anonymous asked:

what do you think about remoraid and octilliery did someone ask about this?

Sit yourself down anon, because ol’ ommanyte here is about to get a bit ranty.

Don’t get me wrong, I love Octillery. Cephalopods are like my favourite animal group. And hey, remoraid is a pretty cool guy too, remoras are awesome. But the fallacy, the fucking insinuation, that a fish ‘evolves’ into an octopus rustles all 700 of my biology jimmies.

We’re not only taking about this bizzare vertebrate to invertebrate cross , but a split even further back on the evolutionary tree, in relation to embryological development (molluscs are protostomes, i.e. when the gut forms in the embryo, the first hole that forms becomes the mouth, where as in us and echinoderms (starfish etc), the deuterostomes, the first hole becomes the anus lol) 

And this isn’t the only instance of such biological blasphemy in the pokemon world. Clamperl, again a mollusc, is supposed to ‘evolve’ into one of two fish, again an invertebrate/vertebrate cross.

Do I have an explanation for this? Maybe. Perhaps scientists in the pokemon world are actually a bit shit, and perhaps we are just exposed to psuedoscience and myths a lot because we literally play the games from the perspectives of children… but I think these ‘evolutions’ so to speak could be explained by a mixture of poor observation and folklore.

Here is my real world example. Meet the Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) and the Goose Barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes)

Back in the day, people thought that the geese literally grew and were born from these barnacles

Haha what idiots right? Birds hatching from barnacles lol. But don’t be too quick to judge. Barnacle geese are migratory, flying to the arctic circle from temperate latitudes, such as  the british isles every summer to breed and raise their young. Europeans at the time would never actually witness the geese breeding and rearing chicks  the old fashioned eggy bird way, but just manifesting in large numbers to do goose stuff every winter. Perhaps they grew and matured under the sea as barnacles during the summer, and hatch and flock as geese when winter approached. The barnacles do look like geese heads, and for lack of a better explanation for all these birds materialising, the connection was made and stuck fast, forming the folklore that gives both the geese and the barnacles their names today. 

So, we have here a  real life example of people thinking invertebrates could grow into vertebrates. Could the case of Remoroid -> Octillery, and Clamperl -> Gorebyss/Huntail be a similar case of association and lack of observation? Perhaps Remoraid are migratory, and move away from coastal habitats just when Octillery juveniles hatch and appear. Maybe Octillery predate on mature remoraid. Both instances could result in remoraid being there in one moment, but not the next. If an octillery is there in the habitat to take it’s place then perhaps the connection could be made between the two.

And what of Clamperl? I always thought that the pink ‘pearl’ could in fact be a fish egg, with the bivalve clam pokemon a separate entity (perhaps the blue stuff?) Both huntail and gorebyss could lay their eggs within the clam, and upon maturation of the eggs  it appears that the clam itself has turned into the respective fish pokemon (both gorebyss and huntail could lay eggs in the same clam, but pheromones from adult conspecifics, i.e. from the deep sea scale/tooth are needed for the specific fish pokemon species to hatch? I dunno, that’s a story for another time lol) 

It could be that these evolutionary stories perpetuate in the pokemon world because biologists are actually terrible at making observations of pokemon life histories (well like they did think that there were only 150 pokemon and now there are like over 700, or the relatively recent discovery of baby pokemon - I know this is all game mechanic stuff, but still), or maybe, as a ten year old, you still believe that remoraid grow into octillery because your grandmother told you such stories when you were a tot, but in my head anyway, these associative myths can explain these ‘evolutions’.

(I know it doesn’t explain trainers who raise these pokemon in isolation from the wild but shhhhhh) 



I don’t know if I’m looking at this wrong or what, but do adult starfish start developing from one lateral point of the larva? Like, if I grew a tumor from my left hip that developed into an organism with a completely different symmetrical plane from my own, and then my body just sort of got absorbed into that new growth?

Suggestions Please

EYYY Someone asked me for 5 Science Facts. (Thank you anon.)

What subjects should I do? I wanna give some useful information that you could use every day. I mean I can just talk about echinoderms (starfish like things).

1) I got 1 on sleep. + Medicine
2) Maybe do one on beauty/Evolution
3) Anatomy? Maybe I’ll talk about the spine.
4) Maybe ecology
5) ?????

Some suggestions?

Oskar Hertwig & his amorous echinoderms.

During the ancient philosophy era, Aristotle believed that within the sperm, the soul called ‘pneuma’ was carried and that the egg was merely a place for the pneuma to get to work and form new life out of the materials available (menstrual blood to be more specific). 

At this point, you were sort of a ‘beginner soul.’ You were something that can eat and develop: a vegetative soul. By the 40th day (which is the point at which the embryo develops sense organs), Aristotle hypothesized that you had a higher soul status and you were no longer merely a gloop of static soul. This is the point at which Aristotle coined that the soul reaches its climax of formation: the point at which we are superiror to animals and the word sperm no longer caused much amusement. 

From this, many other wonderful theories developed, such as the homunculus theory-a tiny human that was carried in the sperm waiting to grow until it entered the woman’s egg.  

This is pretty much what people believed until 1875 when German scientist, Oskar Hertwig from the Universty of Jena performed an astonishing experiment under his microscope. Generally, people believed all kinds of hypotheses because they had never seen the process work. Scientists knew that sperm needed to enter a woman’s body, but what is happening inside? How are humans forming at this point? 

Oskar to the rescue!

Oskar was quite the smartsie by using the sea urchin to observe fertilization for two reasons:

a) Sea urchins are transparent

b) Sea urchins have external fertilization (they have gonopores on top of their bodies where they release their gametes (sperm or eggs))

This made the visualization portion of Oskar’s Experiment quite easy. Because of his stoutness, Oskar was able to observe a sperm swim its way into the nucleus of an egg and watch both the sperm’s nucleus and the egg’s nucleus fuse into one.

This was it: FERTILIZATION! The long sought-after question had been answered by Oskar Hertwig and his precious echinoderms after six thousand years of civilized mankind! 

To view what Oskar Hertwig was able to see under his microscope, here is a video that shows the amazing events of cell division that led to the fusing of one nucelus: 

Island Livin’

After the conclusion of our island hopping cruise, we stayed on Isla San Cristobal with host families and attended school at the Galapagos extension of USFQ for the next two weeks.

Island life generally consisted of eating a lot of fried foods, snorkeling or swimming on most days, getting used to sea lions being the island equivalent of squirrels, and devouring an ice cream cone or two everyday. We had lecture once a day learning about different marine communities, sustainable fishing practices and conservation of marine ecosystems. We also conducted a marine research project (ours being about the difference in abundance and diversity of echinoderms in heavily human-impacted areas and less impacted areas), registered for next semester’s classes, wrote a grant proposal, took an underwater field exam, sadly watched Wisconsin lose to Duke, and partied it up with the GAIAS kids (fellow students at the college). Overall I enjoyed my time on the island, but I realized I’m not cut out for island life (too hot and too sandy). After our two weeks were up, we departed from the airport on Santa Cruz (not before we had a farewell ice cream treat) back to our homes in Quito.


New in Pubmed: Evolution of a novel nuclear receptor subfamily with emphasis on the member from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Evolution of a novel nuclear receptor subfamily with emphasis on the member from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Gene. 2015 May 5;

Authors: Huang W, Xu F, Li J, Li L, Que H, Zhang G

Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to the transcription factor superfamily that regulates development, homeostasis, differentiation, and reproduction in metazoans via control of gene expression. Recently, rapid advances in genome projects on various metazoans have provided new opportunities for studying the evolution and function of NRs. Typically structured NRs are divided into six subfamilies. Here, the gene for a typically structured NR (CgNR8A1) was cloned from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. However, this novel receptor could not be assigned to a known NR subfamily. By data mining, nine other CgNR8A1 gene homologs were identified in metazoans such as cnidarians, mollusks, annelids, echinoderms, hemichordates, and cephalochordates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors belonged to a novel NR subfamily, hereafter designated as NR8. Evolutionary analysis revealed that the NR8 subfamily was phylogenetically the third-oldest NR subfamily, and it originated from a common ancestor of Eumetazoa; several gene loss events occurred independently in ancestors of vertebrates, ecdysozoans, and platyhelminths, which do not have NR8 members. Furthermore, the function of CgNR8A1 was investigated to provide an insight into the functions of this novel NR subfamily. A nuclear localization signal peptide, GKHRNKKPRLD, was identified in CgNR8A1, and a recombinant full-length protein of CgNR8A1 was localized in the nuclei of HeLa cells. The mRNA expression profile of CgNR8A1 suggested that it might be involved in the embryogenesis of C. gigas. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that CgNR8A1 binds strongly to conserved DNA core motifs DR0, DR2, and DR4 and weakly to DR1, DR3, DR5, Half, and Pal0. In summary, the novel NR8 subfamily identified in this study improves our understanding of NR evolution, and the functional analysis of CgNR8A1 provided further insights into the functions of NR8A1s.

PMID: 25956376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

from pubmed: crassostrea gigas
Mexico seizes 17 tons of protected sea cucumbers

Mexico seizes 17 tons of protected sea cucumbers

CANADA: Federal police seized 17 tons of sea cucumber, a protected species of marine echinoderm, the Mexican government said.
The contraband was intercepted in two different police operations in the cargo area of Cancun International Airport. The consignments were bound for Hong Kong and Florida, respectively.
In the first case, police officers inspected a truck after the crew presented documents…

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