dsm iv tr

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Girls S06E02 (Hostage Situation)

Book title: The New Handbook of Cognitive Therapy Techniques (1999) by Rian E. McMullin and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)

I mentioned here that I wrote the following entry because I’m a huge nerd, so here it is.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Appendix B: Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study

Post-Infestation Affective Blunting Syndrome

Features
The essential feature of this syndrome is a marked state of lessened facial and postural expressiveness following infestation and hostile control by an extraterrestrial known as a yeerk.  Individuals suffering from this syndrome will frequently report a normal range of emotional experiences while also exhibiting blunted or flattened affect.  It is associated with a varied degree of distress, ranging from mild to severe.  Note that distress and functioning should always be assessed through the form of clinical interviews or self-reports; clinicians’ assessments of emotional stability may not be reliable when examining these individuals.  It is also important to note that this syndrome appears to have a high rate of suicidal ideation and a concurrent low rate of suicidal intentions, an area of this syndrome that requires further study.

Associated Features
Individuals who exhibit this disorder do not develop it in the absence of yeerk infestation.  Yeerk infestation is here defined as the process of hostile control of the individual’s conscious bodily functions by an extraterrestrial entity.  This syndrome appears to have similar prevalence rates across ages and genders, although more evidence is needed to determine possible demographic moderating factors.  The prognosis for this syndrome is not yet known, although all individuals studied have exhibited consistent patterns of behavior over periods lasting up to three months.  Although individuals who present with this condition may not report distress, they may experience threats to normal functioning as a result of their unusual patterns of expression.  No information currently exists as to whether it is safe for these individuals to engage in reflex-heavy activities such as driving or operating heavy machinery, and each patient should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Differential Diagnosis
In DSM-IV, individuals whose presentation meets these research criteria would be diagnosed as having Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or Adjustment Disorder, conditional upon the degree of anxiety and intrusive cognition experienced by the individual.

This condition exhibits similar symptoms to Depersonalization Disorder but appears to be more acute in onset and to involve briefer intervals of dissociation.  Although certain symptoms mimic the negative symptomatology of Schizophrenia, individuals with this syndrome will typically not demonstrate the marked degree of disorganized behavior that Schizophrenia produces, and do not report experiencing psychosis.

This diagnosis should not be made in the absence of a (self-reported) experience of yeerk infestation and the individual’s belief that the source of the dysfunction arises from the experience of hostile control.  It is not clear at this time whether or not voluntary human-controllers experience these symptoms under certain circumstances.  More research is also needed to clarify the need for a minimum age of diagnosis.

Prevalence
The prevalence of this disorder is not yet known.  However, there were approximately 200,000 human-controllers under control of the Yeerk Empire as of March of 2000, and between 40% and 50% of humans surveyed after deinfestation have demonstrated some of the criteria.

Research Criteria

  1. Infestation by one or more yeerks which lasted for a period longer than 12 hours.
  2. Three or more of the following symptoms:
    1. Periods of dissociation, including depersonalization and derealization episodes
    2. Blunted affect or unusual emotional expression which does not match self-reported emotionality
    3. Selective periods of waxy catatonia or other selective lack of movement
    4. Repeated motions of self-stimulation, including at times when socially unacceptable or not entirely within the individual’s conscious control
    5. Intrusive cognitions which specifically relate to themes of loss of personal control and disconnection from one’s body
    6. Delayed or minimal speech production
    7. Blurred or difficult speech production in the absence of aphasia or other speech impairment
    8. Marked impairment to bodily reflexes (flinching, blinking, stimulus orienting, etc.)
  3. All symptoms occurred after such time as the yeerk exited the individual but were absent before the time of infestation according to retroactive self-report.
  4. The symptoms are not directly attributable to brain damage which occurred as a result of forceful ejection of the yeerk or consumption of artificial maple-ginger flavor in the form of oatmeal while infested.

[Disclaimer 1: this would technically be an Appendix entry, not a proper diagnostic entry, so the formatting reflects that.  Disclaimer 2: the DSM-IV-TR is available in its entirety online, but anyone who doesn’t have a relevant degree should NOT attempt to diagnose themselves or their friends based on anything they read there.  I’m not qualified to use it, you’re (probably) not qualified to use it, and anyone with a Bachelor’s in psych is not qualified to use it.  Please please please contact a counselor if you have any concerns rather than going looking for yourself.]

anonymous asked:

Psychiatry is not abusive and self diagnosing is dangerous. You're not a doctor and you don't know the details about all the disabilities and illnesses that are out there. Researching things on your own is fine and all, but not everything on the internet is true. Many people are often delusional and claim they have a certain disability or illness when in reality they do not, and they're merely attention seekers.

Oh gosh… here we go. First, I should probably point out that you shouldn’t assume things about other people on the Internet. You’re right, I’m not a doctor: I’m a psychologist and I most certainly have a solid understanding of the myriad diagnosable mental disorders recognized by the American Psychiatric Association. Oops.

I also have over ten years experience as a peer advocate for people who have mental health problems and/or are suffering violence at the hands of the psychiatric institution.

With that out of the way, my dear Dunning Kruger acolyte, let’s talk about all the interesting ways in which you’re painfully wrong:

First, you don’t understand what a psychiatric diagnosis even is. Diagnostic criteria for psychiatric conditions are not diseases because they do not describe an underlying disease process. They are syndromes. What that means is that your precious psychiatric diagnoses are nothing more than descriptions of various symptoms that the psychiatric profession has concluded are often seen in combination. Moreover these diagnostic criteria are:

  • Not culturally neutral. Psychiatric diagnostic criteria were developed through the observation of patients in European (incl. North American) cultures. There is extensive research by cultural anthropologists researching mental disability in non-European cultures that shows not only that psychiatric diagnoses did not seem to fit the studied population but that the importation of European psychiatry fundamentally changed the clinical presentation of the local patients.
  • Not without controversy, even within the psychiatric profession. I can think of several psychiatric diagnoses enumerated in the DSM-V that psychiatrists can’t stop bickering about regarding their validity, and that’s not including the infighting having to do with the fundamental nature of various disorders.
  • Constantly changing. Every few years a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders comes out and diagnoses are added, dropped, and often radically changed. Two of the diagnoses that I carry, bipolar I disorder and autism spectrum disorder, changed radically in the transition from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-V. The latter wasn’t even a ‘real diagnosis’ until a few months ago.
  • Imprecise and subjective. Mental health professionals treating the same patient will regularly give different diagnoses from each other. Incidentally, in science we call this failing a test/retest check for reliability which is an indication that something is horseshit.
  • Helpfully bound and presented in a single volume, in plain English, for anyone with a library card or a bit of spare change to browse. Seriously. The fact that you don’t think that people who self diagnose mental disorders don’t even bother to consult a copy of the DSM-V is downright insulting. Do you really think that people who are struggling with getting help for a serious, potentially life-threatening condition restrict their research to Yahoo Answers? Grow up and give me a break. 

How is a psychiatric diagnosis made? It starts with a patient who is complaining about a symptom, or a group of symptoms that are causing them distress. You then ask them what they think is wrong with them and they give you symptoms. Having a fairly good idea of what’s wrong with your patient you now ask follow-up questions in order to differentially diagnose similar conditions. If you are very, very lucky you might even be able to directly observe a symptom or two. Then, you make your diagnosis and move on to discussing treatment options.

You wanna know what’s really useful? When a patient already has a good idea what’s wrong with them and is informed enough to know what information to volunteer. Now all you need to do is confirm the diagnosis. Having an informed patient is critical to providing quality health care of any kind.

But let’s talk about what happens when self diagnosis gets vilified by mental health professionals, as you so dearly seem to want. An anecdote from my personal life:

Before I was formally diagnosed with bipolar disorder I had serious problems with depression. My general practitioner referred me to a psychiatrist and I told her that I thought I was bipolar based on some hypomanic episodes that I felt that I had in the past. The psychiatrist brushed me off and did not ask the questions necessary to investigate my concern. She prescribed a high dose of antidepressants and sent me on my way.

If you don’t know, antidepressants cause Very Bad Things™ to happen to people who are bipolar. This is the reason why ‘bipolar II’ is a distinct diagnosis from major depression. I knew this but I also knew that if it did cause a mania it would confirm my diagnosis, so I took the drugs.

Not only did the resulting mania land me in the hospital but the drugs did permanent and severe damage. I no longer have a manageable bipolar II condition, I have a poorly controlled bipolar I condition.

So why do people self-diagnose? Because something is causing them to suffer and they either do not have access to the medical resources necessary for a formal diagnosis or they have tried to get a diagnosis but for some reason have been unable to get one.

Self-diagnosis is empowering. Self-diagnosis allows people to access the care they need from mental health professionals because they will be able to present their complaint in a way that is understandable to their healthcare provider. Self-diagnosis also allows people to research ways to cope with their symptoms without involving medical professionals.

Can a self-diagnosis be wrong? Yes. Are mental health professionals alert to errors in self-diagnosis? Yes. But here’s the thing: A mental health self-diagnosis is almost never far from the eventual, formal diagnosis.

All this being said: You’re just angry that certain people, who aren’t you, are able to advocate for themselves without going through a gauntlet of potentially abusive gatekeepers. In other words, you’re fucking scum and please get off my blog.

anonymous asked:

But BPD can't be diagnosed till the age of 18? Lol

Thank you for your insight but I’ll have to disagree. If you have further concerns about my mental illness then you can talk to the multiple doctors who have been involved in my diagnosis.

  • ‘The most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) allows BPD to be diagnosed in adolescents when maladaptive traits have been present for at least 1 year, are persistent and all-encompassing, and are not likely to be limited to a developmental stage or an episode of an Axis I disorder.’ (source)
  • ‘It is difficult to diagnose accurately borderline disorder in children because similar symptoms may evolve into one of several disorders as the child develops. However, the  disorder can be diagnosed in adolescence or early adulthood.’ (source)
  • ‘While there is no rule against diagnosing BPD before age 18, most medical professionals are hesitant to do so.’ (source)
  • Here is an entire article about teen BPD.
  • And another one

As has been said in the multiple links above, a lot of doctors are reluctant to diagnose BPD in under 18s but it’s not unheard of. I’ve been in two psych wards and met a lot of other patients under 18 with a BPD (or other PD) diagnosis. I think the general rule for diagnosing in minors is that the symptoms have to have been present for over a year, be causing significant problems in day-to-day life, and not be due to another mental or physical health condition.

TLDR; yes it can.

anonymous asked:

Just because you're trans doesn't mean you get to define how other people are trans. I work for an endocrinologist so I see many trans patients in a day, and the decision to start hormone therapy is not always an easy one. You can be trans and not experience gender/body dysphoria. Why exactly do you care so much about what other people are or are not doing?

Of course it is a hard decision; starting chemo therapy is a hard decision, but it is one that is ultimately come to by people who need the treatment to live who do not want to die, just as trans people will decide to start HRT when they are able to - or they will die.

You can not be trans and not experience gender/body dysphoria.

Transgenderism is the term which explains, defines, and covers a person who experiences gender and body dysphoria in relation to the desire and need to be the other gender.
(Source - DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.)

I will even elaborate for you because you seem so confused!

According to the diagnostic criteria, one has to persistently make efforts to appear as and act according to the preferred gender. Not doing so results in severe impairment in social activities, occupation, and other areas of functioning.

They must have a strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire, nor for any perceived advantages of the other gender.)

People with the disorder will, as stated above, do all they can to appear as the other sex in all parts of life, feeling as though they are in the wrong body.

Gender dysphoria is characterised as ‘feeling wrong in the you have body’. So what you are saying is that someone can meet none of the diagnostic criteria for being trans… and yet still be trans?

In such a instance, can I call myself an insomniac despite being able to fall asleep when I intend to, sleeping a consistent and regular eight hours, and waking up refreshed… because I feel like I have insomnia? Perhaps I have a brain tumour, too, even though none of my brain scans show no presence of a tumour… but I feel like it! I want one!

What you are suggesting is pure idiocy and an absolute mockery of people actually suffering with this terrible disorder and with all of its accosted symptoms. That is why I care so much about ‘what other people are or are not doing’. It deeply, deeply offends and sickens me.

St. Francis of Assisi stumbled upon a problem similar to yours about 1.800 years ago and come to this conclusion; he prayed “God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.” What you lack is wisdom; what you are trying to change is the definition of the word ‘trans’ in regards to ‘transgender’, which, I am sorry to inform you, defines a person who transitions from one gender to the other.

i struggle

Borderline Personality Disorder

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. In 1980, theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Third Edition(DSM-III) listed BPD as a diagnosable illness for the first time. Most psychiatrists and other mental health professionals use the DSM to diagnose mental illnesses.

Because some people with severe BPD have brief psychotic episodes, experts originally thought of this illness as atypical, or borderline, versions of other mental disorders. While mental health experts now generally agree that the name “borderline personality disorder” is misleading, a more accurate term does not exist yet.

Most people who have BPD suffer from:

  • Problems with regulating emotions and thoughts
  • Impulsive and reckless behavior
  • Unstable relationships with other people.

People with this disorder also have high rates of co-occurring disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders, along with self-harm, suicidal behaviors, and completed suicides.

Causes

Research on the possible causes and risk factors for BPD is still at a very early stage. However, scientists generally agree that genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved.

Studies on twins with BPD suggest that the illness is strongly inherited. Another study shows that a person can inherit his or her temperament and specific personality traits, particularly impulsiveness and aggression. Scientists are studying genes that help regulate emotions and impulse control for possible links to the disorder.

Social or cultural factors may increase the risk for BPD. For example, being part of a community or culture in which unstable family relationships are common may increase a person’s risk for the disorder. Impulsiveness, poor judgment in lifestyle choices, and other consequences of BPD may lead individuals to risky situations. Adults with borderline personality disorder are considerably more likely to be the victim of violence, including rape and other crimes.

Signs & Symptoms

According to the DSM, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must show an enduring pattern of behavior that includes at least five of the following symptoms:

  • Extreme reactions—including panic, depression, rage, or frantic actions—to abandonment, whether real or perceived
  • A pattern of intense and stormy relationships with family, friends, and loved ones, often veering from extreme closeness and love (idealization) to extreme dislike or anger (devaluation)
  • Distorted and unstable self-image or sense of self, which can result in sudden changes in feelings, opinions, values, or plans and goals for the future (such as school or career choices)
  • Impulsive and often dangerous behaviors, such as spending sprees, unsafe sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, and binge eating
  • Recurring suicidal behaviors or threats or self-harming behavior, such as cutting
  • Intense and highly changeable moods, with each episode lasting from a few hours to a few days
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness and/or boredom
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or problems controlling anger
  • Having stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms, such as feeling cut off from oneself, observing oneself from outside the body, or losing touch with reality.

Seemingly mundane events may trigger symptoms. For example, people with BPD may feel angry and distressed over minor separations—such as vacations, business trips, or sudden changes of plans—from people to whom they feel close. Studies show that people with this disorder may see anger in an emotionally neutral face and have a stronger reaction to words with negative meanings than people who do not have the disorder.

Suicide and Self-harm

Self-injurious behavior includes suicide and suicide attempts, as well as self-harming behaviors, described below. As many as 80 percent of people with BPD have suicidal behaviors, and about 4 to 9 percent commit suicide.

Suicide is one of the most tragic outcomes of any mental illness. Some treatments can help reduce suicidal behaviors in people with BPD. For example, one study showed that dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) reduced suicide attempts in women by half compared with other types of psychotherapy, or talk therapy. DBT also reduced use of emergency room and inpatient services and retained more participants in therapy, compared to other approaches to treatment.

Unlike suicide attempts, self-harming behaviors do not stem from a desire to die. However, some self-harming behaviors may be life threatening. Self-harming behaviors linked with BPD include cutting, burning, hitting, head banging, hair pulling, and other harmful acts. People with BPD may self-harm to help regulate their emotions, to punish themselves, or to express their pain. They do not always see these behaviors as harmful.

Who Is At Risk?

According to data from a subsample of participants in a national survey on mental disorders, about 1.6 percent of adults in the United States have BPD in a given year.  BPD usually begins during adolescence or early adulthood. Some studies suggest that early symptoms of the illness may occur during childhood.

Diagnosis

Unfortunately, BPD is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.

A mental health professional experienced in diagnosing and treating mental disorders—such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, or psychiatric nurse—can detect BPD based on a thorough interview and a discussion about symptoms. A careful and thorough medical exam can help rule out other possible causes of symptoms.

The mental health professional may ask about symptoms and personal and family medical histories, including any history of mental illnesses. This information can help the mental health professional decide on the best treatment. In some cases, co-occurring mental illnesses may have symptoms that overlap with BPD, making it difficult to distinguish borderline personality disorder from other mental illnesses. For example, a person may describe feelings of depression but may not bring other symptoms to the mental health professional’s attention.

Women with BPD are more likely to have co-occurring disorders such as major depression, anxiety disorders, or eating disorders. In men, BPD is more likely to co-occur with disorders such as substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. According to the NIMH-funded National Comorbidity Survey Replication—the largest national study to date of mental disorders in U.S. adults—about 85 percent of people with BPD also meet the diagnostic criteria for another mental illness. Other illnesses that often occur with BPD include diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic back pain, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. These conditions are associated with obesity, which is a common side effect of the medications prescribed to treat BPD and other mental disorders.

No single test can diagnose BPD. Scientists funded by NIMH are looking for ways to improve diagnosis of this disorder. One study found that adults with BPD showed excessive emotional reactions when looking at words with unpleasant meanings, compared with healthy people. People with more severe BPD showed a more intense emotional response than people who had less severe BPD.

anonymous asked:

what do you think the gatekeepers will do when the dsm-6 eventually comes out and inevitably changes some of the DID diagnostic criteria or even gives it a new name entirely? what if some of them no longer fit the definition?

Well, less than 3 years ago (in DSM-IV TR), “non-disordered” systems would qualify for DID.
Then suddenly they didn’t.
The thing is, though, they were all still plural.
They just no longer qualified as having DID.

For those “gatekeepers” who’ve made the label into an identity in and of itself, it will certainly be an existential dilemma.

They can avoid this distress entirely, however, by deciding their own truth, regardless of what is written in a book by neurotypical singlets.

-Pride

Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5: Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

Overview

  • No longer separate diagnoses of substance abuse and dependence
  • New diagnosis of cannabis withdrawal
  • Elimination of polysubstance dependence diagnosis
  • Specifier for physiological subtype has been removed
  • New specifiers include “in a controlled environment” and “on maintenance therapy”

Changes in Criteria

  • New criteria for substance use disorder nearly identical to the combined criteria of the previously separated diagnoses
  • Threshold for substance use disorder is set at 2+ criteria; used to be 1+ for substance abuse or 3+ for substance dependence
  • Severity based on number of criteria endorsed: 2-3 = mild, 4-5 = moderate, 6 or more = severe
  • Recurrent legal problems criterion for substance abuse eliminated
  • New criterion of craving/strong desire/strong urge to use a substance has been added

Remission

  • Early remission from a substance use disorder is defined as at least 3 months but less than 12 months without meeting criteria (except craving)
  • Sustained remission is defined as at least 12 months without meeting criteria (except craving)

Gambling Disorder

  • Now included within scope of substance-related disorders to reflect increasing evidence that some behaviors (e.g. gambling) activate the brain reward system in a similar manner as abused substances
Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder (AVPD) is a recognised disorder which is characterized by a hypersensitivity to criticism, intense self loathing and a strong desire to isolate themselves. Sufferers believe that they lack social skills, and feel they don’t know or understand “the rules”. Hence, they tend to avoid social situations to avoid the pain of rejection by others.

People in a close relationship with them often feel frustrated by the person’s tendency to pull away from them and avoid other people. They also find it hard to lead an active social life as the sufferer refuses to go to events such as family gathering, work parties and so on. Also, they may feel pressurised to cut themselves off, too, and live in a bubble with the AVPD person. This can be a source of stress for the person and the extended family.

Although people with AVPD will generally display a number of the traits outlined below, each person is unique and different. (Also, most of us display avoidant traits at times but that doesn’t mean we have AVPD).

Symptoms and traits include the following:“always” & “never” statements; blaming; catastrophizing (automatically assuming a “worst case scenario”); circular conversations (endless arguments which repeat the same patterns); “control-me” syndrome (a tendency to form relationships with people who are controlling, narcissistic or antisocial); dependency; depression; emotional blackmail; false accusations; fear of abandonment; hypervigilance; identity disturbance ( a distorted view of oneself); impulsivity; lack of object constancy (the inability to remember that people or objects are consistent and reliable over time – regardless of whether you can see them or not); low self-esteem; mood swings; objectification (treating a person like an object); panic attacks; passive aggressive behaviour; projection (attributing one’s own feelings or traits onto another); self-hatred; “playing the victim” and thought policing (trying to question, control, or unduly influence another person’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours.)

Specifically, the DSM-IV-TR, defines Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) as being:

A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

1. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection.
2. Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked.
3. Shows restraint initiating intimate relationships because of the fear of being ashamed, ridiculed, or rejected due to severe low self-worth.
4. Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations.
5. Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy.
6. Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others
7. Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing.

A formal diagnosis must be made by a mental health professional.

anonymous asked:

can you please explain the symptoms and examples of borderline personality disorder? i really need to know, thank you! (tag this as BPD1)

Hi there!

Firstly, every individual with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is different, and may exhibit different combinations of symptoms. According to the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), borderline personality disorder is diagnosed when there is a persistent pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, mood and self-image, as well as distinct impulsive behaviour, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. In order to get diagnosed with this disorder, you must fulfill at least 5 of the following 9 criteria:

  • Do you have an intense fear of being left alone, which causes you to act in ways that, on reflection, seem out of the ordinary or extreme, such as constantly phoning somebody (but not including self-harming or suicidal behaviour)?
  • Do you have a pattern of intense and unstable relationships with other people that switch between thinking you love that person and they’re wonderful to hating that person and thinking they’re terrible?
  • Do you ever feel you don’t have a strong sense of your own self and are unclear about your self-image?
  • Do you engage in impulsive activities in two areas that are potentially damaging, such as unsafe sex, drug abuse or reckless spending (but not including self-harming or suicidal behaviour)?
  • Have you made repeated suicide threats or attempts in your past and engaged in self-harming?
  • Do you have severe mood swings, such as feeling intensely depressed, anxious or irritable, which last from a few hours to a few days?
  • Do you have long-term feelings of emptiness and loneliness?
  • Do you have sudden and intense feelings of anger and aggression, and often find it difficult to control your anger?
  • When you find yourself in stressful situations, do you have feelings of paranoia, or do you feel like you’re disconnected from the world or from your own body, thoughts and behaviour?

However, there are 526 different possible combinations of BPD symptoms so no two sufferers are alike. I myself have struggled with BPD for many years so I can give you some examples from my life and explain some of the symptoms I struggle with.

  • Black and White (dichotomous thinking) can be a big issue for some sufferers. It is characterized by all-or-nothing thinking, seeing situations or people as either wholly good or wholly bad with little in between, and in inability to simultaneously see the good and bad together.
  • ‘Splitting’ is a symptoms I struggle with, and it’s a term used to describe when a person with BPD flips from believing someone is all good to believing they are all bad - I tend to split on people I am close to such as family/boyfriend as opposed to strangers/acquaintances.  I also split on myself, where all my core values and beliefs about life flip. I tend to either feel immensely superior to humanity, or infinitely inferior and unworthy of existing.
  • Transient dissociation can occur during times of stress or extreme emotion. This can involve depersonalisation (feeling I am not real, not recognising myself), derealisation (feeling the world is not really and everything around me is disconnected. It can feel like I’m watching myself doing things but I’m not actually engaging with it.
  • Moulding myself to suit other people’s needs or how I want to be perceived to fit in. I can act very differently depending on who I am spending time with. I also prefer to have fewer but closer friendship than many different but less intense ones.
  • Impulsivity can be very difficult to deal with, because many people with BPD don’t have the barrier between having a thought and acting on it. For me this can look like very erratic behaviours like randomly jumping in a river, or impulsively spending lots of money, or taking drugs, or impulsively self harming.
  • Emotional intensity - BPD sufferers are described to have ‘the emotional sensitivity equivalent to a third degree burn victim’. It can feel like perpetual psychological agony or emptiness. We tend to feel everything or feel nothing.
  • Warped perceptions in interpersonal relationships can manifest as misinterpreting other people’s words and actions as a personal vendetta against me, and a lot of paranoia!
  • I used to struggle a lot with rage, and would lash out at my family in every sense, for no logical reason. I would just be filled with irrational anger that I didn’t know what to do with.

These are only my personal experiences though, and you may or may not relate to some of these symptoms. If you are worried that you are struggling with BPD or any of its traits I would really encourage you to speak to a mental health professional or a doctor. Many sufferers have chronic suicide ideation, and 10% of sufferers will complete suicide. Please don’t be afraid to reach out if you or someone you know is suffering <3

There is help available for this condition. Although there are no recommended medications for BPD, antidepressants and antipsychotics can help to alleviate symptoms. Therapies such as MBT and DBT have proven to be very successful in treating this disorder.  There are also some useful links giving more information about borderline personality disorder:

NHS - BPD

MIND - BPD

A moment with BPD

Samaritans

If you have any other thoughts or questions please do send us another ask! We are always here for you and you don’t have to go through this alone <3

With love

Imogen :)

anonymous asked:

Hey can you tell me what bpd means/symptoms of it thank you sorry to bother

hi anon, 

you are not bothering us at all!

Here is some general information about BPD, including causes symptoms treatments and everything.

What is Borderline Personality Disorder?

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. In 1980, theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Third Edition(DSM-III) listed BPD as a diagnosable illness for the first time. Most psychiatrists and other mental health professionals use the DSM to diagnose mental illnesses.

Because some people with severe BPD have brief psychotic episodes, experts originally thought of this illness as atypical, or borderline, versions of other mental disorders. While mental health experts now generally agree that the name “borderline personality disorder” is misleading, a more accurate term does not exist yet.

Most people who have BPD suffer from:

  • Problems with regulating emotions and thoughts
  • Impulsive and reckless behavior
  • Unstable relationships with other people.

People with this disorder also have high rates of co-occurring disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders, along with self-harm, suicidal behaviors, and completed suicides.

Causes

Research on the possible causes and risk factors for BPD is still at a very early stage. However, scientists generally agree that genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved.

Studies on twins with BPD suggest that the illness is strongly inherited. Another study shows that a person can inherit his or her temperament and specific personality traits, particularly impulsiveness and aggression. Scientists are studying genes that help regulate emotions and impulse control for possible links to the disorder.

Social or cultural factors may increase the risk for BPD. For example, being part of a community or culture in which unstable family relationships are common may increase a person’s risk for the disorder. Impulsiveness, poor judgment in lifestyle choices, and other consequences of BPD may lead individuals to risky situations. Adults with borderline personality disorder are considerably more likely to be the victim of violence, including rape and other crimes.

Signs & Symptoms

According to the DSM, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must show an enduring pattern of behavior that includes at least five of the following symptoms:

  • Extreme reactions—including panic, depression, rage, or frantic actions—to abandonment, whether real or perceived
  • A pattern of intense and stormy relationships with family, friends, and loved ones, often veering from extreme closeness and love (idealization) to extreme dislike or anger (devaluation)
  • Distorted and unstable self-image or sense of self, which can result in sudden changes in feelings, opinions, values, or plans and goals for the future (such as school or career choices)
  • Impulsive and often dangerous behaviors, such as spending sprees, unsafe sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, and binge eating
  • Recurring suicidal behaviors or threats or self-harming behavior, such as cutting
  • Intense and highly changeable moods, with each episode lasting from a few hours to a few days
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness and/or boredom
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or problems controlling anger
  • Having stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms, such as feeling cut off from oneself, observing oneself from outside the body, or losing touch with reality.

Seemingly mundane events may trigger symptoms. For example, people with BPD may feel angry and distressed over minor separations—such as vacations, business trips, or sudden changes of plans—from people to whom they feel close. Studies show that people with this disorder may see anger in an emotionally neutral face and have a stronger reaction to words with negative meanings than people who do not have the disorder.

Suicide and Self-harm

Self-injurious behavior includes suicide and suicide attempts, as well as self-harming behaviors, described below. As many as 80 percent of people with BPD have suicidal behaviors, and about 4 to 9 percent commit suicide.

Suicide is one of the most tragic outcomes of any mental illness. Some treatments can help reduce suicidal behaviors in people with BPD. For example, one study showed that dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) reduced suicide attempts in women by half compared with other types of psychotherapy, or talk therapy. DBT also reduced use of emergency room and inpatient services and retained more participants in therapy, compared to other approaches to treatment.

Unlike suicide attempts, self-harming behaviors do not stem from a desire to die. However, some self-harming behaviors may be life threatening. Self-harming behaviors linked with BPD include cutting, burning, hitting, head banging, hair pulling, and other harmful acts. People with BPD may self-harm to help regulate their emotions, to punish themselves, or to express their pain. They do not always see these behaviors as harmful.

Who Is At Risk?

According to data from a subsample of participants in a national survey on mental disorders, about 1.6 percent of adults in the United States have BPD in a given year.  BPD usually begins during adolescence or early adulthood. Some studies suggest that early symptoms of the illness may occur during childhood.

Diagnosis

Unfortunately, BPD is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.

A mental health professional experienced in diagnosing and treating mental disorders—such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, clinical social worker, or psychiatric nurse—can detect BPD based on a thorough interview and a discussion about symptoms. A careful and thorough medical exam can help rule out other possible causes of symptoms.

The mental health professional may ask about symptoms and personal and family medical histories, including any history of mental illnesses. This information can help the mental health professional decide on the best treatment. In some cases, co-occurring mental illnesses may have symptoms that overlap with BPD, making it difficult to distinguish borderline personality disorder from other mental illnesses. For example, a person may describe feelings of depression but may not bring other symptoms to the mental health professional’s attention.

Women with BPD are more likely to have co-occurring disorders such as major depression, anxiety disorders, or eating disorders. In men, BPD is more likely to co-occur with disorders such as substance abuse or antisocial personality disorder. According to the NIMH-funded National Comorbidity Survey Replication—the largest national study to date of mental disorders in U.S. adults—about 85 percent of people with BPD also meet the diagnostic criteria for another mental illness. Other illnesses that often occur with BPD include diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic back pain, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. These conditions are associated with obesity, which is a common side effect of the medications prescribed to treat BPD and other mental disorders.

No single test can diagnose BPD. Scientists funded by NIMH are looking for ways to improve diagnosis of this disorder. One study found that adults with BPD showed excessive emotional reactions when looking at words with unpleasant meanings, compared with healthy people. People with more severe BPD showed a more intense emotional response than people who had less severe BPD.

Treatments

BPD is often viewed as difficult to treat. However, recent research shows that BPD can be treated effectively, and that many people with this illness improve over time.

BPD can be treated with psychotherapy, or “talk” therapy. In some cases, a mental health professional may also recommend medications to treat specific symptoms. When a person is under more than one professional’s care, it is essential for the professionals to coordinate with one another on the treatment plan.

The treatments described below are just some of the options that may be available to a person with BPD. However, the research on treatments is still in very early stages. More studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of these treatments, who may benefit the most, and how best to deliver treatments.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is usually the first treatment for people with BPD. Current research suggests psychotherapy can relieve some symptoms, but further studies are needed to better understand how well psychotherapy works.

It is important that people in therapy get along with and trust their therapist. The very nature of BPD can make it difficult for people with this disorder to maintain this type of bond with their therapist.

Types of psychotherapy used to treat BPD include the following:Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT can help people with BPD identify and change core beliefs and/or behaviors that underlie inaccurate perceptions of themselves and others and problems interacting with others. CBT may help reduce a range of mood and anxiety symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors.

  1. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). This type of therapy focuses on the concept of mindfulness, or being aware of and attentive to the current situation. DBT teaches skills to control intense emotions, reduces self-destructive behaviors, and improves relationships. This therapy differs from CBT in that it seeks a balance between changing and accepting beliefs and behaviors.
  2. Schema-focused therapy. This type of therapy combines elements of CBT with other forms of psychotherapy that focus on reframing schemas, or the ways people view themselves. This approach is based on the idea that BPD stems from a dysfunctional self-image—possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences—that affects how people react to their environment, interact with others, and cope with problems or stress.

Therapy can be provided one-on-one between the therapist and the patient or in a group setting. Therapist-led group sessions may help teach people with BPD how to interact with others and how to express themselves effectively.

One type of group therapy, Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS), is designed as a relatively brief treatment consisting of 20 two-hour sessions led by an experienced social worker. Scientists funded by NIMH reported that STEPPS, when used with other types of treatment (medications or individual psychotherapy), can help reduce symptoms and problem behaviors of BPD, relieve symptoms of depression, and improve quality of life. The effectiveness of this type of therapy has not been extensively studied.

Families of people with BPD may also benefit from therapy. The challenges of dealing with an ill relative on a daily basis can be very stressful, and family members may unknowingly act in ways that worsen their relative’s symptoms.

Some therapies, such as DBT-family skills training (DBT-FST), include family members in treatment sessions. These types of programs help families develop skills to better understand and support a relative with BPD. Other therapies, such as Family Connections, focus on the needs of family members. More research is needed to determine the effectiveness of family therapy in BPD. Studies with other mental disorders suggest that including family members can help in a person’s treatment.

Other types of therapy not listed in this booklet may be helpful for some people with BPD. Therapists often adapt psychotherapy to better meet a person’s needs. Therapists may switch from one type of therapy to another, mix techniques from different therapies, or use a combination therapy. For more information see the NIMH website section onpsychotherapy.

Some symptoms of BPD may come and go, but the core symptoms of highly changeable moods, intense anger, and impulsiveness tend to be more persistent. People whose symptoms improve may continue to face issues related to co-occurring disorders, such as depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. However, encouraging research suggests that relapse, or the recurrence of full-blown symptoms after remission, is rare. In one study, 6 percent of people with BPD had a relapse after remission.

Medications

No medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat BPD. Only a few studies show that medications are necessary or effective for people with this illness. However, many people with BPD are treated with medications in addition to psychotherapy. While medications do not cure BPD, some medications may be helpful in managing specific symptoms. For some people, medications can help reduce symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or aggression. Often, people are treated with several medications at the same time, but there is little evidence that this practice is necessary or effective.

Medications can cause different side effects in different people. People who have BPD should talk with their prescribing doctor about what to expect from a particular medication.

Other Treatments

Omega-3 fatty acids. One study done on 30 women with BPD showed that omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce symptoms of aggression and depression. The treatment seemed to be as well tolerated as commonly prescribed mood stabilizers and had few side effects. Fewer women who took omega-3 fatty acids dropped out of the study, compared to women who took a placebo (sugar pill).

With proper treatment, many people experience fewer or less severe symptoms. However, many factors affect the amount of time it takes for symptoms to improve, so it is important for people with BPD to be patient and to receive appropriate support during treatment.

Living With

Some people with BPD experience severe symptoms and require intensive, often inpatient, care. Others may use some outpatient treatments but never need hospitalization or emergency care. Some people who develop this disorder may improve without any treatment.

How can I help a friend or relative who has BPD?

If you know someone who has BPD, it affects you too. The first and most important thing you can do is help your friend or relative get the right diagnosis and treatment. You may need to make an appointment and go with your friend or relative to see the doctor. Encourage him or her to stay in treatment or to seek different treatment if symptoms do not appear to improve with the current treatment.

To help a friend or relative you can:

Offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement—change can be difficult and frightening to people with BPD, but it is possible for them to get better over time

  • Learn about mental disorders, including BPD, so you can understand what your friend or relative is experiencing
  • With permission from your friend or relative, talk with his or her therapist to learn about therapies that may involve family members, such as DBT-FST.

Never ignore comments about someone’s intent or plan to harm himself or herself or someone else. Report such comments to the person’s therapist or doctor. In urgent or potentially life-threatening situations, you may need to call the police.

How can I help myself if I have BPD?

Taking that first step to help yourself may be hard. It is important to realize that, although it may take some time, you can get better with treatment.

To help yourself:

  • Talk to your doctor about treatment options and stick with treatment
  • Try to maintain a stable schedule of meals and sleep times
  • Engage in mild activity or exercise to help reduce stress
  • Set realistic goals for yourself
  • Break up large tasks into small ones, set some priorities, and do what you can, as you can
  • Try to spend time with other people and confide in a trusted friend or family member
  • Tell others about events or situations that may trigger symptoms
  • Expect your symptoms to improve gradually, not immediately
  • Identify and seek out comforting situations, places, and people
  • Continue to educate yourself about this disorder.

Let us know if you have any more questions or need clarification on anything.

-Lina

anonymous asked:

what's the difference between anxiety attack and panic attack?

Panic Attack

During a panic attack, the symptoms are sudden and extremely intense. These symptoms usually occur “out of the blue,” peak within 10 minutes and then subside. However, some attacks may last longer or may occur in succession, making it difficult to determine when one attack ends and another begins.

According to the DSM-IV-TR, a panic attack is characterized by four or more of the following symptoms:

  1. palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate
  2. sweating
  3. trembling or shaking
  4. sensations of shortness of breath or smothering
  5. feeling of choking
  6. chest pain or discomfort
  7. nausea or abdominal distress
  8. feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
  9. feelings of unreality (derealization) or being detached from oneself (depersonalization)
  10. fear of losing control or going crazy
  11. fear of dying
  12. numbness or tingling sensations (paresthesias)
  13. chills or hot flushes

Anxiety

Anxiety, on the other hand, generally intensifies over a period of time and is highly correlated to excessive worry. The symptoms of anxiety are very similar to the symptoms of panic attacks and may include:

  • Muscle tension
  • Disturbed sleep
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Fatigue
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Increased startle response
  • Increased heart rate
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness

While some of these symptoms are similar to many of the symptoms associated with panic attacks, they are generally less intense. Another important distinction is that, unlike a panic attack, the symptoms of anxiety may be persistent and very long lasting — days, weeks or even months.

[x]

You Know You Are a Psychology Major When…
  1. You spend a lot of time trying to convince people that Schizophrenia and Dissociative Personality Disorder are not the same thing.
  2. You can somehow provide therapeutic discussion to everyone but yourself.
  3. You know what a DSM-IV-TR is.
  4. You also know what you can find in it.
  5. You get pissed when people confuse Bipolar Disorder with teenage hormonal mood swings.
  6. You know which stage of sleep you were in when your roommate’s alarm clock went off this morning.

Keep reading

Avoidant Personality Disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder (AVPD) is a recognised disorder which is characterized by a hypersensitivity to criticism, intense self loathing and a strong desire to isolate themselves. Sufferers believe that they lack social skills, and feel they don’t know or understand “the rules”. Hence, they tend to avoid social situations to avoid the pain of rejection by others.

People in a close relationship with them often feel frustrated by the person’s tendency to pull away from them and avoid other people. They also find it hard to lead an active social life as the sufferer refuses to go to events such as family gathering, work parties and so on. Also, they may feel pressurised to cut themselves off, too, and live in a bubble with the AVPD person. This can be a source of stress for the person and the extended family.

Although people with AVPD will generally display a number of the traits outlined below, each person is unique and different. (Also, most of us display avoidant traits at times but that doesn’t mean we have AVPD).

Symptoms and traits include the following:“always” & “never” statements; blaming; catastrophizing (automatically assuming a “worst case scenario”); circular conversations (endless arguments which repeat the same patterns); “control-me” syndrome (a tendency to form relationships with people who are controlling, narcissistic or antisocial); dependency; depression; emotional blackmail; false accusations; fear of abandonment; hypervigilance; identity disturbance ( a distorted view of oneself); impulsivity; lack of object constancy (the inability to remember that people or objects are consistent and reliable over time – regardless of whether you can see them or not); low self-esteem; mood swings; objectification (treating a person like an object); panic attacks; passive aggressive behaviour; projection (attributing one’s own feelings or traits onto another); self-hatred; “playing the victim” and thought policing (trying to question, control, or unduly influence another person’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours.)

Specifically, the DSM-IV-TR, defines Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) as being:

A pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

1. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection.

2. Is unwilling to get involved with people unless certain of being liked.

3. Shows restraint initiating intimate relationships because of the fear of being ashamed, ridiculed, or rejected due to severe low self-worth.

4. Is preoccupied with being criticized or rejected in social situations.

5. Is inhibited in new interpersonal situations because of feelings of inadequacy.

6. Views self as socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior to others

7. Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing.

A formal diagnosis must be made by a mental health professional.

Personality Disorders and their Agendas

Based on a talk from 2011 by David Mays

Antisocial: control/avoid being controlled
Borderline: be understood perfectly enough that the emptiness will end
Narcissistic: to be adored
Histrionic: be the center of attention (by being attractive/entertaining/ill)
Ocpd: follow the rules and avoid blame
Avoidant: avoid being hurt (he thought this was too much like social phobia)
Dependent: assure love and protection at any personal cost
Paranoid: stay safe in a dangerous world

He also argued that schizotypal was a variant of schizophrenia (that it should be a thought disorder, not a personality disorder, since studies have shown that it tends to turn into schizophrenia), and schizoid is more like ambulatory autism. Not sure if I agree with those or not, but the agendas for most of them seem to be fairly close (I’m the least sure about borderline, though).