economic-history

I recently saw a video of a young woman talking about all of the reasons our generation, the Millennials, sucks and that’s she’s sorry for what we’ve become. Here is my, a fellow Millennial, response:

You say we’re just ‘existing’ and not ‘contributing anything to society.’ The oldest Millennial is 34, the youngest is 12, we haven’t had time to contribute anything yet. We’re trying to survive in a world that no other generation has had to grow up in, with a tanked economy and most of our childhood hearing nothing but war in the Middle East on the news while also being profoundly connected. We didn’t do that.

You say we’re no longer polite, we don’t say ‘no, sir’ or ‘no ma’am’ anymore and we no longer hold the door open for our elders or women. We also don’t expect low-paid workers to break their backs for us, or at yell at them when they make a mistake, like my 60-year-old grandfather does. We say ‘no problem’ when there’s a mistake in order, and politely stand by while the 40-something-year-old soccer mom huffs and rolls her eyes as the new girl struggles to punch in the correct code.

You say our music objectifies women and glorifies drugs and criminals. There has been no significant change from the songs that were once sung or the singers who sang them. Many of the 50’s, 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s performers were drug addicts, womanizers, and criminals in their own right. Elvis Presley was child abuser, John Lennon raped his many girlfriends and most of the music I grew up listening, which was 80’s rock, were performed by habitual drug abusers. Let’s not pretend like human nature took a drastic turn when 1983 rolled around.

You say we cuss to prove a point. We, as a generation, have learned it’s not the words we fucking use, it’s the passion in them that we care about. As a generation, we’ve become more interested in politics and the world around us, cursing is minor problem when we consider the political climate the older generation has plunged us into.

You say we use ‘bae’ to describe the ones we love. Bae, originally, means ‘before anyone else’ which is incredibly romantic in my opinion. Bae is also hardly ever taken seriously, it’s a jokey way to talk about someone you love. Language changes, I doubt people were happy when we changed ‘wherefore’ into ‘why.’ The greatest injustice we can do to our language and culture is not allow it to evolve and grow with us.

You say we idolize people like Kim Kardashian and shame people like Tim Tebow. Kim Kardashian is a business woman who had a private video she made with a lover illegally revealed. Instead of fading into obscurity, she stood tall and did not let the sexual shaming she endured stop her and now runs a multi-million dollar industry, is married to one of the richest men in the world, and had two beautiful children. Tim Tebow is a Christian who was criticized by a few people for praying in an open stadium while most people just wanted to see a game.

You say we’re lazy and entitled, we want to make a lot of money and get a free education but we’re not willing to put in the work. We are not lazy. I cannot tell you how many people I meet who have gone to school full time while working a part or even full-time job just to make ends meet. We’re not entitled, we’re bitter. In the 70’s, you could work a part time job over the summer and pay your way through four years of school because tuition was $400, now just to walk in the door of your local community college you need to drop $14,000. We have kids who aren’t even old enough to drink, yet are already $20,000 deep in debt. Debt that won’t go away because even filing for bankruptcy won’t erase it. And even with that education, there’s no guarantee you’ll find something in your field. I have a friend who has a degree in microbiology and she’s making $9 an hour selling $15 candles. I have another friend who has a masters in Sport Psychology and Counseling. She’s a bartender. My parents bought a three bedroom house in the suburbs in the late 90’s while my generation is imagining apartments with breezy windows and trying to get enough money to get food while we scrounge up less than $8 a week.

You say we spend more time online making friends and less time building relationships and our relationship’s appearance on Facebook is more important than building the foundation that relationship is based on. We are a generation that is profoundly connected and no other generation has seen this before. We have more opportunities to meet people from all over the world and better chances to understand other worldviews and lifestyles. Being able to stay home and talk to people over the internet is cheaper and more relaxing than having to force yourself to interact with people in public settings after a long day of minimum wage labor. The people I talk to more over the internet are people I have been friends with for years. It’s easier to talk about the day’s events over Skype or Facebook Messenger than arrange a day to meet in person when you have conflicting schedules. I truly don’t believe most people care what others think of their friendship or how their relationships ‘look’ on social media. Most often what you are calling ‘our relationship’s appearance on Facebook’ are documented and searchable memories.

You say our idea of what we believe in is going on Facebook and posting a status on Facebook. Not everyone can join in with the crowds of protesters. It’s easy to see what others have to say through the comments and argue back without the threat of violence. And when this generation does organize events to stand up for ourselves, it’s met with childish name-calling or being reduced to a ‘riot.’

You say we believe the number of follows we have reflects who we are as a person. It’s nice knowing there’s 20 or 50 or maybe even 100 people who care what you have to say or think. We live in an age where we can and will be heard.

You say we don’t respect our elders, that we don’t respect our country. Our elders grew up in one of the greatest economic booms in history and in turn made it the worst economic situation since the 1930’s all while blaming kids who were only five at the time for it. We stand on our flag because it means nothing, it’s a pretty banner for an ugly lie. We’re a country that says you can make it if you just work hard enough while, in the end, that will almost never happen. We’re a country that becomes irate at the idea of 20-something college kids standing on some canvas dyed red, white, and blue but seem to shrug off the millions of homeless, disabled veterans.

You say we’re more divided than ever before. Ever before what? When black folk couldn’t drink from the same fountain as white folk? When women couldn’t vote? When white southerners fought for the idea that they could keep black people as slaves? We’re a generation that is done with injustice and when you fight for social change, you will divide people.

You say everything that was frowned up is celebrated. What does that mean? We frowned up gay marriage. We frowned upon wives being able to say no to sex with their husbands. We frowned up interracial marriage. We frowned up black folk being allowed to go to school with white folk. We frowned upon women being allowed to vote. Are those things not worth celebrating?

You say nothing has value in our generation, that we take advantage of everything. We value friendship more, we value the fists of change, we value social justice and family and the right to marry those we love. We value the right to be yourself, wholly and fully. We value the right to choose and we value the idea of fighting what you believe in, even when everyone older than you is telling you you’re what’s wrong with the country.

You say we have more opportunities to succeed than those before but we don’t ‘appreciate’ them. We are a bitter generation. You can finance a boat for 3.9% but you have to pay back college tuition plus 8.9%. We may have more opportunities but those opportunities cost money we don’t have.

You say you can see why we’re called ‘Generation,’ but we’re not Generation Y, we’re Millennials and we do feel entitled. We were promised a strong economy and inexpensive education. We had the world in our hands and we were going to make it better. And it was ripped away from us because of incompetent rulers, illegal wars, and greedy corporations and we get blamed for it. Crime has gone down, abortion and unintended pregnancy has lowered, people are living longer, people are more educated, people are less likely to die from violent crime or diseases, yet my generation is touted as the worst generation and for what? Crimes that we’re accused of that happened before we could even wipe our own ass? We were raised better, and we were raised in a society that treated, and continues to treat, us like garbage. And we are done. We are not sorry, we did nothing wrong.

“With its rich archaeological and historical record, the Aztec empire provides an intriguing opportunity to understand the dynamics and structure of early states and empires. Rethinking the Aztec  brings together leading scholars from multiple disciplines to thoroughly synthesize and examine the nature of goods and their movements across rural and urban landscapes in Mesoamerica. In so doing, they provide a new way of understanding society and economy in the Aztec empire.”

SENDING GOOD VIBES TO ALL OF YOU TAKING AP EXAMS!!

⚗Chemistry ♻️Environmental Science 🛋Psychology 💻Computer Science 🇪🇸Spanish 🎨Art History ⚛️Physics 🖊English 🇯🇵Japanese ⚖️Government and Politics 🇨🇳Chinese 🇩🇪German 🇺🇸US History 🖌Studio Art 🔬Biology 🎼Music Theory 📐Calculus 🇫🇷French 🇮🇹Italian 💱Economics 🌎World History 📈Statistics 🙆Human Geography 🇪🇺European History 📜Latin

Hope you all get 5s! 💯💯💯

2

2/100 Days of Productivity

4.5.16

Today was majorly productive - I’m still a bit behind but I got so much done! The book in the middle “the Cold War” is one I’ve been reading on the train the past few days to try and expand my knowledge for history, but in a more novelised way because I find I take in information from books and textbooks differently. I also managed to finish f my ecologist notes as well as type up some history work and convert them all to pdf’s to print (Never let pdf converting build up - I had over forty files to convert) Also during the day I managed to cram in planning a history source question and a Ecologism question to consolidate some of my knowledge. Late tonight I think I’m going to do some more economics and maybe start writing my history questions and I’m super looking forwards to tomorrow because it’s Starbucks Thursday’s!! :)

The Invention Of Prices

It used to be that anytime you wanted to buy something, you had to haggle. The store owner and the potential buyer started out at different prices, and through negotiation – or argument – came to agree on a single price. And that single price would be different for each buyer who walked into the store. The Quakers were not fans of this. Since everyone was equal, according to their religious beliefs, it was un-equal to charge different prices. So they invented the price tag. In the mid-1800s in Quaker stores, each item in the store cost exactly the same thing, no matter how rich you were or how good you were at haggling. Revolutionary!

“The decline of organized labor in recent decades is often attributed to globalization, financialization, and right-wing politics. But the compelling essays in this important volume show that the limits to workers’ collective power stem more basically from the concerted anti-union efforts of their employers dating back to the nineteenth century. Chronicling how capitalists have effectively forged a class-conscious social movement ‘against labor,’ these critical case studies make a vital contribution to the history of capitalism while illuminating the challenges facing workers today.”

With so many people from around the world talking about there experiences in school, it can be a little confusing to figure out what it all means. All states have different standards so things can vary a lot, but here’s a general guide to help you figure out what the heck your American friends are talking about.

Read on after the cut to learn more about grade levels, classes, high school, college, and a lot more!

Keep reading

Terrified.

I have to be “highly qualified” in order to hold my position. Like, that’s a real thing in education. I was required to take credits in US history, world history, non-western history, economics, anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and geography, not to mention all of my credits in education. But apparently, $250 million in donations and no actual experience in public education makes you highly qualified to be Sect. of Education. Shame on the Senate.

grfygrf  asked:

I'd argue that Paul Ryan is pretty frickin' brainless given that the perfect conditions for a political revitalization were dropped into his lap and he still decided to stick to the party line and basically screw his entire future into oblivion by clinging to this faint and terrible concept of complete health care destruction. Honestly, he deserves to watch all his bridges burn before his eyes...

Paul Ryan is a fraud. He’s been propped up by a political press that is desperate to invent a Republican who isn’t cruel and indifferent to suffering. He’s a liar, he’s not very smart, and he’s sort of the House version of John McCain: like McCain claims to go against his party on principle (he never does), Ryan has this manufactured image as a policy wonk who studies economic theory and history to inform his positions (he doesn’t; his ‘education’ begins and ends with Ayn Rand).

So it isn’t surprising that he’s been a massive failure as a leader and a policy maker, because he is incapable of being either of those things.

In the early decades of the twentieth century, a battle developed among economists, especially in the United States, that shaped the future of economic knowledge and its relation to nature and the material world. The battle was to have important consequences for the way questions of natural resources entered democratic debate. One side wanted economics to start from natural resources and flows of energy, the other to organise the discipline around the study of prices and flows of money. The battle was won by the second group, who created out of the measurement of money and prices a new object: the economy. In the emergent profession of academic economics, many economists were concerned to measure the exhaustion of the earth. In the United States, leading economists like Richard T. Ely, a founder of the American Economics Association, and his student Thorstein Veblen, whose theory of capitalism as a system of ‘sabotage’ we encountered in Chapter 1, became preoccupied with questions of natural resources and their depletion, with excess or ‘conspicuous’ consumption, and with the dissipation and conservation of ‘energy’. Economics, in their view, was to be a study not of the laws of markets but of material flows and resources. These men lost the battle to shape the discipline they helped found to the rival forces of the price theorists, led by men like Irving Fisher. Economics became instead a science of money; its object was not the material forces and resources of nature and human labour, but a new space that was opened up between nature on one side and human society and culture on the other – the not-quite-natural, not-quite-social space that came to be called ‘the economy’.
—  Timothy Mitchell - Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil

Guys, here’s a fun tip, if you really want to get ahead in your AP classes over the summer (even though I know most of you procrastinate in ridiculous amounts, like me) if you just google the name of your AP class, for example, AP Biology and click the APCentral/Collegeboard link it will take you to the “Professionals” or teachers page and there are course reviews and course guide PDFs on there that basically tell you everything in the course and it’s pretty great. 

Help me choose! :D

I might have gotten a bit inspired by @ceridwenofwales Naming a character vote (btw I love the name Moyra even though I completely forgot to vote) and now I want my fellow heathens to help me pick something that’s going to influence the remaining part(s) of Efterfest.

So, as has already been revealed both Ivar and Fredrika are university students. Ivar studies psychology BUT we don’t know what Fredrika studies.

And so, I have made a list of the programs she might be attending. The descriptions are based on information found at two different universities websites + a little bit of my own experience. There are no medical programs on the list because that would have changed her interaction with both Ivar and Ubbe. Reblog, reply, send an ask etc - vote however you like :) Last day is Sunday.

Astronomy: Provides the student with knowledge in physics, astronomy, programming and mathematics. Students study the physical processes of the universe; including both our own solar system and the larger structures of the universe. Could lead to so so many different kinds of jobs.

Criminology: The scientific study of the nature, extent, causes, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior. It studies crime on both individual and social levels. It is an interdisciplinary field that involves the research put forth by scholars of law, social anthropologists, psychologists etc. Would probably lead to work as an investigator / analyst at some authority or to research in the field.

Historical studies*: Provides basic knowledge about the historical development of societies, how different world views came to be and different ideas during various historical periods. Students learn to understand, explain and question events and idea; both then and now. Could also lead to many different kinds of job.

International relations* and economic history: Provides insight to how the current international cooperations came to be, what functions they fill and how they are structuralized. It also gives an overview of financial historical development, both in Sweden and globally. I’m thinking she’d go to work for some sort of international organization.

Linguistics*: Analysing language and its form, meaning and context. Includes both semantics (truth conditions) and pragmatics (how context influences meaning). She’d choose a “speciality” but I’m not sure yet what that would be.

Language, German*: She’d be taking classes to learn German fluently and it would lead to a career in tourism or to language research.

Philosophy* and linguistics*:  The first two years consists of 60 points in philosophy and 60 points lingustics; the last year each student chooses one of the areas and writes their final paper on it. I haven’t really made up my mind yet but I’m thinking she’d go with linguistics.


The ones marked with stars are areas that I have dabbled in to various degrees, but please don’t be afraid to vote for the options without stars; I do love a challenge ;)

Since the story takes place in Sweden I’ll try to describe the Swedish school system rather than the American. 

The discovery of gold and silver in America, the extirpation, enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population, the beginning of the conquest and looting of the East Indies, the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black-skins, signalled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production…Force is the midwife of every old society pregnant with a new one. It is itself an economic power.
—  Marx - Capital Vol 1 Ch.31 1867