douglas s. massey

For much of American history, most African Americans were regulated by law to a separate educational system that was poorly funded, meagerly staffed and badly organized; the huge racial differentials in the quantity and quality of education that resulted left most black citizens unprepared for successful competition within markets. Although the legal foundations of school segregation were eliminated beginning in 1954, a variety of de facto mechanisms continue to operate to deny African Americans, Latinos, the poor and other social groups equal access to education. The lack of equal access to high quality education continues to be a major engine of stratification in the United States.
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Douglas S. Massey

like martin luther king jr said “being a negro in america means having your legs cut off and then being condemned for being a cripple.”

Whether whites care to admit it or not, they have a selfish interest in maintaining the categorical mechanisms that perpetuate racial stratification. As a result, when pushed by the federal government to end overt discriminatory practices, they are likely to innovate new and more subtle ways to maintain their privileged position in society. If one discriminatory mechanism proves impossible to sustain, whites have an incentive to develop alternatives that may be associated only indirectly with race and therefore not in obvious violation of civil rights law. The specific mechanisms by which racial stratification occurs than thus be expected to evolve over time as practices and institutions shift in response to civil rights enforcement and other societal changes.
—  Douglas S. Massey in  “American Apartheid”
Whether whites care to admit it or not, they have a selfish interest in maintaining the categorical mechanisms that perpetuate racial stratification. As a result, when pushed by the federal government to end overt discriminatory practices, they are likely to innovate new and more subtle ways to maintain their privileged position in society. If one discriminatory mechanism proves impossible to sustain, whites have an incentive to develop alternatives that may be associated only indirectly with race and therefore not in obvious violation of civil rights law. The specific mechanisms by which racial stratification occurs than thus be expected to evolve over time as practices and institutions shift in response to civil rights enforcement and other societal changes.

- Douglas S. Massey in  “American Apartheid”