earth's layers


Towers of the Golden Gate bridge barely peak above the fog at Sunrise

How Humans Change Space Itself

It’s no surprise that humans influence the surface of our planet, but our reach can go farther than that. Humans affect space, too.

We know storms from the sun can naturally change the space environment around Earth, which can have an impact on satellites and power grids.

Scientists now know that Cold War era nuclear tests in the 1950s caused similar effects.

Particles around Earth are organized into layers known as radiation belts. These 1950s tests created a temporary extra layer of radiation closer to Earth. 

The effects of this could be seen all around the world. Aurora appeared at the equator instead of the poles, utility grids in Hawaii were strained, and in some cases, satellites above test sites were affected. 

Some types of communications signals can also affect Earth’s radiation belts

Very low-frequency waves, or VLFs, are used for radio communications. They are often used to communicate with submarines, because these waves can penetrate deep into the ocean. 

The waves can also travel far into the space environment around Earth. When these waves are in space, they affect how high-energy particles move, creating a barrier against natural radiation.

The outer edge of this radio-wave barrier corresponds almost exactly the inner edge of Earth’s natural radiation belts – meaning it could be human activity that at least partly shapes this natural radiation around Earth.  

For more NASA sun and space research, visit and follow us on Twitter and Facebook.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space:

Region Generator

“What, my homeland? Oh, don’t get me started! Where should I begin?”
Follow the directions below to generate the outline of a marvellous, far-away land, and interpret as you see fit.

Geography and Climate (Roll 1d12):
1. A layer of earth and moss scraped across bedrock
2. Dry soil heaped in ever shifting dunes
3. Rocky shores and chilly wind
4. Towering mountains
5. Great climbing hills and sloping valleys
6. Plains stretching beyond the horizon
7. Lowlands pocked with lakes and rivers
8. Fire spewing fissures
9. Deep canyons and deeper caves
10. Dripping forests
11. Scrubby tundra
12. Rugged, tangled evergreens

History (Roll 2d6):
2 -4. Passed from warlord to warlord
5 - 6. Total isolation
7. A slow cultural takeover
8 - 10. Unwavering religious dogmatism
11-12. An unending tug-of-war between factions

Noteworthy Animal (Roll 2d6; if either die shows 1 the creatures are especially large; a 6 means they are prolific; doubles means they are magical in some way):
2 -4. Slinking carnivores
5 - 6. Soaring creatures
7. Stampeding herds
8 - 10. Chattering, dexterous beasts
11-12. Glittering insects

Current Events (Roll 2d6; doubles means there is active conflict):
2. A very valuable natural resource has been found there recently
3-4. A new religion has taken root
5-6. Natural disasters have been common in recent years
7. A benevolent leader has united the people
8-9. A contagious disease is ravaging the population
10-11. Industry has increased recently
12. A religious crusade is beginning

Local Cultures (Roll 1d12 1d4 times):
1. A large people
2. A posh people
3. A nature loving people
4. A diminutive people
5. A warlike people
6. An industrious people
7. A water-dwelling people
8. A reclusive people
9. A festive people
10. A socialist people
11. An oppressed people
12. An ancient people

Sights Worth Seeing (roll 1d12)
1. Vampire falls
2. The Sinkhole
3. The Dead Kahn’s Temple
4. The Stepping Stones
5. The Giant’s Teapot
6. The Green Vortex
7. The Harvest Festival
8. March of the Dead
9. Sunrise Pass
10. Mushroom Hole
11. The Church Below the Earth
12. The Crimson Rain Ceremony


MIlky way pivots over the Santa Ynez Mountains

A Long List of Ways to Spiritually Protect Yourself

(Updated from this old list here.)

Shielding is a practice entirely built on your intention–if you want an eternal shield, you can have it. If you believe in your shield, it will be there. There are many ways that are incredibly powerful with just the slightest trust and a little bit of practice. As soon as possible, start to practice shielding and methods of spiritual protection, since practice, along with your intention, will create the most powerful shields. 

Also, you can never shield to much. It’s amazing and very empowering to have layer upon layer of shielding, and the energy and time you put into shielding will really save you a lot of energy and time in the future. Even just walking around, through crowds, cities, etc, drains your energy–negative energy is everywhere, and consciously seeking only the energy for your best and highest good will really, truly, and completely empower you. 

You can shield from anything and everything, just make sure to allow in things for your “best and highest interest/good.” ShCast every shield with this affirmation. This allows what people would consider “negative” emotions to still come through, so you can live a balanced life, since not all emotions that are considered negative actually are. This affirmation effectively only allows things that raise or balance your vibration, and help you to spiritually evolve. It won’t cut you off from anything necessary. Shields themselves will never overwhelm or smother you, since they are meant solely for your needs and will always let in positive energy. Here are some simple methods to begin shielding, but you can always adopt them with your own needs and intentions! Do what works for you, just make sure to shield when practicing spirit or energy work of any sort. 

Robe of White Light:

  • Focus for a moment on calming yourself, and once you have a clear mind, imagine a nice fluffy robe around you (I always imagine one like in the game Journey) made of white and protective light. This is the universe’s energy, and nothing ill can penetrate it once it is surrounding you.
  • It is recommended to repeat once or twice a day to maintain the shielding.
  • You can also use the affirmation of “I call upon a robe of loving and protective white light, knowing that it will protect me from all energy not in my highest interest. This robe protects me with the power of the Universe/Source/God.”

Guardian Protection:

  • Ask your guardian spirits (either aloud or through your mind) to protect you.
  • Always command that the guardians who help that they “come in light.” And if not, say they must leave. You don’t even have to know their name, but if they aren’t here to help, then they shouldn’t be around you. So just command this and all with ill intentions will be forced to leave.
  • Call on them for a need by need basis.

Auric Hardening:

  • Imagine your aura (trust whatever color you see in your mind’s eye), and then imagine it hardening, like it’s calcifying around you. It can get as hard as a rock, or like armor.
  • This can sometimes push away any energy exchanges, so you could feel more distant from positive interactions too. So, it’s best used when a threat is around
  • Usually lasts between 4 hours-2 days, depending on the strength of your intention.

Sigil warding:

  • Draw with a pen, marker, or with the tip of your finger (if you don’t need visible lines) a sigil with the intention of protecting yourself. A sigil is most basically an energetic line (or series of them) with an intention. The lines hold the energy and magnify the intention.
  • Here are examples
  • A post on sigil crafting

Shielding with Intention and the Universe:

  • Calm yourself with a short breathing meditation, then focus on what you intend to shield-yourself, another, or a place.
  • Imagine casting a ball of light towards the designated target, with the intention of allowing the Universe/Source to channel through you and shield whatever you intend to.
  • Just watch and observe as the shield is built, knowing that it is fully fueled by the energy of the Universe and will stay there, and stay strong, until the shield is released consciously by you.
  • You can specify this shield for certain purposes, like to only keep a spirit out, or to keep all negative spirits out.

Reiki Shielding and Protection:

  • In Usui Reiki, there is a technique your Reiki Masters should have taught you about warding and cleansing the room in white light. Channel Reiki energy to do this.
  • If you are attuned to Reiki II, you should know the 1st symbol and that it can be used to stop all energy that is not in your highest good from coming towards you, working as an effective shield when the symbol is called on.
  • You need to be properly attuned to Reiki for this.

Bubble shielding:

  • Similar to the white light or shielding with intention, but focusing on making and empowering a bubble around you.
  • Replenish this as often as possible, since this is dependent on your own care.
  • Can be in an oval or a sphere shape. If this is hard to get a hang of, then try just fitting it a couple inches away from your body, similar to auric hardening.

Waterfall shielding:

  • A bubble shield with the intention of existing on top of an underneath bubble shield. 
  • Focus on this shield and set the intention of having it move around like a waterfall. This way, someone sending negative energy has a very small chance of hitting the same place twice.

Elemental shielding:

All of these are built with a specific intention and visualization of the shield. Time around such element used will strengthen the shield, or a conscious meditation to draw the energy towards you and the shield.

  • Fire shield: Envision burning fire, that will destroy all negative energy/energy not for your highest good, when it tries to enter your energetic space.
  • Water shield: Similar to the waterfall shield, but with the visual of actual water flowing that can wash away all negative debris or toxicity clinging to any form of bubble shield underneath it. 
  • Earth shielding: This one can block off positive energy too, since it works more like a layer of earth around the person. Though, it can also be envisioned to only grow/manifest around you in times of need or when you’re being attacked or faced with negative energy. It can also block your third eye from seeing outside. Earth shielding can also work as a means of grounding you, which doesn’t have negative effects (as long as you don’t neglect your upper chakras). If you ground yourself to the earth, and your are harmed or shaken by negative energy, you can replenish your energy from the earth.
  • Air shielding: Envision a fast current of air around you that sweeps away all negative energy or malevolent beings.
  • Light shielding: A bright white light that totally purifies all energy that contacts it, similar to the robe of white light. Different colored lights can work too, but they all have specific purposes that you should research first.
  • Ether shielding: Sometimes this works like a portal, transporting all malevolent energy to another place in the universe. Just make sure to set the intention that things in your best and highest interest aren’t affected, and that the travel won’t severely harm anyone who is transported by the portal (since sometimes negative energy can come from just someone in a bad mood). 
  • Chaos shielding: Not always considered an element, but with the idea of scattering any negative energy–the sudden increase in entropy raises the vibration to something more positive.
  • Shadow and smoke shielding: Imagining either element around you, mostly for cloaking and making your energy less obvious. This is great for astral projection and spiritual travel when you don’t want to be noticed. You can infuse the energy with an intention of how you want to be perceived, like if a threat comes, then you can suddenly raise this shield and make the smoke cause you to seem dangerous, scaring off the opponent. 

Halo shielding:

  • Imagine a series of halos that spin quickly around you, moving to knock away negative energy if it approaches your space. This can be inside or outside of a bubble or light based shield.

Protection charms and enchanted objects:

  • Work made by you, when you have a lot of experience, in creating a sigil charm or enchanted object meant for protection. This can also be from someone who has passed down a family protection amulet (just research it and bathe it in light to clear any possible negative energy on it), or from an experienced energy worker making protection amulets, charms, or objects. 
  • Some are religiously charged, like crosses, pentagrams, etc. If this matches your belief, your belief will empower it. 

Saturday shopping with my family. While walking through the concrete jungle, I stumbled upon this little nook…a little bit of greenery just off the main sidewalk 🌿
Dress: SM2
Cardigan: earth, music, and ecology
Bag: axes femme
Everything else thrifted


Morning marine layer and sea of clouds viewed from the coast ranges, San Luis Obispo, Central California

Good day to you all! 🦊 Off to the park and the used bookstore to get my son some new picture books 📚My friend often saw me wearing these big waist belts and decided to get a couple for herself…but realized they didn’t suit her well so she gave them to me. Lucky! Everything is thrifted ✌🏻


Exploring the TNT Area of WV (Pt. 1)

Just north of Point Pleasant, West Virginia is 8,000+ acres that was once home to a US Army facility dedicated to the manufacturing of ammunition and explosives during World War II. The $45 Million project was only operational from 1942 to the end of the war in 1945 and employed around 3,500 people during the peak of operations. The explosives for safety reasons were stored in bunkers or “igloos” that were strategically scattered across the territory and hidden by a thick layer of earth to prevent being spotted from the air. The plant was disposed of shortly after the war and the surrounding land was utilized for a landfill, the Mason County Airport, an industrial park, and the McClintic Wildlife Management Area. This area is most famously known as the location of the first sighting of a cryptid known as “The Mothman” in November 1966. During the late 70’s a fisherman reported red water seepage at the site and in 1981 TNT, DNT,  and other contaminates from the WWII operations were discovered. In September of 1983 the site was included on the EPA’s National Priorities List making it eligible for the cleanup under the Superfund program. It was then listed as West Virginia’s top priority site and one of the top ten polluted in the entire country.

Off to Fukuoka to go see the Yanagawa Doll Festival! It’s a little cold this morning (early morning) so I’ve got my big red scarf on, but it’ll soon warm up and I think I should be fine the rest of the day :)
Dress (print): axes femme
Dress (green): earth, music, and ecology
Everything else thrifted

It’s hard to be funny this week.

I had a number of good intentions for the last five days: make headway on my NaNoWriMo project (I did not), finish beta reading for a friend (I did not), and draw some funny stuff for y’all (spoiler alert: I did not.)

Instead, I cried (a lot), panicked over my mother’s cancer treatment coverage (a lot), and called people misogynist racists lacking even a shred of human compassion (spoiler alert: I especially did this a lot.)

I was not very funny. Even now, the jokes I’ve made are the kind of “laugh in disbelief because hey, your friends all died in a plane crash, but look the life raft deployed just fine on the tarmac” sort of funny. I’ve already alienated one friend whose mother may have voted for Trump, and one family member who certainly voted for Trump, and perhaps if I make it to five people within the month that’ll fill up my punchcard and I’ll get a free latte.

Caption: a letter that will guarantee a lot of awkwardness in my future.

I’ve had people try to tell me it won’t be as bad, that he’s already changed his mind about preexisting conditions and gay marriage and aren’t we overreacting, give him a chance, let’s see how he actually governs. 

To which I say: if a man has spent the last year waving a knife in your face and telling the rest of the country he’ll stab you if they vote for him, and your country[’s very flawed electoral college system] says “go ahead, stab them, we actually vote for stabbing”, why on earth would you believe that man when he leans back and says “actually I’m good, no stabbing, even though I promised people with my nuts in a vice that I would stab you. Don’t sweat it.” (Admittedly this metaphor is a little on-the-nose.)

Many creative folks are pretty shaken right now. Good luck affording individual health care without the exchanges, right? Good luck convincing your employer to insure you without the mandate. Good luck hoping your state gives a shit about gay marriage, reproductive rights, but hey come move to the big city on the coast where this stuff is safe, and your vote will now count for 1/6th of a voter in Wyoming.

I chipped away at that shellacking of existential horror today a little. I cut off family, I went to my first protest, I did something to feel like I fought back in a way that wasn’t just passive-aggressive posts on Facebook. (Really more aggressive than passive. Think “YOU CHOSE THIS, YOU WROUGHT THIS ATROCITY ON ME AND MY COUNTRY, AND BY GOD I WILL BE SHRIEKING THIS IN YOUR EAR LIKE THE FURIES ON ORESTES FOR EVERY WAKING MOMENT OF THE NEXT FOUR YEARS.”

Caption: Furies screaming at Orestes and pointing to his mother, whom he stabbed. They are probably saying, “UNFRIEND ME, MOTHERFUCKER, I DARE YOU.”)


I did stuff today. Not fun stuff like drawing or writing, but stuff that felt like I am beginning to draw my line in the sand. A line that says the Electoral College is bullshit. A line that says Trump’s abhorrent stances were never state secrets, and for some they were incentives, for others an acceptable loss. A line that says my people are my people, and they are of many nations, faiths, races, genders, orientations, bodies, and they are my fucking people and if you want them you go through me.

A line that says I’m sorry I didn’t draw this sooner.

I don’t think it’s coincidence that when I came back home from a day of drawing my line, I felt like writing again.

Caption: the sign I made. It says “Tomorrow There’ll Be More of Us”, which is of course a Hamilton quote, and consequently my sign was absconded with by a Hamilton fan while I was on a bathroom break. Moral of the story: never leave your sign unattended. 

But I do hope it’s right. It feels like all around the country these lines are being drawn. People are saying, collectively, this is bullshit in so many ways, on so many levels, it is a tiramisu of bullshit and we are going to be on the right side of history. 

I hope there will be more of us.

I plan on making it a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Meeting You || Demon!AU


{I kind of got carried away with some, whoops} 


Jin had been sent on a mission from the big boss himself since he was the most trustworthy. Jin hadn’t had a clue why his boss wanted you so bad, after all, you were just a mundane, someone who’s life didn’t really matter. But, his boss wishes were his orders. 

Jin had monitored you (stalked you) and he figured out your daily patterns enough where he would “randomly” run into you. Now, Jin is very handsome so you never really minded when you would see him since he was nice to look at. As time went on he became bolder until he finally asked you on “a date”, which was really an opportunity to kidnap you. But, on that date, he realized what was so special and decided he would keep you for himself.  (wink wonk) 

Originally posted by strawberrie-kookie


Every demon had a special mate. A special someone who could make their evil ways, change. Except in the thousands of years that Yoongi was alive, Yoongi was alive he never once saw his mate. He soon came to the conclusion that you did not exists and everyone else was full of shit. 

All of the demons he knew had demon mates, only makes sense, so he figured his mate would be a demon as well. He was taken by surprise when the soul he wanted came with a sweeter than sweet smell. 

He moved across the library he was in when he gave you a smirk. Yoongi looked like the type of guy that you would steer clear of but today you felt a little more daring. 

“Do you read?” You asked. Yoongi nodded. “Who’s your favorite author?” 

“Call me boring but I like F. Scott Fitzgerald. I can really connect with him.” the part of his response was literal, though. Since Yoongi had the pleasure of taking his life so poor old Fitzgerald was alway with him. But, of course, you didn’t know that. 

Originally posted by remartins97


Desperate times called for desperate measures, which is why Hoseok and you had become fast friends. You needed money and you needed money fast. The easiest way you could think of was working in a strip club. You weren’t a stripper, all the time since you were the main bartender. 

You only worked on stage when a girl was MIA. One of the rare nights you were working Hoseok had decided to drop in, why not? Hoseok had seen you from the moment he entered the club, his eyes locked on your body. 

After you had finished your part, you made your way back to the changing rooms and then behind the counter. Hoseok slid up to the bar and struck up a conversation. But, before he left, he left you a napkin with his number on it. Hoseok and you started out as friends but things changed quickly, after all, who can resist Hoseok? 

Originally posted by 94seokk

Rap Monster/Namjoon: 

As the demon in charge in Hell, he had eyes on everyone and had the ability to see everyone’s soul. You had peeked his interest a couple time but he thought nothing of it. It wasn’t until he had noticed that your soul had changed. It wasn’t that you had committed any sin, it was that your mindset and personality changed. He couldn’t figure out why he felt a pull towards you. 

Namjoon hated the human world. He hated disorganization and that it exactly what Earth was. The seventh layer of Hell was more organized than Earth. Namjoon watched you go to work and back from work. Going to work you always looked happy but Namjoon could tell the mood change going home. 

You boyfriend was not a kind man even though you did everything for him. Namjoon quickly caught on and when you came home one day to find your boyfriend gone you were given a sense of relief. Namjoon had disposed of your boyfriend, hoping that you would go back to the way you were before. 

Namjoon watched for months after, making sure you were okay when he finally lectured himself and told himself to stop being a creeper. He walked into the cafe you worked at and struck up a conversation. 

“So, would you like to go on a date with me? I mean you don’t have to if you don’t want to,” Namjoon asked. 

It had been a while since you had fun so you figured why not, “I would like that.” 

Originally posted by bangthebae


You had met Jimin through mutual friends, which seems normal enough. You both were teens at the time when you started dating. Well, you were a teenager, Jimin was a couple thousand years old. 

“Come on, (y/n), you’ll like him. I promise,” your friend convinced. 

“You need to quit trying to set me up.” You muttered as you two made it closer to the park where you were going to be meeting Jimin. 

“Are you saying you wouldn’t like to go out with me? Have I faced rejection already?” Jimin said with a joking smile. You had become slightly embarrassed that he had heard you since you thought he wouldn’t have been able to hear you since he looked far enough away. 

“No, I didn’t mean it like that!” You tried to defend. You tacked on a giggle, trying to relieve yourself of some of the embarrassment. 

“it’s okay, I understand.” 

Originally posted by hoseokxx


Taehyung worked at the same club you and your friends favored. All of your friends had said how they thought he had a thing for you but you never really noticed. 

You ordered another round of shots for your friends and you when you finally noticed the look in his eyes. Since you were slightly intoxicated you have a little courage in you. So, when Taehyung came around with the drinks you waved him close to you. He leaned in and you whispered that he should meet you outside in a couple minutes. 

You pressed your body against him as you were trapped between the wall and him. His lips crashed on yours and you felt weird because you had yet to formally met the man you were making out with. 

“Hang on, what’s your name?” You asked as Taehyung pulled away. When he pulled away you could have sworn his eyes looked different but you blamed it on the alcohol. 

“Taehyung, what’s yours?” 

“(Y/N), now are we going to my house or yours?” You went for the straightforward approach. 

“A little eager, aren’t we.” 

Originally posted by jimin-bts-trashs


Jungkook attended the same university as you, and you had always thought he was hot but untouchable. He and his friends were basically the leaders of the biggest frat on campus if only you had known him and his friends were also the leaders of Hell. 

At the beginning of second-semester Jungkook’s frat decided to hold a party. You and your friends were requested to come while the rest of the students could show up if they wanted. When you heard that Jungkook wanted you there you became nervous.

 But somehow your nerves weren’t bad enough because you found yourself in their frat house, surrounded by strangers. 

“(y/n)! You came,” Jungkook sounded surprised.

“Well, I was requested to show up, after all. I can’t disappoint, now can I?” You teased. 

“Oh god, so you heard? Well, I’m glad you’re here anyway.” Jungkook said with a smile and looked down. 

Originally posted by dream-bts

{sorry for any/all errors}