they also start chasing Japan back into Japan. And they haven’t used the bomb yet and are curious to see if it works.
So they dropped it on japan.
they actually dropped two.
United States installed a new Government, inspired by the United States Government. with just the right ingredients for a
♪ post-war economic miracle ♪
And Japan starts making
as fast as they can and also better than everybody else.
they get rich and the economy goes wild and then the miracle wears off.
But everything’s still pretty cool i guess.
♪ bye ♪
i did it. Thank you Bill Wurtz for this wonderful masterpiece.
also p.s.: i sincerely apologise if someone has already made a whole transcript of this. pls u can hire a samurai against me if u wan 2 ;A;
This Ur III administrative text records in Sumerian cuneiform a receipt for a dead sheep. In as well documented a period as the Third Dynasty of Ur, it is no surprise that everything had to be recorded! The tablet also bears the impression of a cylinder seal, which would have conferred legitimacy on the clay document, much like a signature would today. (Source)
Can you point to one successful example of a capitalist republic in the history of time? You can't, and that's because democratic election of leaders goes against human nature. It might work on a small scale, but all notions of individual liberty are just idealistic pipe dreams. Any time it's been attempted on a large scale, capitalism has killed more people than feudalism ever could. We've already reached the end of history.
*looks at the audience of the stage play like James from The Manor*
“In the early 1600s, the King of Sweden declared that copper, along with silver, would serve as money. He did this because he owned lots of copper mines and thought that this policy would increase the public’s demand for copper—and also its price, making him much wealthier. Because silver was about 100 times as valuable as copper, massive copper coins had to be minted, including one that weighed 43 pounds. This rendered large-scale transactions in Sweden virtually impossible without a cart and horse. It also explains why Sweden was the first European country to use paper money.”
After Sundiata, the most famous ruler of the Mali empire is Mansa Kankan Musa I, who came to power several decades after the death of his legendary predecessor. Musa was not the first emperor of Mali to embrace Islam; unlike the Soninke and the Soso, Mande royalty adopted the religion relatively early.
However, Musa’s hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) of 1324–25 drew the attention of both the Islamic world and Europeans, who were unprepared for the lavish wealth and generosity that the Malian king displayed during his stopover in Egypt.
Accompanied by an enormous entourage, Musa apparently dispensed so much gold in Cairo that the precious metal’s value plummeted and did not recover for several years thereafter. The Mali empire, previously little known beyond the western Sudan, now became legendary in the Islamic world and Europe. The image of Mansa Musa bearing nuggets of gold was subsequently commemorated in maps of the African continent.
“After the Great Depression and the postwar period, capitalism was in its seductive phase. Capitalism knew there were rival suitors and it came with flowers and chocolates like health care programmes and unemployment insurance, minimum wages, and all kinds of goodies precisely because it was part of this seductive dance to keep people from sliding into the hands of the socialists or, God forbid, the communists. Neoliberalism is really just capitalism in its boorish phase, capitalism on the couch in an undershirt saying, ‘what are you going to do, leave me?’”
No one had ever entered the White House so grossly ill informed. At presidential news conferences, especially in his first year, Ronald Reagan embarrassed himself. On one occasion, asked why he advocated putting missiles in vulnerable places, he responded, his face registering bewilderment, “I don’t know but what maybe you haven’t gotten into the area that I’m going to turn over to the secretary of defense.” Frequently, he knew nothing about events that had been headlined in the morning newspaper. In 1984, when asked a question he should have fielded easily, Reagan looked befuddled, and his wife had to step in to rescue him. “Doing everything we can,” she whispered. “Doing everything we can,” the president echoed. To be sure, his detractors sometimes exaggerated his ignorance. The publication of his radio addresses of the 1950s revealed a considerable command of facts, though in a narrow range. But nothing suggested profundity. “You could walk through Ronald Reagan’s deepest thoughts,” a California legislator said, “and not get your ankles wet.”
This shell inlay from the Early Dynastic period depicts a woman playing the flute. Interestingly, she also wears a cylinder seal around her neck. Cylinder seals, which would have been rolled onto clay tablets to function like signatures, often have a narrow whole through the center where a string could have been laced through to tie the item around one’s neck. Throughout Mesopotamian history, both men and women used seals. (Source)
The Worst Hyperinflation in History and the Death of the Hungarian Pengo,
Inflation is when money loses value over time causing prices to rise. Money is just like any other commodity; it’s value is derived from it’s rarity. When it comes to fiat currency (paper money that is backed by nothing but trust), money tends to lose value when governments print more of it, the price of goods rises, and thus inflation sets in. When governments print a lot of it at once and money loses value very quickly, hyperinflation sets in.
For most of World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis Powers. After suffering severe defeats on the Eastern Front, the Hungarian Government quickly went broke, and being an Axis Power, there weren’t many countries it could burrow money from. In order to fund the war, the Hungarian Government desperately began to print money to pay for expenses. In 1944 the largest denomination bill was the 1,000 Pengo note. As the war came to a close, expenses only grew as the Hungarian Government had to fund projects to repair and rebuild the war torn country, provide employment for returning soldiers, and fund many new social programs. Government printing accelerated in order to meet the demand for cash. As a result, the largest denomination bill at the end of 1945 was the 10,000,000 Pengo bill.
By this point, hyperinflation was seriously disrupting the Hungarian economy. People saw their life savings instantly made worthless. In order to buy basic supplies like food and groceries, people had to go to stores with wheelbarrows full of bricks of cash. Prices doubled on a weekly basis. By July 1946, Hungarian hyperinflation had reached it’s worst. By then the price of goods doubled every 15 hours and the daily rate of inflation was 195%, making an annual rate of inflation of 41.9 quadrillion percent. During this month, the Hungarian government began printing the largest banknote in history, the 100 million billion Pengo bill, or the 100 Quintilian pengo bill (100,000,000,000,000,000,000 (10^20).
In August of 1946, the Pengo had become so worthless that the entire Hungarian money supply of 400 quadrilliard Pengo (
4×1029 ) had the buying power of 1/100th of an American dollar. On August 1st, the Pengo was declared defunct by the Hungarian government and replaced by the Forint, which was to be exchanged at the rate of 400 octillion Pengo. By then the Pengo had become so worthless that government workers had to be hired to sweep up piles of money from the streets.