January 20, 2017 - Cordilleran Flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis)
These flycatchers are found in the western United States east of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges, as well as in central Mexico. Their diet is mostly small insects and other invertebrates, as well as some seeds and berries. Hunting from a perch, they chase and catch their prey in the air or pick it from foliage. Their nests are built in the forks of small trees, stumps, the roots of upturned trees, or sometimes in structures such as bridges. Females incubate the eggs and both parents feed the chicks. These birds are almost indistinguishable from their close relatives, Pacific-slope Flycatchers, and both were previously considered the same species, known as the Western Flycatcher. Slight differences in measurements and song are the only way to tell the two apart.
The Owens River runs east of the Sierra Nevada in California, carrying water south out of the mountains. Most of the water is eventually pilfered by Los Angeles, but some portions of it do flow. Here’s that lovely desert river, freezing in December. Also some nice shots of the range towering overhead.
A paragraph is a group of sentences about one topic. Most paragraphs have a topic sentence that states the main point and several sentences that explain, illustrate, or prove it. The five most common paragraph structures can be seen as shapes in which the widest part is the topic sentence.
Type 1: The Upside Down Triangle
Topic Sentence first (most common)
Just as the triangle tapers off to a point, the paragraph tapers from the main idea to supporting details.
This is most often used in informative writing. The author states a general idea and then develops it with detailed information.
Niagara Falls has an irresistible lure for daredevils. A motley procession of foolhardy men have dared death by dancing above the chasm on a tightrope or plunging over the cataract in a barrel. Others have tried to swim the current and to shoot the rapids in boats.
Type 2: The Triangle
Topic Sentence last (second-most common)
In this paragraph structure, authors present details first and then make the more general statement about the topic.
Authors most often use this paragraph structure for one of three purposes:
To organize the details into a summary statement,
To present convincing details that lead readers to accept a more general claim than they might otherwise, or
To create suspense as they build to a climax.
Costs were low that year and output was high. There was a good man for every job and the market remained firm. There were no losses by fire. All in all, it was the best year in the company’s history.
Type 3: The Diamond
The second sentence is the topic sentence
The first sentence most often serves as a transition. All other sentences develop the general idea expressed in the second sentence.
Authors use this structure for one of three reasons:
To vary their style,
To provide a smooth transition from the last paragraph, or
To point out the relationship between ideas presented previously and those presented in this paragraph.
There are deer in abundance here. The whole area is great country for hunters and fishermen. There are bear, occasional mountain lions and coyotes. To the east the streams are full of trout and there are ducks, geese and a few pheasants.
Type 4: The Hourglass
First and last sentences are topic sentences
Authors use this paragraph structure for one of two purposes:
To emphasize or clarify an important idea, in which case the two topic sentences make similar statements, or
To present two opinions, to point out advantages and disadvantages or to show how two things are similar and/or different, in which case there is usually a signal word that alerts the reader to a change in perspective.
Example of First Purpose:
Glaciers change the surface of the earth. They grind heavily as they move slowly along, much like fresh cement creeping down a gentle slope. They dig great holes in the sides of mountains and rub away the faces of rocks. A glacier pushes masses of loose soil and rock ahead of it. The loose soil and rocks form ridges when the ice melts or stops moving. A moving glacier also makes a valley wider as it pushes down through it. The earth looks quite different after a glacier has passed by.
Example of Second Purpose:
Penicillin is one of the greatest wonder drugs. It has saved thousands of lives already and will save many more in the future. But it has no effect whatever on the bulk of the ills of man and beast. Good as penicillin is, it is certainly not a cure-all.
Type 5: The Square
There is no topic sentence
All sentences contribute to the main idea which the author expects the reader to provide.
This type of paragraph structure is used most often to describe, to list, or to show the sequence of events.
The range of the Mule Deer is usually east of the Sierra Nevadas. It is the largest of the North American deer, sometimes weighing almost 400 pounds. The name has been given to the species because of the long ears and the mule-like tail. Owing to its rather large antlers, it is a valuable game animal.
…a unique species of duck, that is the sole member of the monotypic genus Pteronetta. Hartlaub’s Duck is a resident breeder in equatorial West and Central Africa, from Guinea and Sierra Leone east through Nigeria to South Sudan, and south to Gabon, Congo and Zaire. Hartlaub’s duck to be placed with the dabbling ducks, but recent analysis of mtDNA sequences of the cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes, suggest that it belongs to a distinct clade (mabye even a subfamily) with the blue-winged goose. Hartlaub’s duck gets its species and common name in commemoration of the German naturalist Gustave Hartlaub.
Just how dry is it in the California mountains? These photos truly says a thousand words. The implications of these two images are truly immense! The California/Nevada border has been superimposed on these images. Lake Tahoe and Mono Lake are the two dark spots in California on the east side of Sierra.
My brother, a collegiate distance runner, and I are going to tackle an out-and-back of the High Sierra Trail, which runs West to East across the Sierra Nevada mountains - nearly 130 miles of High Sierra travel - in six days.
Our turnaround point will be marked by a summit of Mt. Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous US; we’ll bag a couple more peaks along the way.