The Low Countries in 1648 following the Peace of Münster
The Peace of Münster, part of the greater Peace of Westphalia, ended the Dutch Revolt against Spain, leading to the independent Dutch Republic. Land in orange was ceded to the Dutch, green remained under Spanish control, and purple are ecclesiastical territories.
Mishka Henner Dutch Landscapes, 2011 Archival pigment prints, variable dimensions Google Maps image capture of sites censored from surveillance photos due to sensitivity of national security issues in the Netherlands
Map of the Molluca Islands by Dutch Cartographer Wilem Blaeu, 1630.
The Mollucas (called Maluku in modern-day Indonesia) were the center of control for the Dutch East India Company and the greatest sources of spices sent back to Europe in the seventeenth century. Spices like nutmeg and pepper were so valuable in Europe that a series of wars convulsed the entire region as the British and French attempted to wrest control of the so-called “Spice Islands” from the Dutch. Eventually, the other European powers were able to break the Dutch monopoly by subterfuge. Both the British and the French organized schemes to smuggle seeds out of the Moluccas and to their own territories.