The Spanish under the Duke of Parma clash with Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) at Aumale in February, 1592. Henry received a minor wound, and his forces were compelled to fall back Aumale, but in good order.
The family of Robert I, Duke of Parma, is rather interesting.
Robert fathered TWENTY FOUR children with two different women.
Ten married and had children, six were mentally disabled, three didn’t survive infancy, four became nuns, one was deaf, and one became the last Empress of Austria. Oh, and two sons fought in the Belgian Army while two fought in the Austrian Army during WWI.
The little girl is HRH Princess Cecilia Maria de Bourbon de Parme. She is the daughter of Prince Carlos, Duke of Parma and Princess Annemarie. She is the granddaughter of princess Irene of the Netherlands and her godmother is Princess Beatrix.
Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès (October 18, 1753-March 8, 1824), French lawyer and statesman. Born into a noble family in Montpellier, he studied law and succeeded his father as a counselor in the court of accounts and finances there in 1774. He supported the French Revolution and was elected to the National Convention in 1792, representing the department of Hérault and proclaiming the first republic the same year. De Cambacérès was a moderate, protesting the Convention’s right to sit as a court to try Louis XVI, but he did vote “guilty” at the end of the trial. In 1799, he was appointed Minister of Justice; in that capacity, he supported Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup of 18 Brumaire, in which Napoleon become First Consul and de Cambacérès was named Second Consul. Napoleon directed him to lead a commission to revise the nation’s cumbersome, confusing and outdated laws and the result was the Code Civil des Français, better known as the Napoleonic Code, which went into force on March 21, 1804. This code enshrined many of the most important principles of the French Revolution, such as abolishing privileges based on birth, allowing for freedom of religion, and establishing the idea of qualification for employment by merit rather than influence or purchase; however, the Code had a negative impact on the rights of women, as it determined the supremacy of the husband/father over his wife and children and abolished the right of mutual divorce. Through Napoleon’s conquest of much of Europe, the legal code written by de Cambacérès became law in most of Europe, and would influence legal concepts elsewhere, notably in the Middle East and Latin America. De Cambacérès was relatively open about his homosexuality, never marrying and sharing his life with several men; indeed, de Cambacérès’ penchant for cruising the Palais-Royal was so well known that it was even mentioned in debate in the National Assembly. As a result, many assume that the decriminalization of homosexuality in France is due to his influence; this is not the case: sodomy was decriminalized in 1791, during the early days of the Revolution and before he had entered the government; the laws were simply not reinstated. As Second Consul, de Cambacérès – whom Napoleon had named a prince of the Empire as well as the Duke of Parma in 1808 – was often the de-facto leader of the French Empire during Napoleon’s many military engagements away from the country. After Napoleon’s fall from power and the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814, de Cambacérès was briefly stripped of his citizenship and threatened with exile, but his status was restored in 1818 and he lived quietly in Paris until his death in 1824.
Children with Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies - Princess Marie Louise (Princess Consort of Bulgaria) - Prince Ferdinando (died in infancy) - Princess Luisa Maria - Enrico, Duke of Parma and Piacenza - Princess Maria Immacolata - Prince Giuseppe - Princess Maria Teresa - Princess Maria Pia - Princess Beatrice - Elias, Duke of Parma - Princess Maria Anastasia - Prince Augusto / Princess Augusta (stillborn)
Children with Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal - Princess Maria della Neve Adelaide - Prince Sixtus - Princess Xavier of Bourbon-Parma (Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain) - Princess Francesca - Princess Zita (Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary) - Prince Felix of Luxembourg - Prince René - Princess Maria Antonia - Princess Isabella - Prince Luigi - Princess Henrietta Anna - Prince Gaetano
Princess Irene of Netherlands, when duchess of Parma, with her four children : Prince Jaime, count of Bardi (born 1972), Princess Carolinam marchioness of Sala (born 1974), Princess Margarita, countess of Colorno (Born 1972) and Prince Carlos, current duke of Parma (born 1970)
Married: Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon- Two Sicilies (b 1849- d 1882), Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal (b 1862- d 1849)
Became duke at the age of six when his father was assasinated, his mother was his regent.
He was deposed at the age of eleven when Italy was united.
He father TWENTY FOUR children, only three of whom died in infancy, with two wives.
His first wife, Maria Pia, died in childbirth along with their twelfth child.
Six of his children (all with Maria Pia) had some form of mental disability. I was unable to find out to what extent or what there diagnosis were. After his death, Maria Antonia (his second wife) had them declared legally incompetent.
One daughter was deaf (Henrietta) and three became nuns.