drug release

5

Name: Robert Downey Jr.

Crime: From 1996 through 2001, Downey was arrested numerous times on drug-related charges including cocaine, heroin and marijuana and went several times through drug treatment programs unsuccessfully, explaining in 1999 to a judge: “It’s like I have a shotgun in my mouth, and I’ve got my finger on the trigger, and I like the taste of the gun metal.” He explained his relapses by claiming to have been addicted to drugs since the age of eight, due to the fact that his father, also an addict, had been giving them to him. 

  1. In April 1996, Downey was arrested for possession of heroin, cocaine and an unloaded .357 Magnum handgun.. A month later, while on parole, he trespassed into a neighbor’s home while under the influence of a controlled substance and fell asleep in one of the beds. He was sentenced to three years of probation and required to undergo compulsory drug testing.
  2. In 1997, he missed one of the court-ordered drug tests and had to spend six months in the Los Angeles County jail.  After Downey missed another required drug test in 1999, he was arrested once more. Despite Downey’s lawyer, he was sentenced to a three-year prison term at the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison in Corcoran, California.
  3. Before the end of his first season on Ally McBeal, over the Thanksgiving 2000 holiday, Downey was arrested when his room at Merv Griffin’s Hotel and was searched by the police, who were responding to an anonymous 911 call. Downey was under the influence of a controlled substance and in possession of cocaine and Valium. 
  4. In April 2001, while he was on parole, a Los Angeles police officer found him wandering barefoot in Culver City, just outside Los Angeles. He was arrested for suspicion of being under the influence of drugs, but was released a few hours later, even though tests showed he had cocaine in his system.

anonymous asked:

If someone has an 'enhanced metabolism' that processes drugs faster, is it easier or harder for them to overdose? Wouldn't they uptake more of a drug quicker, therefor making it more dangerous? I see this a lot with Captain America and Spider-man and such, where the dose of various medicines will be raised and I'm not sure that makes sense?

…oooooh you sure have opened a can of pharmacokinetic worms here….

Simply put, whether the drug never reaches therapeutic blood levels, or exceeds them, depends on 1) how the character’s metabolism works, and 2) what kind of drug they ingested (skip to the bolded part at the end of the post to get the tl;dr).

When you take a drug, the following happens (this process is sometimes denoted as “ADME” or “LADME”:

  1. The drug must separate from the vehicle that brought it into the body (for example, a pill must disintegrate in the stomach, releasing the drug, or an IM or IV drug must separate from its solution): Liberation
  2. The drug must be absorbed into the bloodstream (for a pill this would mean getting absorbed through the lining of the stomach or intestine, for IM injections this means getting absorbed by blood vessels running through the muscle where the drug is): Absorption
  3. The drug must be deposited from the bloodstream into a location where it can be used: Distribution
  4. The drug must be metabolized (broken down or changed by a biologic process, creating different chemicals called metabolites): Metabolism
  5. The drug metabolites must be excreted from the body: Elimination

The first end of this process is largely driven by regular old chemistry. A pill has to dissolve to release the drug, and assuming that these characters have similar stomach/small intestine environments, this is not going to be different for them.

Absorption is mostly driven by a concentration gradient (substances like to be at the same concentration across membranes, so if there’s more drug in the small intestine than there is in the blood around the small intestine, the drug gets absorbed into the blood as the concentrations try to equalize), so this too is probably not going to be all that different. Even distribution is (mostly) driven by that concentration gradient, so, again, this process wouldn’t necessarily be any different from that of a normal human.

Now, the latter half of this process is a lot more dependent on a person’s specific physiology. When we talk about metabolism, we’re talking about how the body changes ingested chemicals into something excrete-able. For many drugs, this change involves enzymes in the liver.

About 6 different liver enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of about 90% of drugs. Each different enzyme is responsible for the breakdown of a different group of drugs.

Some people have genetic mutations that cause more or less of an enzyme to be produced. People who make more of an enzyme metabolize that group of drugs faster, while people who make less of them metabolize those drugs more slowly.

Through certain genetic tests, real life people can be designated one of the following for any given group of drugs:

  • Ultrarapid Metabolizers have the genetic wiring to produce way, way more copies of an enzyme than the typical person, and metabolize the corresponding drugs very, very quickly
  • Extentive Metabolizers produce more copies of the enzyme than most people
  • Intermediate Metabolizers produce an average number of copies
  • Poor Metabolizers produce significantly fewer copies than average, leaving them unable to metabolize the drugs normally

Now, remember how I said it also has to do with what kind of drug it is? There are two different kinds of drugs I’m talking about: Active Drugs and Prodrugs. Active drugs are able to be used by the body as-is. Prodrugs only have an effect once they’ve been metabolized by the body into a different substance.

Say someone is an ultrarapid metabolizer of an active drug. They take the drug, it gets absorbed and distributed like normal, but they rapidly metabolize it into inactive substances and excrete it. This person would either get no effect from a typical dose, or only a very slight one, because the drug is never allowed to build up to effective levels in their blood before getting metabolized.

But say that same person is a poor metabolizer of a different active drug. They take the drug, it gets absorbed, but they only very slowly are able to metabolize and excrete it. The drug ends up building up in their blood and staying there longer, possibly causing an overdose of the drug at a typical dose.

The situation would be reversed if the drugs were prodrugs instead. An ultrarapid metabolizer of a prodrug ends up metabolizing too much of the active substance too quickly, possibly causing overdose, while a poor metabolizer of a prodrug maybe never metabolize enough to get effective concentrations of the end substance (check out this post on the prodrug codeine).

Finally, applying this real-life precedent to Captain America, or Flash, or Spider-Man canon evidence, you would have to assume that due to their respective super powers, they all produce a metric sh*tton of liver enzymes capable of metabolizing drugs super fast and hella effective kidneys for excreting them. Typical doses of active drugs would barely work on them, while prodrugs might have a short, but incredibly strong effect on them.

R E F E R E N C E S

meanwhile, at the FBI...
  • Trainee 1: Hey bro d'you hear about Hannibal Lecter
  • Trainee 2: What, Hannibal The Cannibal™, that guy who killed like a hundred people and ran rings around us for decades including cutting off that one chick's arm and sending it to the head of the BAU just to piss him off?
  • Trainee 1: Yeah him. He's helping us catch the Red Dragon.
  • Trainee 2: What?! No way! Why would he help US?
  • Trainee 1: Apparently they sent Will Graham into his cell and he leaned right into his face and softly whispered 'please.'
  • Trainee 2: Oh okay now I see it.
High on Love (and Morphine)

Requested by @princessnightwing : Can I please ask for a Dick Grayson x Female Reader story? <:3 The reader gets really injured on patrol and has to take strong meds, so she’s loopy. You can decide what random things she might say, but at some point she says “I could beat the snot out of you.” (or something like that) and Dick just responds with “I know.” and a smile. Please and thank you!!! Thank you so much! 💙

A/N: Sorry this took so long love, and that it’s so short! If you’d like me to write something a little longer just let me know! ❤️

Tagging: @jadedhillon @laryssa-the-jedi
@just-a-girl-maybe @tim-help

____________________________________

“Dick,” You blinked groggily up at your boyfriend, waving him over to your bed in the medbay with exaggerated, sloppy movements.
“Yes sweetheart?” Dick was grinning at you when he walked over, and you didn’t like it. This was serious. “Come closer,” you complained when he stopped next to the bed and tucked a few stray strands of hair behind your ear. He chuckled but obliged, leaning down so that his face hovered above yours, expression full of mirth.

You grabbed him by the shoulder, tugging so that he was close enough that you were able to stage whisper in his ear. “I think Alfred drugged me,” You released him, settling back into the pillows and frowning in deep concern up at him. “I’m pretty sure he did too,” He nodded, barely concealed laughter in his voice. “You were stabbed in the ribs last night babe, you’re on morphine for the pain,”

“Ohhh,” You glanced down at your body under the sheets, poking at your ribs where you guessed the injury was. “Ow,” You mumbled, surprised at the flair of pain the action brought. Dick sat down on the edge of the bed, taking your hands in his, bringing them to his lips to kiss your knuckles.
“That’s what happens when you don’t wait for backup,” He stated sternly, but you could see the slight upwards quirk of his lips that he was trying and failing to hide behind your hands. You huffed. “I could still beat the snot out of you Grayson,”

Your eyelids were getting heavy now, and you gave in to the temptation of closing them without any struggle. “I know,” You could hear the warmth in his voice, and a moment later you felt his lips brush against your forehead. “Dick?” You mumbled sleepily. “Hmm?” “Stay with me,”

You could feel the darkness swimmimg behind your eyelids, threatening to pull you under again. You didn’t want to leave Dick, not when the last time the darkness had taken you it had almost been forever. “I’ll be right here,” The promise seemed to come from far away, but you hummed in answer anyway, hoping he could hear you. “Love you Dick,” The pressure around your fingers squeezed tighter. “I love you too,” You sighed contentedly, finally letting go and allowing the darkness to pull you under. You knew that when you woke Dick would be there waiting for you.

youtube

For pride month. Anti-flag’s right to choose.

When this song came into my life, my oldest friend had been forcibly Outed for being Lesbian by a classmate, kicked out of her home, and attempted suicide. My mix tape(it was early 2000’s ok?) Had made it to the apartment she had been staying in, with this song on it.
It saved her life.
That same year, I was experiancing my own first same sex relationship in the buckle of the bible belt and had my first run ins with violence, as a group of men cat called and then, threw full beer cans at us, me gaurding my date my lip bruised and cut as a can clipped my face.
Another time, after a very passionate argument with my girlfriend, I got a call from my bestfriends stepmother. My friend and her girlfriend were nearly beaten to death by neo nazis outside a venue in petaluma california. Lungs pirced by broken ribs and head trauma we didnt know if she’d lived through morning.
I couldn’t do a thing but pray, and cry in my girlfriends arms. This was the first song my friend listened to once she felt well enough to listen.
Another friend of mine was sent off to coversion camp for kissing a boy. He came back and tried to kill himself, failed, and institutionalized for a year before being released, fighting drug addiction for years till music, and love saved his life.
MDC is playing at my venue and i am on a date with my boyfriend. A group of white Supremacists come in and the venue is ready to break skulls. A local band walks up to them and hands them their band tshirt that reads “fuck racism” with a KKK hooded figure hanging from a tree on it and says its “on the house.” The group leaves with out causing a scene, but we stay on alert walking each other home, or cars, or bus stops to not be jumped.
My sister announces that she doesn’t believe Bisexuals do not exist that they are just greedy if they do. One is sitting right next to her at the thanks giving table texting her lovers a happy thanksgiving.

Recently one of our friends came out as Trans now that they can safely do so away from their abusive overly religious family.
We played Cards Against Humanity and talked about technology, punk rock, and sewing techniques.


These are only afew of my own experiances. A drop in my personal bucket as a Bisexual woman.
Punk rock for me, has been a constant in my life, and it’s a movement that could not happen without the LGBTQ community, and POC. Without which many of my friends, ex lovers and new, would never have been able to endure their hardships without.
Punk Rock, music saves lives.
Don’t give in. Fight.

Thrown out by her family
In the midst of anger
Mom and dad can’t make sense
Of her sexual preference
It seems the cars
Just drive by on this night
No one has any idea
What this feels like

You wave your flag
Tell me I’m free
Then use the word fag
To fuck with me

Judged by parents and the public
The Fingers pointed at them
Well I’ll point mine right back
They Must Realize
You can’t change whom you love
And gender is not the issue

That night she said, “I will be true”
Meant every word she said to you

It seems today, to be yourself
Takes so much courage and strength
If you were half the human, as people who “come out”
This world would be a better place

You wave your flag
Tell me I’m free
Then use the word fag
To fuck with me
Go and wave your flag [x3]
I’m free, fucking free!! YeaHH!!

Serial killer Richard Chase, also known as ”The Vampire of Sacramento“ often injected animal blood into his system. By doing this, he thought it would prevent his heart from shrinking. In 1975, he was hospitalized after injecting rabbit’s blood into his veins. Shortly after, he was committed to a mental institution. The staff there began referring to him as ”Dracula“. They discovered dead birds outside the hospital window, and Chase admitted that he drank the blood from the birds. On several occasions, he’d defecate on himself and smear his feces on the walls. A year after undergoing treatments involving psychotropic drugs, he was released to his mother.

Crime AUs!

please, please, please read the tags on each work! some fics might have disturbing/triggering content! be safe! 

1. Has Me By My Heart by LoadedGunn (29k)

[+] Harry steals hearts, Niall steals everything else, and Louis should probably be less cool about knives being thrown at his head.

2. no pressure, no diamonds by karamelised (42k/chaptered)

[+] Louis is a thief, Harry a grifter. They are thrown together for a huge diamond heist in Paris, where their past soon catches up to them.

3. your mind was twisted (your heart was no different) by styles_allure (26k/chaptered)

[+] the au where Louis is a notorious serial killer, who kills for the money. Harry has just inherited billions, and he is soft and gentle.

(additional warnings: major character death, violence)

Keep reading

Jon and Word Association
  • Doctor: So I'm gonna do a little word association-
  • Crane: I don't need a description.
  • Doctor: Right. Okay, the word is "People".
  • Crane: Cattle.
  • Doctor: Mistake.
  • Crane: Me.
  • Harley: Oh my god, do you need a hug?
  • Doctor: Murder.
  • Crane: Fun.
  • Doctor: Father.
  • Crane: Asshole.
  • Doctor: Mother.
  • Crane: I know what you're doing.
  • Doctor: Mother.
  • Crane: You think you're smart, don't you?
  • Doctor: Mother.
  • Harley: Doctor Crane maintains the right not to answer or reply.
  • Crane: Say it again.
  • Doctor: Mother.
  • Crane: Anguish.
  • Doctor: Family.
  • Crane: Emptiness.
  • Doctor: Home.
  • Crane: Broken.
  • Doctor: Hope.
  • Crane: Agony.
  • Doctor: Drugs.
  • Crane: Yes please.
  • Harley: *laughs*
  • Doctor: Let me repeat that: "Drugs"
  • Crane: Release.
  • Doctor: Sleep.
  • Crane: Uh... Suicide.
  • Doctor: Prison.
  • Crane: Isolation.
  • Doctor: Purpose.
  • Crane: Fear.

Inktober 06: HIDDEN

This is based on nothing but headcanons and pure speculation, but I think that the day when the bandits attacked was not the first time Casimir thought of escaping Nightcaller Temple.

In the dream sequence, we see him release the Miasma, so assuming that the dream was “real”(which I assumed) he couldn’t have had more than a few seconds to make that escape before the Miasma would fog his mind for good. As if the thought had been lurking in this mind the whole time without him being able to decide for or against it.

I always imagined the Vaermina cult to operate, like some real life cults, on a copious amount of brainwashing, and considering what a high level of alchemical art they practiced there, probably a lot of sedatives to boot. Casimir either beileved whatever his cultists were championing for, or was made to believe; but maybe at some point, for whatever reason, a grain of doubt or unease started growing in his mind that he didn’t know what to do with, and had to keep as a secret even from his best friends. Of course, even the slightest hint of disobedience against Vaermina was met with swift and merciless retaliation and therefore escape would have been near impossible even for a brave and strong mind. 

We do know that Casimir was neither strong nor brave. He probably didn’t even dare think of confrontation; all he knew was that something was wrong, and he was suffocating under it.

When he said: “I’m ready to do as Vaermina wills” only he and Vaermina knew that was a lie: he was already weighing the idea in his mind back and forth, and when he pulled the handle to release the drug, he thought: I either do it now, or I lay down to die. On nothing but a mere impulse, he made the leap.

tl;dr Skyrim related headcanons, contains spoilers

Cotard’s Delusion is a mental disorder where people suffer the nihilistic delusion that they are dead or no longer exist. First reported in the 1700s, the disorder is still largely a mystery today.

Here is a case study:

In 2008, New York psychiatrists reported on a 53-year-old patient, Ms. Lee, who complained that she was dead and smelled like rotting flesh. She asked her family to take her to a morgue so that she could be with other dead people. They dialed 911 instead. Ms. Lee was admitted to the psychiatric unit, where she accused paramedics of trying to burn her house down. After a month or so of a drug regimen, she was released with great improvement in her symptoms.

2

“Killing is killing whether done for duty, profit or fun.”

The Tale of The Nightstalker

Richard Ramirez’s reign of terror lasted from July 1984 to August 1985 and left 14 people dead.

Ramirez prowled the small towns of Southern California and San Francisco. He would break into random houses and terrorize the occupants. If a couple lived there, Ramirez would shoot the man dead first, then beat and rape the woman. He would demand to know where they kept their valuables. A Satanist, Ramirez would force her to “swear on Satan” when she said there were no more valuables for him to take. Sometimes he would let his victims live.

Ramirez had no preference as far as victim type was concerned. He preyed on the elderly, women, children and men. He also used various methods to kill – strangulation, shooting and bludgeoning.

Born in El Paso, Texas on February 29, 1960 to Julian and Mercedes Ramirez, he was the youngest of five children.

Julian Ramirez was known to have a violent temper and was abusive. Richard Ramirez suffered two significant head injuries as a child. At age 2, a dresser fell on top of him and was hit with a swing and knocked unconscious at age 5. After the last severe injury, Ramirez began to have epileptic seizures, which lasted until early adolescence.

Ramirez began to fall under the influence of his cousin Miguel (Mike) Ramirez at age 12.

Mike Ramirez was a decorated Army Green Beret. He shared gruesome stories of raping and murdering women during his time serving in Vietnam. Cousin Mike even showed young Richie photos he took of the terrified women tied to trees as he was about to rape them and of him posing with the severed head of one of his victims.

In May of 1973, Ramirez witnessed his cousin shoot and kill his wife, Jesse. After witnessing the murder, Ramirez withdrew from family and friends. He went to live with his sister Ruth, whose husband Roberto was a peeping tom. Roberto brought Ramirez on his nighttime excursions to peep at women. Ramirez also began experimenting with drugs at this time.

Mike Ramirez was committed to a mental institution and was released in 1977.

Ramirez’s criminal behavior began during adolescence when he was working at a Holiday Inn. He began burglarizing customers’ rooms. Ramirez lost his job after he was caught in the act of raping a woman in her room. Her husband returned to the room just in time and beat Ramirez.  The couple refused to press charges because they lived out of state and didn’t want to return to Texas to testify against him.

Ramirez completed the 9th grade and dropped out of high school. He moved to California at age 22.

The first murder Ramirez committed wasn’t discovered until 2009 through a DNA match. The victim was 9-year-old Mei Leung who was found beaten, raped and stabbed to death in a hotel basement on April 10, 1984 in San Francisco.

Ramirez’s next victim was 79-year-old Jennie Vincow. He broke into her apartment in Glassell Park. Ramirez stabbed her to death, slashing her throat and almost decapitating her.

Ramirez attacked three women, killing two of them on March 17, 1985. Ramirez shot 22-year-old Maria Hernandez in the face. She put her hands up defensively and her keys deflected the bullet, saving her life. Her roommate, 34-year-old Dale Okazaki, wasn’t as lucky. Ramirez shot her in the head, killing her. An hour later, he pulled 30-year-old Veronica Hu from her car and shot her to death.

The three attacks and two murders in one day attracted the attention of the media. Maria Hernandez was also able to provide a description.

Ramirez returned to a home he robbed one year before on March 27, 1985. He killed Vincent Zazzara, 64, shooting him in the head as he slept on the couch. Zazzara’s wife, 44-year-old, Maxine was beaten by Ramirez. He tied her hands and demanded her to tell him where her valuables were. As Ramirez ransacked her home, Maxine managed to get out of her bonds and got a shotgun that was under the bed. When she pulled the trigger, she found it wasn’t loaded.

The fact that Maxine Zazzara had threatened Ramirez with a shotgun enraged him. He shot her to death then decided he wanted part of her. Ramirez got a butcher knife from the kitchen and mutilated her, cutting out her eyes and placing them in a jewelry box.

Ramirez left behind a shoe print in a flowerbed, later identified as a pair of Avia sneakers. The murder of the Zazzaras was linked to the previous crimes by bullets recovered at the scene.

Ramirez would claim his next victim on May 14, 1985. He beat Bill Doi, 66, to death. He bound his disabled wife, Lillian, 56, with thumbcuffs. then robbed the Doi’s home and raped her. Lillian Doi survived the attack to provide a description.

His next victims were Mabel “Ma” Bell, 83, and her sister Florence “Nettie” Lang, 81. Ramirez bludgeoned Lang with a hammer and tied her up. He did the same to Bell, then shocked her with an electrical cord. He raped Lang and drew a pentagram with lipstick on her inner thigh and on the bedroom wall. Bell and Lang were found alive two days later. Bell didn’t survive her injuries.

Ramirez broke into the home of Carol Kyle, 42, the day after his attack on Bell and Lang. He handcuffed Kyle and her 11-year-old son together, then proceeded to ransack the house.

He then unbound Kyle and demanded she show him where the valuables were. Ramirez put her son in the closet, then repeatedly sodomized his mother. He took the child from the closet, then handcuffed him to his mother again before leaving.

Ramirez’s home invasions would continue, leaving a trail of rape and murder that would come to an end in August 1985.

Police had ballistic and shoeprint evidence that matched up with other Night Stalker crime scenes. During a press conference the Mayor of San Francisco leaked an important piece of evidence – the Avia shoe print. Investigators found the particular sneaker was rare. It was a new type of sneaker and only one pair had been delivered to the Los Angeles area. Of course, detectives knew the perpetrator would hear about it and get rid of the sneakers.

 Ramirez was definitely following the media coverage of his crimes. On Aug. 24, 1985, he broke into the home of Bill Carns, 30, and his fiancée Inez Erickson, 29. Before Ramirez left, he told Erickson, “Tell them the Night Stalker was here.”

 As he left their home, a neighbor, 13-year-old James Romero III recognized Ramirez as the “weird looking guy in black” he had seen earlier that night. Suspicious, he wrote down as much as he could of the license plate of the stolen orange Toyota Ramirez was driving.  When he heard about the attack on the neighbors, Romero told his parents about Ramirez and had the partial license plate number. Erickson also provided a vivid description of her attacker to investigators.

 The abandoned Toyota was found on Aug. 28 and a fingerprint was found on the rearview mirror. The print was traced to Ramirez because of earlier arrests for traffic and drug violations. Investigators released a mug shot of Ramirez from a previous arrest for car theft in December 1984.

Ramirez wasn’t aware that his face was now known to the public.  He had been in Arizona visiting his brother. When he returned to Los Angeles and stopped at a convenience store. Ramirez noticed his face staring back at him from a news rack after he overheard an elderly woman call him “El Matador” (the killer). Residents began to recognize him. He ran from the store and tried to carjack a woman. He was chased away by witnesses who ran after him. An angry mob who recognized him from the papers formed and chased Ramirez. He was hit in the head with a metal bar. The group held Ramirez until police arrived.

Ramirez was convicted of 13 counts of murder, five attempted murders, 11 sexual assaults and 14 burglaries. He was sentenced to death but the sentence would never be carried out. Richard Ramirez died of cancer on June 7, 2013.