For much of American history, most African Americans were regulated by law to a separate educational system that was poorly funded, meagerly staffed and badly organized; the huge racial differentials in the quantity and quality of education that resulted left most black citizens unprepared for successful competition within markets. Although the legal foundations of school segregation were eliminated beginning in 1954, a variety of de facto mechanisms continue to operate to deny African Americans, Latinos, the poor and other social groups equal access to education. The lack of equal access to high quality education continues to be a major engine of stratification in the United States.
Douglas S. Massey
like martin luther king jr said “being a negro in america means having your legs cut off and then being condemned for being a cripple.”