Art movements that relied on the camera.
WW1 - 1914- 1918
WW2 - 1939- 1945
Russian Revolution - 1917
All these art movements wanted to reject everything that had come before and start a new idea, changing the social fabric of the country. They were influenced by the enormity of the events surroundings the wars and revolutions.
Dada 1916 - 1924
A response to the horrors of World War 1, many artists and writers, especially those from France and Germany, moved to Switzerland, which was a neutral country. Instead of being relieved that they had escaped, the artists and writers were furious with the modern society, they had lost confidence in their culture. So, they decided to show their protest through artistic medium. They decided to create non-art since art in the society anyway had no meaning. To them the world did not make sense.
They were young and opted out of fighting in war; they went to seek refuge in America and different countries as well. They were highly influenced on political and social issues. They used a mixture of collage, photomontage, and ready-mades. They were not trained photographers, they were artists using a camera, they did not care if photography was an art form or not, they thought that this idea was irrelevant.
RAOUL HAUSMANN 1920s
Heavy use of text
Different media, all together, to try and make sense of the world that has been torn apart by war. Trying to find way through the political madness.
Surrealism came from Dada. It was influenced by dream studies of Freud and political ideas of Marx. ‘Automatism’ Imagination of the subconscious, the wanted to visualise what couldn’t be visualised e.g. dreams. The used processes such as, solarization, which is a reversed negative, then exposed to white light in a darkroom. Distortion, using mirrors and lenses to distort human form, photograms, a camera-less image and three-dimensional versions of a collage.
Developed using photograms, deliberate provocative images, showing hidden agendas. Dream state the unconscious, sleep arose a lot in his work. Solorisation, to push the un real idea. Trying to make real what is happening in our conscious. Multiple exposures.
Russian Constructivism 1920 - 1934
This was mostly influenced by the art movement Cubism; it was art for social purposes. It emerged as the Bolsheviks came to power in 1917; it was first used to describe Alexander Rodchenko’s work. They wanted was to engage the audience with the political engenders that they had. It inspired radical graphic design groups, cinema and architecture. They used processes such as photomontage (material and construction) however they were less destructive than Dadaists. Their photographs have strong, unique angles, abstract use of light, and paralleled Moholy-Nagy’s image. They focus of construction and promoted a positive feel unlike Dada.
Sculpture, montage, collage. Celebrating events of new machinery. Heavy light, empty space, geometric straight line.