drug regulation

Molecule of the Day: Thalidomide

Thalidomide (C13H10N2O4) is a white powder that is insoluble in water under standard conditions. It was marketed in the late 1950s to the early 1960s as a morning sickness drug for pregnant women, but eventually gained infamy and was withdrawn from the market after it was shown to be responsible for many congenital defects in infants whose mothers consumed it.

Thalidomide was first developed in West Germany during the 1950s, and was found to be a highly effective antiemetic (drug that reduces vomiting and nausea). It was then marketed as a drug to treat morning sickness, which is a common physiological effect of pregnancy. As drug testing regulations were less stringent then, extensive human trials were not required for drugs to be produced and sold. Some companies even claimed that thalidomide was “completely safe” and had “no adverse effect on both mother and child”.

However, this was proven wrong, and thalidomide was withdrawn from the market in most countries in the early 1960s due to public pressure. Sadly, it was too late; an estimated 10,000 children were born with deformities during this period due to their mothers’ thalidomide usage. Birth defects caused by thalidomide included heart and eye deformities, underdeveloped or missing limbs, as well as brain damage.

It is believed that thalidomide produces these effects by binding to cereblon, a protein that is critical in limb formation and myeloma cell proliferation in foetuses. Additionally, it inhibits angiogenesis (the development of blood vessels), which is critical in the formation of limbs as they contain highly complex systems of blood vessels.

While the S-isomer (below right) of thalidomide was found to be responsible for these congenital defects, the problem cannot be solved by administering the R-isomer (below left); thalidomide racemises in the body to form a mixture of stereoisomers via keto-enol tautomerisation. Hence, S-thalidomide will still be formed in vivo even if pure R-thalidomide is administered.

To synthesise thalidomide, phthalic anhydride and glutamic acid are first reacted to form the corresponding phthalimide, which is then dehydrated to form the cyclic acid anhydride. It is then reacted with urea to produce thalidomide.

Requested by anonymous

anonymous asked:

I also live under the system that you claim is so horrible. Is your sister a US citizen? I'm American and my mother pays for the healthcare of all three of us and she's never had a problem. We are not rich. There's a lot of shit going on in the U.K. with the labor party and parliament right now that you should be focused on. There's a show called BBC question time in case you don't follow the politics of your own country. ☺️

Thank you for your concern, anon, but it’s unnecessary. I’m a law student—ergo, I am neck deep in British politics already, so your recommendation about Question Time while appreciated, is really redundant. Surprisingly, people have no problem being concerned about and discussing domestic and international politics. We have learned to juggle that, because even American domestic politics tend to have international consequences. Remember that time the Republican Party played chicken with the debt ceiling in an attempt to destroy funding for Obamacare and that jittered global financial markets? Yeah. I also happen to study public international law and human rights law, and the way economic and social rights like the right to healthcare are understood globally is part of my course, so pardon my interest in the ongoing attempt to repeal Obamacare.

1. Well, to answer your question, my sister is not an American citizen; but all the same she’s lived under that system. She had to enrol onto a health plan as a university student studying in the US. When she needed medication and vaccinations, it was expensive as hell; she had to pay it out of pocket on top of the premium because for some reason or another that drug wasn’t covered. Both of us had prior to lived under some form of universal healthcare, and she never had to fork out so much money for health care and medication before. In short, she’s in the US on a student visa—it’s not a case where she failed to purchase insurance. Obamacare has tried to improve the situation but healthcare costs are still seriously inflated compared to other systems she has lived under. Maybe you think that’s normal- my sister will tell you it’s not.

2. And if you noticed, in that post I wrote comparing health outcomes and spending between the US and other systems of universal healthcare—unlike you, I’m not under the illusion that anecdotal experiences alone are good rebuttals. I posted charts and links from data and studies which demonstrated time and again that you guys are spending far more on healthcare per capita than practically every other wealthy developed country without better life expectancy, health outcomes or the ability to guarantee access to those unable to pay. I didn’t merely rely on my own experience of the NHS’ single-payer system when responding to someone who was baldly asserting that healthcare in the EU & those other Asian countries with universal healthcare ‘paled’ in comparison to the US, and who was ludicrously claiming we were coming over in droves to enjoy this fantastic health care. It is curious that you think ‘I’m American, my mother pays for the healthcare for all three of us, and she’s never had a problem’ is an answer to that—hell, you don’t even have to listen to me. 

3. You are telling me all those criticisms levelled by your fellow Americans at your country’s healthcare system are all imaginary, merely because you personally have no problem with healthcare? Honestly, if you have no problems with your healthcare I’m glad. Healthcare is not something anybody should ever go bankrupt over. I’m aware that different states have different rules, and some have done a good job with making ACA work. I hope that is the case for you. But all the same- if there’s nothing wrong with your system, why is everyone continuing to rework it- including the Republicans? The ACA tried to improve it but it’s still unfinished. The US is a system where you can have the best healthcare in the world if you are wealthy because of how much medical R&D goes on- but the worst in the developed world if you are poor and unemployed. And that’s the measure that matters- how those who are the most vulnerable are treated. 

4. And I’ve to ask if you have ever seriously had your health coverage tested. You never quite know how much your health coverage is worth until there is a medical emergency. And that’s exactly what I mean. My family would be paying through the nose for cancer medication if we were American, because that particular drug costs over $100,000 per year in the United States even though it is years out of its patent thanks to the failure of the US government to take a sledgehammer to inflated drug prices and medical costs. And I haven’t even mentioned the long hospitalisation that family member had after 3 surgeries to remove a recurring tumour, not to mention all the follow up check-ups, blood tests and MRI scans to ensure it doesn’t come back. Universal healthcare saved his life, and also saved all of us a whole lot of stress because being sick is bad enough, let alone worrying about whether you can pay. Yeah, I am glad he is not American. Because he got sick way before the ACA banned rejecting people for pre-existing conditions and tried to better regulate abuse of the market. Maybe people will call this ‘free-loading’, but you know what? Prior to his illness, when he was younger and healthier—he had been a taxpayer contributing his bit to the social safety net with the understanding that everyone contributes to the system that we all need to use someday.

5. This is what happens when pharmaceutical companies can donate to candidates because there aren’t campaign spending limits or prohibitions on corporate donations. These things are either outright illegal or heavily regulated in other developed countries for good reason that you don’t want these corporations writing our healthcare laws. Additionally, practically every other developed country has aggressively acted to combat price inflation in the health industry, often by having governments use their massive bargaining power representing millions of healthcare users bargain down the price of drugs, or government regulations requiring publication of procedure costs across the board to identify price gouging. You should do a comparison of the cost of US medical procedures—they are frequently multiple times that of other wealthy countries offering the same quality. Can you look at this chart and tell me it’s acceptable? There’s more where it came from!

6. With single-payer healthcare in the UK, nobody has to go bankrupt because of a health emergency, nobody has to have their kids’ lives disrupted to make ends meet because the risk is spread out amongst millions of people. Healthcare coverage is also completely detached from employment, so coverage doesn’t depend on having a job, employers don’t have to expend money figuring out coverage and employees are mobile. Sounds like a good thing for the economy, no? Is our system perfect? Hell no! Healthcare is always a complex issue. But we have achieved all of this at a lower cost than the US healthcare system. And single-payer isn’t even the only system out there- Germany and Singapore are two examples of countries that have a mixed system of public and private insurance to cover everybody. Every other wealthy country has figured this out for decades. If the GOP can’t come up with a solution, it’s not because there aren’t dozens of real-life models running for decades to choose from. 

So, maybe take your own advice. Do your fellow Americans a favour and follow the politics of your own country more closely. Especially when the latest GOP bill would magnify the worst problems of the ACA and probably even destroy health insurance markets and creates a perverse incentive not to buy healthcare if you unfortunately lapsed for 2 months. It might even affect your present health insurance. Maybe even read up more on how other countries do it and realise the inflated costs still plaguing the system are unacceptable, inasmuch as ACA tried to help. And yeah, I stand by what I said. It’s terrible the most powerful country in the world and engine of the global economy doesn’t guarantee its citizens the healthcare they deserve. 

anonymous asked:

About the not liking President Bush- I guess can you explain both maybe?

I’ll stick to the kiddo:

1. He stole the presidency in 2000. People may forget that Republicans in Florida purged more than 50,000 African American voters before Election Day, and then went to the Supreme Court where the GOP-appointed majority stopped a recount that would have awarded the presidency to Vice President Al Gore if all votes were counted. National news organizations verified that outcome long after Bush had been sworn in.

2. He covered up his past. He was the scion of a powerful political family who got away with being a deserter during the Vietnam War. He was reportedly AWOL for over a year from his assigned unit, the Texas Air National Guard, which other military outfits called the “Champagne Division.”

3. As Texas governor from 1995-2000, he signed the most execution orders of any governor in U.S. history- 152 people, including the mentally ill and women who were domestic abuse victims. He spared one man’s life, a serial killer.

4. He embraced global isolationism. He withdrew from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, over Russia’s protest, taking the U.S. in a direction not seen since World War I.

5. He ignored warnings about Osama bin Laden. He ignored the Aug. 6, 2001 White House intelligence briefing titled, “Bin Laden determined to strike in the U.S.” Meanwhile, his chief anti-terrorism advisor, Richard Clarke, and first Treasury Secretary, Paul O’Neill, testified in Congress that he was intent on invading Iraq within days of becoming president.

6. Bush turned to Iraq not Afghanistan. The Bush administration soon started beating war drums for an attack on Iraq, where there was no proven Al Qaeda link, instead of Afghanistan, where the 9/11 bombers had trained and Osama bin Laden was based. His 2002 State of the Union speech declared that Iraq was part of an “Axis of Evil.”

7. He flat-out lied about Iraq’s weapons. In a major speech in October 2002, he said that Saddam Hussein had the capacity to send unmanned aircraft to the U.S. with bombs that could range from chemical weapons to nuclear devices. “We cannot wait for the final proof- the smoking gun- that could come in the form of a mushroom cloud,” he said.

8. Bush launched the second Iraq War. In April 2003, the U.S. military invaded Iraq for the second time in two decades, leading to hundreds of thousands of civilian deaths and more than a million refugees as a years of sectarian violence took hold on Iraq. Nearly 6,700 U.S. soldiers have died in the Iraq and Afghan wars. 

9. Bush ignored international ban on torture. Suspected terrorists were captured and tortured by the U.S. military in Baghdad’s Abu Gharib prison, in the highest profile example of how the Bush White House ignored international agreements, such as the Geneva Convention, that banned torture, and created a secret system of detention that was unmasked when photos made their way to the American media outlets.

10. Bush violated U.S. Constitution. The Bush White House ignored basic civil liberties, most notably by launching a massive domestic spying program where millions of Americans’ online activities were monitored with the help of big telecom companies. The government had no search warrant or court authority for its electronic dragnet.

11. Assault on reproductive rights. From the earliest days of his first term, the Bush White House led an assault on reproductive rights. He cut funds for UN family planning programs, barred military bases from offering abortions, put right-wing evangelicals in regulatory positions where they rejected new birth control drugs, and issued regulations making fetuses- but not women- eligible for federal healthcare.

12. Said evolution was a theory. One of his most inflammatory comments was saying that public schools should teach that evolution is a theory with as much validity as the religious belief in intelligent design, or God’s active hand in creating life.

13. Millions more lacked access to healthcare. Following these poverty trends, the number of Americans without health insurance was 38.4 million when Clinton left office. When Bush left, that figure had grown by nearly 8 million to 46.3 million, the Census found. Those with employer-provided benefits fell every year he was in office. 

anonymous asked:

meg what do you do when you can't sleep but have a r al job meg please help

uhhh tbh I usually just end up staring into the void and yelling silently because I Can’t Even Sleep, A Normal Human Function, Right but I have learned some tricks to mitigate it.

  • This is where I should tell you to look up Good Sleep Hygiene but number one I live in a studio and my bed is my couch and number two you will take my phone away from me at night when you take it from my cold, grasping hands. But i understand it can be very helpful, if your problem is getting to sleep
    • cold room, warm blankets does actually help
    • white noise machine, I run a fan all year around
    • nobody’s going to like this especially me but I have a rule that no caffeine after noon happens if i have to get up the next day, so like … cut off about ten hours before you go to bed? Eight? 
      • sometimes I like lie awake and worry about them delegalizing caffeine. Supposing they did. SUPPOSING.
    • Relaxing music / soothing podcast as tolerated although I can’t handle it because I have to Listen To It
    • rituals to remind your brain hey asshole it’s sleepy time. warm herbal tea. (Not cocoa, chocolate has caffeine.) Warm bath or shower. Little spritz of lavender water on the pillow. Melatonin works for some people but since it’s not a regulated drug it’s kind of hard to get a brand that works consistently and apparently some studies are like “mmm, placebo effect!!!”
  • Then if after all that you can’t go to sleep, it;s time for the hard part: YOU HAVE TO PRETEND YOU’RE ASLEEP ANYWAY. Breathe like you’re asleep, keep your eyes shut, maybe have a soothing fantasy of idk something soothing although my brain usually ends up with things chasing me because my brain is a dick unless I’m spending effort to remind it that Crystals Growing Out of People’s Eyes Are Not Soothing. Imagine a river, but don’t look too close in the depths. Don’t look in the forest either. 
    • there was a study done and apparently my mother was correct every time she told me that if I couldn’t take a nap I had to lie quietly anyway: just lying with your eyes closed and breathing like you’re asleep is – not as good as sleep but definitely ten times better than no rest at all. I think there was a Mythbusters episode about it!
    • I’m not sure of the exact breathing pattern but its pretty easy to google. I usually breathe something like 7 in 4 hold 8 out or I just try to concentrate on inflating and deflating my lungs entirely. Really pay attention to feeling them work.
  • If you wake up in the middle night, well that sucks I feel your pain it’s the worst but I’ve never figured out a better way to deal with it other than breathing exercises and maybe imagining a really sleepy scene (again strictly avoiding anything that looks like the Void) because unless you’ve woken up because you had to pee, getting up or doing anything but thinking “fuck” bleakly and rearranging your covers is fatal. If you’ve been woken up say by the cat yelling that the Void is coming for him and he needs more food, get the cat to stop yelling, or fix what environmental things you can. Otherwise, just Pretend You’re Asleep. 
  • some soothing things to visualize:
    • petting an animal (as long as the Void doesn’t try to make it like, secretly a Beholder, but what the hell, maybe Beholders like being scritched? You can be a Ranger of Beholders and have a herd of them to destroy your enemies with.)
    • cooking and eating a meal you really enjoy
    • how when [Favorite Character] is half asleep [Other Favorite Character] crawls into bed with them and gives them just a little smooch behind the ear and then they cuddle up to [Favorite Character]
    • a tree, which sounds stupid but really, consider a tree: it has leaves and animals and bugs in it. It sinks down to the soil and there’s worms digging through the soil. There’s fruit, maybe. Trees are very interesting. 
  • Finally if all else fails because you know the fuckers gonna ask did you try everything, first you try the TylenolPM and see if that helps (don’t take it for more than a few nights and for fuck’s sake follow the label directions - and plan ahead for it too because I always get a sleep hangover) and then you go to the doctor and be like HEY WHATS UP BITCH I CAN’T FUCKING SLEEP AT NIGHT and hopefully the Miracle of Modern Medicine will help.

I’m sorry, looking this over I don’t know how much help this really is. But insomnia is the worst.

How to get *Hormones* HRT

This small article (goes to people over 18) will be about how to take care yourself and do what you want, in transition. Not letting government Regulations and doctors opions slowing down your transition.
So if you are an MtF or TS or …. if this has helped you , or if you know somebody for whom this could be if help. - Please share it.
Giving a few informations about me and my knowledge going to the important points. You can skip and read it after ;-)

1. All the informations around , i am a german student who always was curious about ladyboys or shemales. A little pervert, i am sorry, but that is who i am. With 15 i started to figure out where to find some for me, i not only wanted sex , but my experiences taught me that having a bio girl is not working for me.
I travelled to Thailand and you can believe me or not but i luckily found a ladyboy who really loves me and still does it today (5 years later) i was really lucky because that’s not often the case, the LBs are not easy to get , specially for long term relationship, i made some as i call them “personal Studies” meeting some LBs (keeping it secret to my LB gf) and there where some difficulties.
My girlfriend is 11 years older, i think that played in my Hands, we saw each other every year for the whole summer holiday 4-6weeks and stayed together 24/7. I can tell you both extrems distance and 24/7 is a heart test for a relationship. No she became older and our sex-life somehow broke up, now we are having a sexual-open-realationship . We skype called all the time at least every second day.
You can’t imagine what expertise about Thailand and it’s ladyboys i got. I learned well , life and school thought me a lot, so knowing that knowledge only from one source has better to be verified by another source.
Making some new thai friends and eating thousands of times with all her friends or all my other thai friends friends adding all information i research from the Internet, i got a good knowledge about everything what was in my interest.
I believe i am a really smart person (but laziness keeps me away from success).
So i always was good in biology and chemistry toke an extra course in both subjects at my school. Some of my hobbies is to read Wikipedia, you can really learn alot from that. And i am politically interested and stand for freedom (personal+economical) and for self-responibilty (eigenverantwortlich).
I believe everyone is the maker of his one luck and nobody should interfer here. Meaning it somebody wants to kill himself go for it , eating unhealthy it is your decision and so on. Freedom ends where anothers person freedom begins. So I would never say steal from somebody etc. This also is right for medicin for example Antibiotics wrongly used produce resistant bacteria and they harm others and there freedom. Taking hormones or paracetamol can only harm yourself (if you do it wrong) so you can do with your body what you want. I don’t know how it works in other countries but here in germany “the government” makes the assumption, “ok we know better what is good for you so you can’t ……. can …. must….” I am her to tell you that this is wrong , Only YOU know what is best for you, and if you want to ride a bike, do it , if you want to be a slut, that’s ok ,drink a beer, your way.
So if you decided for yourself , I want to be a girl , I want to take HRT even if i am not trans I just want to try ,or you want to be a Tgirl.
It’s your choice no drug regulations or family members doctors whatever should stop you. But it’s there right to share their opinion. Just not let anyone suppress you.

2. Know the real hormone Part; the standard hormone treatment is; a testosterone blocker and a estrogen supplements mostly individual dosage, in most countries these wonderful (the best hrt you can get) drugs , are expensive , only accessible through a description and often involve a hard psychological test if you are really trans.
I am a normal guy, I was confused about my identity for some months in the end I decided to stay as a guy. But in my process I wanted to know what it feels to be a girl , one of the experiments was taking hormones for one and a half month. I dosaged it between normal and strong. Never any doctor has got to know it BUT I informed myself knowing as much as I could about hormones and body systems in general (wiki) so I knew all possible side effects , I knew what to look for and what to observe. You should do that too.

Btw the effects are amazing the worked good on my I think I got a little boobies and the real effects where in my brain being a rational calm person was over I was fluted with emotions, and the where changing so fast, and to tell the truth, math was harder for me at that time , in general focusing long on unemotional things was nearly impossible my feelings went really crazy, and I got a bit more into guys that time.

I can tell you not knowing it not understanding it you won’t die. I can tell you that 70 % of the ladyboys in Thailand who take hormones, do it on there on way, it’s a normal thing , the hear from there friends what to do how to do , and sure some might die 10 years even 30 years earlier.
But all people here know : what is 10 years more if all the rest is in the wrong body (or hiding sexuality or ….) so if you are under or 20 know the question is being a happy girl for 40 years or living your closet life for 55 years.
But keep in mind you can inform yourself and with your own knowledge you reduce the risk of anything.

3. Hormones how?
you won’t get the the real HRT as described under 2. But there are some easy equivalents that work just as fine or even better because nobody is making is making you worried. My gf told me a story the she and hear friend wanted to be ladys so much and fast that they just toke more and more and more. One day the became so weak the couldn’t walk, laid in bed, and both just couldn’t hold there pee because of the weakness the overdose has oroduced (funny story) . But in the end they take the normal dosage and everything was fine. So you can try out anything and what all ladyboys in Thailand do I have heard from they try one product, if the are hapoy with it keep it, or changing to the next , they’re always looking what there body talks to them. And there are differences.

4. finally the trick about getting hormones.
The estrogen is easily find in the anti baby pill (not the aftersex emergency pill)
And they are quite easy to get.
But there are differences in each pill , some includes more/less of that or that. So depending on the easiness of getting them you should try as much as possible and find the best product for you.
The maybe strongest / best to see the fastest changes might be the “ DIANE 35” because it includes much estrogen but also progesterone which works like an testosterone “blocker” one ladyboy told me that taking that she got woman’s fat (on womanly places) but was sleeping or eating doing nothing else.
You can also work with the dosage one tablet a day 2 a day 3 a day (maximum) or half a day or every second day. Inform yourself too, you will learn much. For ex. Letting the hormones fluctuate is not good.

So how to get your pills . If you are lucky living in Thailand or a “free” country you just go to the pharmacies and buy them if the ask “it is for my sister”
I some countries it is harder. Than there are manly to ways: one you travel to the next “free” country, buy them taking them home. Or the way around is having a friend (girl) or sister , mother or somenone which is supportive , can get the prescription and you get the pills , this is how the way how I got my ones. I still have enough for a month so message me if you are a ts in germany.
That was all I have to share pleace follow and share .
Questions ? Message me robibac


“The drug war is a scam” is a libertarian idea!

I mean, if the question is “does changing attitudes toward the drug war presage a libertarian turn by the electorate?” I mean maybe, but probably not

But if the question is “did libertarian activism and think tanks significantly impact popular attitudes on the war on drugs?” – like of course Cato writing sympathetic papers on Portugal’s drug decriminalization at the very least gave the movement intellectual cover.

Right, but the end result is that the government replaces a relatively small amount of regulation (this drug is a controlled substance and you get arrested) with a huge amount of new regulation about exactly how drugs must be bought and sold and stocked and shipped and who can buy them and purchases must be tracked and records must be audited and advertising is restricted and so on for tens of thousands of pages.

This is libertarian lite in the sense that arresting people for victimless crimes and depriving them of liberty is bad and it’s good to stop doing that, but it’s not libertarian extreme in the sense of rolling back state intervention, anything but.

The state as a centralised arbiter and enforcer of community norms is only getting stronger with time, it’s just the norms that have shifted.

BSD Novel: Dazai Osamu and the Dark Era (Chapter 1, 3/9)

Just an update! I’ve gone through the previous chapters and made minor edits because of different phrasings. In part 2, I thought it was Odasaku parroting Dazai, but it was Ango and Dazai talking, apparently. Other than that, most of the content is true to the novel. Translating from the book is a lot more difficult, so expect updates to be slower.

Feel free to let me know if you spot any errors! As usual, much thanks to @nakaharachuyaa for proofreading.

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The conflict[the Vietnam War] was distinct in another way, too—over time, it came to be known as the first “pharmacological war,” so called because the level of consumption of psychoactive substances by military personnel was unprecedented in American history.
What You Need to Know About Buying Essential Oils

By Amanda Abella 

Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oils from plants for the improvement of a person’s overall well being. This alternative form of treatment has become so popular that even organizations like the National Cancer Institute have entire webpages dedicated to the uses of essential oils.

The effects of Aromatherapy are theorized to be a result of the binding of chemicals in the essential oils to the olfactory bulb, the neural structure in the vertebrae forebrain involved with our sense of smell. This binding directly affects the brain’s emotional center, the limbic system. Some essential oils are also said to have antibacterial and anti-fungal properties.

While many use essential oils as a form of therapy, it’s uses have also caused some controversy. Just recently the FDA issued warning letters to two major essential oil companies, Young Living and DoTerra, citing that they are selling products which claim to help with health concerns without the approval of the FDA. This is interesting to note because essentials oils can be regulated as either drugs (heavily regulated) or cosmetics (not so heavily regulated) depending on the company . Usually it’s the latter.

Since essential oils are typically regulated as cosmetics, and since cosmetics are the least regulated form of consumer products by the FDA, that means there are a lot of essential oils on the market that could potentially have harmful chemicals. Use our guide below to get clear on what you need to know about purchasing essential oils.

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Youtube really cannot go through with this, and if they do they might as well close the site. The only youtube big name that’s safe from this is AmazingPhil, and even he has had some sexual innuendos in his content. I’ve broken down how I see these guidelines unrealistic.

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anonymous asked:

Meds just numb your emotions . Diet, exercise and support around you is way better than taking some addictive drug for depression or anxiety which has side effects of being more suicidal ect. Side effects are still effects. I believe everyone should try absolutely every possible coping mechanism before turning to medication for help. Popping a pill is not a coping mechanism. It does not teach you anything but "everything will feel better if I take this" medication should be 100% last resort.

That isn’t what the medication is for.

You have these things called neurons in your brain. Neurons are brain cell. From neuron to neuron, there is a chemical transfer between neurons, and these chemicals are called Neuortransmitters.

There is a neuortransmitter called Serotonin. Here is what is is responsible for:

As a neurotransmitter, serotonin influences both directly and indirectly the majority of brain cells. The following is a list of things that it is thought that serotonin could affect:

Mood and social behavior
Appetite and digestion
Sexual desire and function.

The majority of anti depressants that are prescribed are called SSRI or Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors.  What SSRIs do is prevent the reuptake of serotonin back into the previous neuron, so that it lingers in the synapse longer (the area between two neurons) and has more of a chance of the serotonin going into the next neuron. This can amplify the affect of serotonin, making it more likely to work, which can really benefit those suffering from depression, because depression is believed to be linked to individuals having a deficit of serotonin in the brain, or it is not being processed efficiently. The blocking of the ability to reuptake allows the next cell not to create a lot more serotonin, which is a lot of work for the cell itself. 

They commonly are prescribed first in small doses, and should be used along with therapy and exerisize. Popping a pill isn’t a coping mechanism, your right. But depression isn’t just being sad and not being able to handle it.  It is not being able to get out of bed, not being able to function. SSRIs help you be able to function.

Just like if you were sick with a physical illness you would take medication, you can take SSRIs for things like depression and anxiety. These drugs are tightly regulated by the FDA and can only be prescribed for a few conditions, and only if the doctor or psychiatrists believes they would help.

Here is a picture of what SSRIs do between the neuron:

SSRIs can help the brain function normally when it is not. Its important to learn what these drugs do for the brain before we assume they don’t provide a lot of help. I am taking an SSRI, and it really helps me be able to function.


Burn It Up | Chapter No. 1
  • Type: Alternate Universe, Gang, Drugs, Anarchy 
  • Characters: BTS, Block B, Original Characters 
  • Rating: M+

News Alert


October 22, 0273

In Recent months, citizen membership to the illegal underground clubs located in the Bastions has spiked. It is said to be caused by a relatively new group who have created a hybrid of a toxic drug, being sold under the name Syst. Since the government crack down on Spear One of the Bastions last year, crime, substances, and club participation have plummeted. We can only hope that this sudden scare will be taken care of by our loyal government. Citizens are reminded that all non-regulated drugs are harmful, can cause unimaginable damage and should be avoided at all costs. Citizens are also reminded that these underground activities are forbidden and anyone caught will be immediately re-corrected on site. Any civilian with information on the whereabouts of these gangs are asked to act upon their civil duty and report them to authorities straight away. Safety, and stability sustained. Noblesse Oblige.

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A Snapshot of Anarchy.

Ancaps, plain anarchists, and even libertarians have this ideal paradise of limited/no government that they like to picture. As far as I can tell, it looks like this:

They can make such bold predictions and have such high hopes, because, as far as they know, anarchy has never been tried. 

They are wrong, though. I’d like to introduce you to the Kowloon Walled City:

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From shampoo to lotion, the use of personal care products is widespread, however, there are very few protections in place to ensure their safety. [This bill] will require [the] FDA to review chemicals used in these products and provide clear guidance on their safety. In addition, the legislation has broad support from companies and consumer groups alike.

420 is literally the one thing those guys were friendly about.

5 Shockingly Progressive Policies from Insane Dictatorships

#5. Weed Is Totally Legal in North Korea

In a country where “human rights” is considered a strange foreign concept that goes against the spirit of the prosperity of Best Korea, getting hit by a flamethrower isn’t the only way to get blazed. While most of the rest of the world is still wringing its hands over whether to make marijuana legal, the DPRK is ahead of the game, in that they never made it illegal to begin with: The North Korean government doesn’t consider marijuana a drug and has never regulated its use. You might think this is because the country does not give an actual crap about the well-being of its people, so it doesn’t regulate drugs whatsoever, but you’d be wrong: The government is extremely harsh on users of hard drugs like meth, for example.

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so that netflix show, narcos, seems to be cia propaganda (although i haven’t seen it).

how the show portrays it, according to wikipedia:

At the time of Murphy’s arrival in Colombia, Escobar and his associates are dealing with more significant problems than the DEA. They are at war with the M-19, a revolutionary group of guerilla communists. When the M-19 kidnaps a member of the Ochoa family, Escobar seizes the opportunity to form strategic alliances with other black-marketeer criminals to establish a group called “Death to Kidnappers”, the genesis of the Medellín cartel. His promise to his allies is simple: to recover Marta Ocho unharmed and to prevent further kidnappings….

Murphy and Peña are finally making progress when they catch Escobar’s accountant, “Blackbeard”, alongside a gigantic cache of incriminating evidence. The evidence is stored in the only place large enough and thought to have security strong enough to thwart any break-in attempts: the Palace of Justice. However, Escobar hires M-19 mercenaries, his former enemies, to attack said location and burn all of the evidence. The DEA is left with nothing after Escobar’s slippery move.

how it actually went down (Oliver Villar and Drew Cottle, “Cocaine, Death Squads, and the War on Terror”):

it’s long been a contention of US propaganda that leftists are heavily involved in the drug trade, yet the routes and cartels that leftists are accused of using are always the same ones being used by the american state. drugs in colombia and internationally serve as an effective way to provide funding to local social forces opposed to communist insurgencies. this also effectively transnationalized the colombian bourgeoisie and integrated it into globalization, as the profits from the trade were placed into american banks that were allowed to open branches in far-flung colombian villages without regulation. drugs serve as an effective way to transfer wealth from the poor to the rich, as long as the production can’t be done locally and must be supplied by international cartels.

Biotech companies claim that prices need to be high to reward risky and expensive innovation, but the fact that they’re churning out drugs and profits so consistently seems to undermine that claim. Biotech, in other words, may become the victim of its own success: the bigger the profits, the bigger the likelihood of regulation.

James Surowiecki examines the tremendous pricing power of biotech companies and the arguments for regulating drug prices: http://nyr.kr/1ffAf4h