Thumpety thump thump thumpety thump thump look at Kinesin go

Myosin, kinesin, and dynein are important proteins governing internal transport. Myosin attached to organelles associates with actin microfilaments to enable the continuous flow of cytoplasm called cytoplasmic streaming.

Kinesins and dynein enable the movement of organelles along microtubules. They attach and move along microtubules. Most kinesins transport organelles from the center towards the periphery of the cell, anterograde transport. Dynein, and a few types of kinesins transport towards the cell center, retrograde transport.

Intracellular cargo is transported by multiple motor proteins. Because of the force balance of motors with mixed polarities, cargo moves bidirectionally to achieve biological functions. Here, we propose a microtubule gliding assay for a tug-of-war study of kinesin and dynein. A boundary of the two motor groups is created by photolithographically patterning gold to selectively attach kinesin to the glass and dynein to the gold surface using a self-assembled monolayer. The relationship between the ratio of two antagonistic motor numbers and the velocity is derived from a force-velocity relationship for each motor to calculate the detachment force and motor backward velocity. Although the tug-of-war involves >100 motors, values are calculated for a single molecule and reflect the collective dynein and non-collective kinesin functions when they work as a team. This assay would be useful for detailed in vitro analysis of intracellular motility, e.g., mitosis, where a large number of motors with mixed polarities are involved.
—  Ikuta J, et al. 2014

(TitleTug-of-war of microtubule filaments at the boundary of a kinesin- and dynein-patterned surface)