dna*

sciencemag.org
Unwinding DNA We Find Our Earliest Ancestor Which Fed on Hydrogen and Heat
New genetic analysis shows that LUCA lived on hydrogen and loved heat


by Robert F. Service

The chemical chain of events that led to the origin of life on Earth is likely forever lost to the mists of time. But some of our earliest ancestors—including the microbial Eve from which all modern cells descended—left behind traces in the genes they passed to their descendants. To track these shared genes, geneticists have surveyed nearly 2000 genomes of modern microbes. Now, researchers report that they’ve used this sort of genome mining to reveal new insights about the daily life of our last universal common ancestor, or LUCA. The results suggest that LUCA was a heat-loving microbe that fed on hydrogen gas and lived in a world devoid of oxygen, bolstering strong suspicions that life on Earth formed in and around hydrothermal vents such as those found near undersea volcanoes.

Today, the cells that make up all life on Earth are clustered into three broad groups: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. The first two comprise prokaryotes—cells without a nucleus. A distant union between these two formed eukaryotes—cells with a nucleus that make up all the complex multicellular organisms including plants and animals.

Genetic studies to date have revealed some tantalizing clues about LUCA. Most evidence suggests that, like modern cells, LUCA stored genetic information using DNA. It also built proteins and used adenosine triphosphate as its currency for energy. But it has been harder for geneticists to know other details of LUCA’s lifestyle. One major complication: Microbes not only pass genes to their progeny, but also swap them among their neighbors in a process called horizontal gene transfer. This makes it hard to tell whether genes shared by separate microbes reflect a shared lineage or whether some bugs were just better at spreading their genetic material far and wide. And that makes it harder to pin down LUCA’s lifestyle.


Keep reading

anonymous asked:

While it's uncertain how strong Eijun at bat will, I think he's actually going to be very fast at running. He runs more laps, and with a tire, then anyone else.

Yes, exactly! Which is why I think he will be able to reach the first base even if he doesn’t hit the ball very far. I know everyone says that Kuramochi is the fastest, but, as you said, Eijun runs a lot with a tire. A very heavy tire. It has to pay off.

I’m laughing just imagining how everyone’s jaw is hitting the ground when Eijun reaches a base ;D

Hey everyone, new studyblr!

I am a rising high school junior and am using this studyblr for better study habits, productivity and just to meet others with the same in mind. These are a few notes for AP Biology (taken from the Hank Videos)

My favorite subjects are history, I love dogs. I am a slut for Jeopardy, Mr. Robot & Criminal Minds. You can follow me on ig @ niahmilan!

like or reblog so i can follow some new studyblrs!

Astrocytes found to transfer mitochondria to neurons after stroke

This is a scanning electron micrograph (false color) of a human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron. Credit: Thomas Deerinck, UC San Diego

Made with WordPress

anonymous asked:

You should write KataSawa fic, Nami. Just saying.

KataSawa as in KataokaxEijun?

Like, Eijun goes to an university in different city, where he plays baseball at the uni’s team, and after that he is scouted by a pro team from Tokyo.

So he moves back to Tokyo where he meets Kataoka. They still respect, like, each other and they decide to go out to a pub to talk. One evening changes into another. And another. And another.

Something is starting to form between them, shimmering quietly when they are close to each other, whispering sweetly promises.
And Kataoka thinks how wrong anything happening would be, because Sawamura was his student, okay? Plus, that age gap between them? Yet, Eijun isn’t a teenager anymore; he is taller, more serious, grew into a handsome young man - there was a promise of such result when Eijun was still a teenager. But he is still the same Eijun, who seems to laugh and talk, and be everywhere at the same time. 
Kataoka cannot stop spending his free time with Eijun, giving him some baseball advice, watching those big eyes shine in excitement, feeling proud when Eijun is slaying batters of the opponent’s team, enjoying the way Eijun’s head falls onto his shoulder when Eijun falls asleep during a movie they watch a movie. He may be feeling guilty, but Eijun doesn’t run away when Kataoka touches his shoulder or pats his hair - no, he leans closer and how is Kataoka supposed to say ‘no’?
And Eijun, oh Eijun. He gets so confused, because this is the Boss, the person he respects the most right after his grandpa, but it’s so, so easy to forget himself in Kataoka’s presence, to agree with helping with players’ practice menu till late night hour even if Eijun has to wake up soon - he always gets that small, rare smile from Kataoka when they are together, alone, and Eijun is never going to get tired of watching Kataoka laugh, of making him laugh. Kataoka makes Eijun feel more like at home, more like he can do everything with that solid presence supporting him. 

…………………………………………. Anon, what did you do to me? ;u; 

anonymous asked:

When miyuki said "I too shared the desire to try and get furuya back into the shape" did he meant that one of the reasons of eijun's anger is bcs of that??

No, definitely not. Eijun doesn’t want to “bring Furuya back into the shape”, because this is how Furuya pitches: he isn’t consistent, he always pitches well and then badly, back to well, and then badly again. I think Miyuki was talking about the coach.

If Eijun is angry at Furuya then it’s because of a completely different reason. Eijun even said why he is angry: because Furuya didn’t focus on pitching. Eijun’s words were along the lines of how Furuya battled something what wasn’t a batter in front of him.

And, Anon, Miyuki only thought that, he didn’t say it aloud ;) Can you imagine what could happen if the team heard that they lost 5 points because Miyuki wanted to wait till Furuya started pitching better? I’m 99.9% sure we would see the very first brawl in Daiya and I would be taking bets “who will be the one to punch Miyuki?”.

Goodness, the topic of Miyuki and Kataoka wanting to sacrifice the team’s win for Furuya is worth of its own post.