early maps

Review of Power Rangers (2017)

Power Rangers is a 2017 superhero movie - a reboot of the original television series Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. One of the main characters - Billy Cranston, played by RJ Cyler - is autistic.

Analysis under the cut (spoiler free):

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Early twelfth century crusaders’ map of Jerusalem. The map celebrates the crusaders’ conquest of Jerusalem in the first crusade and represents Jerusalem as a round city full of churches and other religious sites. The crusaders held Jerusalem for less than a century, losing it again to Saladin’s army in 1187.

Sabino-Spots’ Guide to Traveling Hella Distances With Horses

This is my personal to do list when traveling various distances with horses. Enjoy.

One Hour - I don’t bother with leg protection, I stuff a haynet, which is usually more than enough to last my horse on the journey. IF you’re in doubt, pack a second net with a pre-loaded flake. Take a bucket of water just in case you break down, or if your horse gets thirsty, etc.

Two-Four Hours - this is where I start using standing wraps. These trips usually took me through some city of some sort and there was always stop and go, lots of turns, up and down inclines. Most gas stations have a hose spicket and will be happy to grant you access to them! These are fairly short trips so usually only 1 or 2 stops for gas. While the truck is filling, I’ll get the water and see if the horse needs a fresh hay net. I pre load 2 hay nets for these trips. These are very quick stops just to refresh, refuel and get back on the road.

Five-Eight Hours - This is where you need to take some extra care. Take coolers sheets and blankets for changing weather temps. Always check the temp in your trailer by observing the horse. Is he sweaty? Open more vents and windows if you can. If he’s fluffing and cold, apply what dressing is necesarry for the temp. Usually a sheet is plenty to keep them warm - unless there’s snow on the ground. Cooler and blanket for temps 20 and under, top vents closed, windows cracked just a bit for fresh air - literally about an inch. This is where I give up pre loading hay nets. I’ll pre load three, but my horses usually get bored of hay about 4-6 hours in - but it’s still there in case they want it. By this point, I’m traveling so far, I take however many bales I’ll need. I like to stop every couple of hours to offer water. I use a smaller bucket, it’s easier to tote, and if you’re offering water every 2 hours, they’re not going to get so thirsty that they need to drink 2 five gallon buckets of water. Of course you’ll probably have brought feed on this trip too.

9+ Hours - I do not recommend hauling this far without finding an overnight stable. It sucks. It sucks with two people driving, let a lone one. If you get tired behind the wheel, you’re putting more people in danger than just you and your precious cargo. These trips take a lot of planning, so start early. Plot your map, find the stables you’ll stay at over night. Do those stables have a place to house you? (some do!) Are you going to need to find a hotel? etc. Every two hours rule applies, as does a constant hay net. Again, don’t freak if they quit eating. Chances are, they’re either stressed or tired of eating hay.

Things to take with you
- Extra, pre filled hay nets depending on your distance.
- Extra halter, extra lead, extra trailer tie.
- Bailing twine and duct tape; in case stuff breaks or falls apart, it’s a quick fix.
- Water Bucket. If your horse is finicky about water, invest in a water tank to put in your trailer or go buy the 5 gallon buckets with lids at Home Depot, Lowes or Walmart, and store at leas 20g of water.
- Extra standing wraps and bandages
- First aid kit for you and pon
- Your horses papers. All of them. Registration if applicable, Coggins and Health Cert. Ag inspection sites are NO JOKE.
- Cooler, Sheet, Blanket.

If you want to walk your horse on a long trip every few hours, I suggest trying to find a horse stable or a fairgrounds that will let you walk your horse without the risk of a semi truck running up on your horse right next to an interstate. Some rest areas are quiet enough for the well broke horse, just remember there will be constant dogs and vehicles. I don’t walk mine on long trips. My horse is sometimes very spooky, and if your horse gets away from you and causes a wreck, you will be held responsible for all damages (at least in america). So just keep those things in mind.

When we stop on the longer trips, we’ll stop from 30 minutes to an hour to give the horses a break. We let them hang their heads out of the trailer and look around. They seem to enjoy it, and it gives them time to rest. We’ll open the trailer up as much as we can to let the trailer air out. If you have to feed your horse on the road, feed them breakfast and go feed yourself. It’ll give your horse plenty of time to eat -and- you too. I’d suggest BS’ing a little longer than that so your horse can digest as much as possible before hitting the road again.

Also, if your horse sits on his tail, buy a tail guard wrap thing. They’re worth the money and work super well. On long trips I use a slightly padded halter. My horse probably doesn’t need it but it makes me feel better.

If you don’t know how to wrap standing wraps and you have no one to teach you, use shipping boots.

If you’re transporting in a stock trailer, or otherwise “open” style trailer, use a fly mask to keep debris out of their eyes - always, even if it’s a short trip.

I think that about covers it.

Heinrich Bunting
Europa Prima Pars Terrae In Forma Virginis [Rare Variant edition]



Rare variant edition of Bunting’s map of Europe in glorious old color.
This striking version of the map appears to be a larger and more finely engraved edition than those which appear in the usual Hanover and Magdeberg editions, with additional placenames and the date 1548 in the lower right corner, which could reflect ackowledgement of the first appearance of the Munster edition of Europe as a Queen in his Cosmographia, although we have yet to find an explanation of the annotation (C.P. 1548). There is also no text on the vero.
Protestant theologian Heinrich Bunting’s map showing Europe as a queen is one of the most sought after anthropomorphic maps of the 16th Century. The depiction of Europe as a queen began in the 14th Century. Europe was named for princess Europa (Daughter of Phoenicia), who had been carried off and raped by Zeus. The earliest depiction of Europe as a woman is believed to be by the 14th Century Pavian Cleric Opicinus de Canistris for the papal court, then at Avignon. The woman represents the Mother Church, who is being seduced from the true path.
In 1537 the Tirolese cartographer Johann Putsch celebrated the Hapsburg rule over Europe by presenting a placid “Europa Regina” wearing Charles V’s Spain as a crown and Ferdinand’s Austria as a medal at her waist, representing the triumph of the Hapsburgs. The queen’s crown (Spain), orb (Sicily), and heart (Bohemia) form a triangle that directs the viewer’s eye away from eastern Europe toward the West. The British Isles are a shapeless blob perched near her shoulder. Her skirt is composed of the Baltics and Greece; Turkey and Russia are beneath her feet. Later editions of Europe as a queen were issued by Sebastian Münster, Heinrich Bunting, and Matthias Quad.

“The Little Mermaid Dark Ride”

For years the adventures of Ariel and her friends have been on and off the drawing board for a major dark ride attraction. In fact, an elaborate dark ride was announced for Disneyland Paris as early as the park’s Grand Opening celebration. In early maps, you can even see the land earmarked for the attraction near It’s a Small World. This iteration would have seen guests board suspended clamshell vehicles, (Peter Pan’s Flight, anyone?) and ride through Ariel’s story. That particular attraction still has not been built, but The Little Mermaid finally got her own dark ride, (albeit with a different ride system) in 2011 at Disney California Adventure. She also has her own land at Tokyo DisneySea, a stage show at Disney’s Hollywood Studios, and a clone of the dark ride anchoring Magic Kingdom’s New Fantasyland.

Art ©️ Disney


Happy Tolkien Week and an early happy Hobbit Day, friends!*

Did you know that the Dwarves of Middle-earth drew maps with East at the top?  Thrór’s Map is a great example, with lots of Old English runes to boot!  I spent some time examining the great red dragon Smaug, but I was fascinated most of all by the moon-letters.  Do you think these moon-letters could help me find a stash of neverending dandies?

* Hobbit Day, aka the birthday of Bilbo and Frodo Baggins and the day that determines when Tolkien Week is, is actually tomorrow, Sept. 22.  We are celebrating a day early because we have some other special photos lined up for tomorrow!


We have about TWENTY people signed up right now for this project and that is AMAZING!!!!

BUT since many more people expressed interest, we wanted to extend some time to set reminders and have as many people join as possible!!! We know the holidays were busy, so we are going to keep sign ups open until just after RDC3, February 28th!

To sign up, please email fannibaljournal@gmail.com with a) your address b) your social media (tumblr/twitter) c) whether you would be willing to ship a small package internationally! 

We will design the travel map during early March AND GET OUR SHARED JOURNAL GOING ON ITS ADVENTURES!!!! <3 

The size of Middle-earth

I’ve been doing some thinking about the parts of Middle-earth that lie beyond the map and events in the Lord of the Rings, in preparation for some fan art/fic projects. And I made an important realization today that the farther parts of Middle-earth are probably not as big as I had imagined.

The northwest region featured in LotR is, of course, based on Europe, and so it’s easy to imagine that it takes up about the same area as Europe – a small peninsula on the western end of a huge continent. On this view, Mordor would correspond roughly with Turkey. The lands beyond the Sea of Rhun would stretch out far, far past the map, just as Asia stretches far beyond the Black and Caspian seas. The implication of this is that the world-changing events of LotR are focused on a tiny corner of the world, with vast unknown realms beyond them.

The trouble with this is that there simply isn’t enough room for northern Endor (i.e. the continent of Middle-earth proper) to be as big as real-world Eurasia. We can see this if we look at Tolkien’s sketch map of the world from the Ambarkanta, his cosmological essay published in HoME IV:

The flat First Age earth is a disc, roughly the same distance from north to south as our world is. That means the east-west distance is the same – which makes it about half the width of our world. And in that width, we have to fit not only Endor (including Beleriand), but also Aman, the eastern continent, and two oceans. Compare that to a map of the real earth’s eastern hemisphere, in which Eurasia stretches almost all the way across:

If northwestern Middle-earth is Europe, Endor can’t extend past India. This is, interestingly, about the extent of classical and early medieval European world maps, when the extent of China, Siberia, and Southeast Asia weren’t known to European cartographers.

The Ambarkanta map was made before Tolkien had invented the Third Age, and he never created a revised world map that incorporated features east of the Blue Mountains. In the Atlas of Middle-earth, Karen Wynn Fonstad made a valiant attempt to insert this later geography into the Ambarkanta map’s framework:

Here we can see that Mordor is roughly at the midpoint of Endor, not in the west as we might assume from the Europe analogy. (A convenient base for ruling the world!) The lands covered by the LotR map make up over half of the northern section of Endor, and about a third of the total landmass.

The above maps are all from the flat-earth period of Middle-earth’s history. At the end of the Second Age, the world was made into a globe. This would require effectively doubling the surface area of the world. Much of this increase doubtless came in the form of added ocean, but it is an opportunity for Iluvatar to have expanded Endor to a more Eurasian size. However, the Numenorean settlements and Sauron’s realms in Middle-earth seem to have been only minimally disrupted by the rounding of the world, so it’s unclear how this would have been accomplished.

How can you tell no fucks are given?

When your descriptions of digital collections include:

“Mapping A Growing Nation” is neat because old maps are neat. I have a house full of reproductions because I’m a broke college student and real ones cost real money. Anyway, this collection contains Buell’s first map of the United States as a country free and independent from Britain. The focus is on early maps of the 50 US states as a whole, and only show one region to the public at a time due to limited space. The online exhibition is currently showing a few maps from the early east coast, but none specifically from Virginia. Which is sad, I picked up a neat reproduction last time I was in Jamestown and man did they like color. Hm. Okay, maybe this collection is more North East US than strictly East Coast. “Mapping A Growing Nation” is neat because old maps are neat. I have a house full of reproductions because I’m a broke college student and real ones cost real money. Anyway, this collection contains Buell’s first map of the United States as a country free and independent from Britain. The focus is on early maps of the 50 US states as a whole, and only show one region to the public at a time due to limited space. The online exhibition is currently showing a few maps from the early east coast, but none specifically from Virginia. Which is sad, I picked up a neat reproduction last time I was in Jamestown and man did they like color. Hm. Okay, maybe this collection is more North East US than strictly East Coast.


I chose the “Digital Papyri” collection because if you say you’ve never had an ancient Egyptian phase you are a lying liar who lies. Also, because screw Julius Caesar for burning the Library at Alexandria. Jerk. The collection was given to Harvard between 1901 and 1909 after being stolen from Egypt by the racist white men with money of the Egyptian Exploration Fund in exchange for the Semetic Museum buying membership. It’s got all sorts of neat stuff including Homer and Plato (because the Alexander the Great big jerkwad conquered most of the “known” *cough*European-centric*cough* world and spread Greek culture for because he was taught by Greeks in spite of him being Macedonian), the Gospels, and boring stuff like tax documents and receipts. Probably some grocery lists too, to be honest. It’s THE source for Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt studies.

As work advances in the CONSTRUCTING INCLUSIVITY studio, the UDBS is working to understand the issues related to food access in the city of Pittsburgh. The city’s topography and segregated neighborhoods can be noted as some of the larger barriers to food for residents. The Pittsburgh Post Gazette’s interactive site on Mapping Hunger notes that “Among mid-sized cities, Pittsburgh has one of  the highest percentages of people experiencing food insecurity.” The issue of accessibility across and between these neighborhoods through transportation increases the time and cost of getting food. You often see the articles about how Pittsburgh is an up and coming city with top restaurants to try and a lively bar scene, but these features don’t make food accessible for a large majority of the city. This is an early iteration of a mapping that highlights the “food deserts” defined by neighborhoods.

Legend of Zelda Breath of the Wild Theory

Theory 1


The Link that is being awakened is the Hero of Time.

No matter the timeline Link always has a bad ending.

Adult Timeline: Zelda sends Link back in time to relive his childhood leaving his world defenseless against Ganon.

Child Timeline: Link’s information gets Ganon sealed, however it’s well known that he feels remorse and becomes the Hero’s shade.

Finally we are left with the Fallen Timeline where The Hero of Time dies.  

Link is being awakened in a place called the Shrine of Resurrection. There is only one cannon timeline and game where the hero fails. The Hero of Time is being called back into action to save Hyrule and become the hero he was destined to be.

Theory 2


Where does Breath of the wild take place in the Zelda timeline? A popular question that has spanned multiple theories across the internet, some place this in-between OoT and WW while others are saying it’s after WW. A few of the crazier theories claim that they will be a second split in the timeline however; I believe that this game will be a unification of all the timelines thanks to the paradox of Link’s failure.

If we take a look at the map we can see that Nintnedo is incorporating different aspects of past Zelda games. Along the right side of the map you can see a similar map to the original Legend of Zelda for the NES. The middle portion of the map is Ocarina of Time map supported by the Temple of time in a relatively similar spot with Death Mountain behind it. Finally the left side of the Breath of the wild world map is early similar to Twilight Princess.

Why do the timelines combine into one?

The number one reason why all 3 timelines will combine is Ganondorf. At one point or another each reincarnation of the hero successfully defeats Gannon however it is shown throughout multiple games that he can be revived by his followers. What happens if Gannon and Ganondorf are separated from one another? Gannon is a representation of Demise hatred. In Wind Waker we learn that Ganondorf acted in behalf of his people even gaining some sympathy from Link and the players.

“Do you sleep still? Wait! Do not be so hasty, boy… I can see this girl’s dreams… Oceans… Oceans… Oceans… Oceans… Oceans as far as the eye can see. They are vast seas… None can swim across them… They yield no fish to catch… What did the King of Hyrule say?… That the gods sealed Hyrule away? And they left behind people who would one day awaken Hyrule? How ridiculous… So many pathetic creatures, scattered across a handful of islands, drifting on this sea like fallen leaves on a forgotten pool… What they can possibly hope to achieve? Don’t you see? All of you… Your gods destroyed you!”

Ganondorf resented the chosen people claiming the God’s favored them over his own this anger attracted Demise and the power of the Triforce. The same Gods that protected the people of hyrule viewed Ganondorf worthy of possessing a portion of their sacred treasure.

“Though this is not the end. My hate… never perishes. It is born anew in a cycle with no end!”

Demise placed a curse upon the land that no matter what happens he will return. The demon we see in the E3 trailer is not Ganondorf but Demise power manifesting once more without a human host. This power is so grand that is spans across multiverses causing each timeline to intertwine with one another.

The Oldman in Breath of the wild states that Gannon is hell bent on destroying the world Ganondorf never wanted to destroy the land of Hyrule he simply wanted to rule over it to give his people a fair chance at life.

The loss of the human host cause the curse to be unleashed once more creating a catastrophe so grand it effects the whole multiverse.

Theory 3

The Oldman

The top two theories out in the world is that the Oldman is either King Hyrule or Ganondorf. I am starting to lean towards the side that believes the Oldman is Ganondorf who has finally been exorcised of Demise’s curse. Ganondorf wants to rebuild Hyrule and in a way redeem himself from his past actions.

Theory 4


Alright the final part of my theory redemption. The hero of time is being revived to correct his failure and finally defeat Demise. The paradox caused by the hero’s death caused the timelines to split creating a multiverse, when Ganondorf/Gannon was defeated by the hero’s incarnations in all timelines it caused Demise’s curse to break free of its human host.

Without Ganondorfs influence Demise came back into the world with one purpose to destroy everything the Goddess Hylia fought for. Demise resurrection caused a ripple effect throughout the multiverse causing them to intertwine. This is why we will see aspects of Twilight Princess (Great bridge of Hylia) the Korok of Wind Waker and landmarks of the original game.

If the Oldman is truly Ganondorf he is seeking help from the one person he knows has the power to rid the world of Demise, the hero of time. Both Link and Ganondorf will be looking to redeem themselves in Breath of the wild by destroying Demise and bringing peace throughout Hyrule and possibly save the multiverse itself.

Breath of the wild could be the first game where all 3 entities that represent the Triforce will gather together to defeat a greater evil.