First…. Many Indigenous Nations have calendars which have
been counting the years for a very long time. I am aware that
the calendar of the Mohawk Indian Nation has been counting
the winters for over 33,120 years. This pre-dates the so-called
‘land-bridge’ of the Bering Strait theory, unless, of course, the
Bering Strait scientists decide to move their interestingly illusive
time period for “early migration” of Indians back to 40,000 years!
Many American Indian early histories tell of events that took
place on this Turtle continent (North America) long before any
so-called ice age. But, for political reasons, these histories
have been mostly ignored. You see, the Bering Strait, in truth,
is a theory that was born of the politics and propaganda of
early America. In the midst of the American 'Manifest Destiny’
social climate, the Bering Strait theory provided a 'scientific’
means to justify the taking of ancestral Indian lands. In short,
the mythical theory eased the conscience, as it was a way for
land hungry immigrants to believe that, because Indian people
were only 'recent inhabitants’ of this land , it was not really their
'homeland’. Therefore Indians were, in their minds, not any more
the 'original people’ of this land than they were. This was, and
still is, the political power of the infamous 'Bering Strait theory’.
The B.S. (Bering Strait) Myth
By John Two-Hawks
The Bering Strait Theory was made to make colonialism seem less like exploitation.
Palm-leaf manuscript dating from around 1260. The manuscript contains Jain texts and illustrations. Indian use of palm leaves for writing dates back millennia. The palm leaf medium combined with humid and hot weather means that much more of early Indian writing has been lost to the elements compared with, for example, papyrus from the Mediterranean.
What do you think the founding fathers favourite foods were?
Benjamin Franklin consistently asked his wife Deborah to ship him barrels of apples while he lived abroad:
“Goodeys I now and then get a few; but roasting Apples seldom, I wish you had sent me some; and I wonder how you, that used to think of everything, came to forget it. Newton Pippins would have been the most acceptable.” (letter from Benjamin Franklin in London, to Deborah in Philadelphia)
Franklin also had Deborah ship him barrels of cranberries both in England and France. Franklin helped introduce France to potatoes as a food source. At that time, the French believed potatoes to be poisonous. Franklin took part in a campaign to help the French embrace potatoes as an alternative to wheat after wheat crop failures caused a shortage. He was the guest of honor at a party thrown by French pharmacist Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, where every course of the meal featured potatoes. Benjamin Franklin also was the one who introduced tofu to the United States.
George Washington was very fond of cherries. George Washington was extremely fond of fish, served in many ways.He ate it almost daily, often at breakfast with the Hoe Cakes which, he loved. At the Mount Vernon table frequently were Mashed Sweet Potatoes, String Beans with Almonds, Steak and Kidney Pie, and Fish Muddle. He also loved a wide variety of fruits and nuts. He preferred simple meals over fancy ones.
John Adams supposedly ate pickles nearly every day. Others say his favorite food was Indian Pudding. But, according to David McCullough in John Adams, President Adams and gulped a tankard of cider as soon as he got out of bed every day.
In Holland Thomas Jefferson sampled waffles for the first time and loved them so much, he immediately bought a waffle iron. Chocolate caught his fancy. He was so amazed by ice cream he was the first to introduce it to the United States from France and was the first to serve it in the white house. “Bring a stock of macaroni, Parmesan cheese, figs of Marseilles…raisins, almonds, mustard…vinegar, oil and anchovies.” He as especially fond of fresh vegetables. He was particularly fond of olives, figs, mulberries, crabs, shad, oysters, partridge, venison, pineapple, and light wines. As well as, sweet potatoes, turnip greens, baked shad, Virginia ham, green peas, crab. He was very fond of Virginia sweet corn that he raised it in his Paris garden. We also cannot forget Macaroni and Cheese can we?
Dolley Madison, James Madison’s wife prepared many different types of ice cream. Madison’s meal usually consisted of, “Virginia ham, buttery rolls, apple pie, and cider.”
There’s no clear documentation talking about Alexander Hamilton and his favorite foods, however, it’s known that while dining with Jefferson and Madison, “The beef was a masterpiece that Hamilton praised extravagantly” and that “Hamilton positively exulted” at the sight of “the delicious vanilla ice cream that still seemed like a miracle for it was enclosed in a warm pastry, like a cream puff.”
James Monroe, like Thomas Jefferson, acquired a taste for French cuisine while serving abroad. Mr. Monroe is said to have loved this, and enjoyed dishes from his native Virginia.
“On the Monroe family plantation in Virginia…[Elizabeth Monroe] served many old Southern recipes, dishes her husband hand known from boyhood. One of the most famous, spoon bread, dates back to early Indian days…James Monroe, like his former teacher and mentor, Thomas Jefferson, was fond of Continental cuisines, but he was equally fond of the foods of his Virginia childhood…Chicken Fried with Rice…[was] used frequently by Elizabeth Monroe at the Monroe plantation, Oak Hill…Hot breads and biscuts were a way of life in James Monroe’s Virginia… ”
I have heard though, that Monroe’s favorite food was chicken.
“In the early 1600’s Indians on Roanoke Island marveled At the sudden appearance of a milk white doe. The sudden creature was the most beautiful they had ever seen. Sometimes she stood alone, looking out into the sea; sometimes she grazed in the melon patches around the deserted fort. She alluded every arrow, every snare and ruse. So the Indians organized a hunt, and the best archers came from far and wide. Among them was the young Wanchese who had been to England and returned with a silver arrow from the English queen, who had told him it would kill even the bearer of a charmed life. The hunt began, and the white doe bounded away over the sandhills as the hunters’ arrows wizzed around her ears. At last she reached the beach. Wanchese appeared, facing her, took aim, and shot the silver arrow through her heart. At the moment she died, the white doe looked into her slayer’s eyes and whispered, "Virginia Dare.” “
from an early 19th century Indian miniature painting . Kangra
school,Pahari- ‘Krishna-Abhisarika Nayika meets a witch and snakes on
the way to meeting her lover’’ (via Indian Miniature Paintings) via Patty Struik
The origins of the Curly horse, also called Bashkir Curlies, American Bashkir Curlies, and North American Curly Horses, is highly debated in the Curly community, but research is mostly still in progress. Disagreements of the Curly horse’s history result in confusion of what the breed is, and what it should be called. ABCR members prefer “Bashkir Curly” while CSI and ICHO members lean towards “North American Curly”. The addition or removal of ‘Bashkir’ to the breed name is highly debated. A 1990 study indicated that it is unlikely that the Bashkir horse, which also has a curly coat, is an ancestor.
It is said that Curly horses were documented in Asian artwork as early as 161 AD. Charles Darwin documented curly horses in South America in the early 19th century and the early Sioux Indians regarded curly horses as sacred mounts for chiefs and medicine men. Native American artwork shows Curlies carrying warriors in the Battle of Little Bighorn. Another theory is that the origin of the breed is Iberian. It has been noted that foals of cross bred horses have the curly hair. This suggests that the curly gene is dominant.
There are multiple theories for how the American Curly developed. The Curly horse was first documented in Eureka, Nevada in the early 20th century by rancher John Damele and his sons. While Mustangs were a common sight, curly coated horses were unusual. Years later, the Dameles managed to catch one, broke it to ride and sold it, thus starting their relationship with the breed. In 1932, an unusually harsh winter hit the area, and come spring the only horses that could be found were the Curlies. This evidence of hardiness was noted by the Damele family, and they decided they should include more of these horses in their herd. After another harsh winter in 1951/52, the Dameles started to get serious about breeding these horses. They went out and found their foundation stallion, a two year old chestnut in one of the mustang herds. They called him Copper D. The Dameles didn’t care much for keeping the breed 'pure’, and wanting to improve their horses, added some other blood to their herd. Among the stallions introduced were a Morgan, Ruby Red King AMHR 26101 and an Arabian, Nevada Red AHR 18125. These two stallions created many offspring for the Dameles, and are in hundreds of Curly horses’ pedigrees today.
The Curlies are known for their calm, intelligent and friendly personality. They show an easily trainable temperament. They are also known for having a tough constitution and great stamina. Most people have found that the curlies enjoy being around people. The curlies are typically not flighty. They tend to do more reasoning than most breeds. They are very reliable and have a great work ethic.
The unique gene that gives Curlies their curly hair (which is most obvious with their winter coat) can be expressed minimally (horse exhibits curly hair inside ears, at fetlocks, and a kinky mane and tail), maximally (horse exhibits curl all over body, has dreadlocked mane, and has curly eyelashes and guard hairs), and “extreme” (very tight, extreme curls, but when they shed out for summer can shed entirely bald) or any variation in between. The coat in the summer shows a slight wave in it, though not as extreme as the winter curls. But because the curly trait can be carried heterozygously, some purebred Curlies exhibit no curl at all.
Curlies have split manes and are not braided or clipped when shown. Curlies are most commonly chestnut colored, but can be found in every color from standard bays, blacks, and greys, to appaloosa markings; from pinto patterns to dilute colors such as buckskin, roan, grulla, and cremello.
The care for the curly hair is simple with most people choosing to not comb the mane because the hair will lose its curliness. The manes are often trimmed to keep them from matting. The tails can be combed. Some people choose to collect the hair that is shed from the mane and tails in the spring. The hair is then donated to the ICHO Fiber Guild. They use the hair for spinning. All of the proceeds go to ICHO Curly Research Efforts.
The report states that, while India faces many challenges in the area of child marriage and early pregnancy, there is cause to be hopeful and invest more in programming that addresses these issues. For example, girls that pursue secondary schooling are seventy percent less likely to marry as children.
26 December: the largest mass execution in United States history
On 26 December 1862, following the Dakota War during the same year, 38 Sioux prisoners were hanged in Mankato, Minnesota. In early December, 303 Sioux Indians were convicted on charges of murder and rape. Some of their trials lasted five minutes or less, and the Sioux Indians were not educated about the proceedings nor represented by defense attorneys. Abraham Lincoln, who was in office at the time, reviewed the trials personally to ensure that only men who had committed rape and murder were convicted and not men who had gone to war against the United States, which resulted in his commuting of the sentences of 264 men. He was later quoted as saying, “I could not afford to hang men for votes.”