dna molecules

OneNote is literally god’s gift to this earth. [ header art ]

I downloaded OneNote onto my mac air through my school’s office365 [which is a microsoft email login thing but is easily accessible on any kind of device and you can just delete the email acc later if you want]. OneNote can be accessed on a laptop, computer or ipad/tablet. i believe OneNote is available on the appstore as well?

I use OneNote as a digital bullet journal / planner and to write down all my study notes. i also have actual books for my study notes but i tend to prefer OneNote.

OneNote is super easy to use! think of it like an actual book:


When you open OneNote for the first time it will ask you to create a Notebook. You can name it whatever you wish and even choose the colour of it! You can have as many Notebooks as you like, so go wild !!


In your Notebook, you can have “chapters”, called sections or tabs. Depending on whether you use OneNote as a bujo or for study notes, these tabs can look like this:


Time to fill your chapters! These pages will contain all of your content. Whether that’s a weekly spread in your bujo or a page on DNA molecules in your humanbio Notebook. You can have as many as you want! Pages on OneNote tend to look like this:

Once you click on which page you want, it’ll open !

4. SPREADS [for planners]

Spreads are completely personalised and customised depending on you! Anything you do in your physical bujo you can do on OneNote. Habit checker? Tables? Homework diary? Inspirational quotes? Cute doodles? Day-to-Day planner? 

This is just an example of mine, you can do WHATEVER YOU WANT with yours !!


My study notes are basically just what my teacher says during class or puts on the board, which is why they’re almost always in bullet point form like this:

But obviously, you can edit your notes to be however you’d like them !!


One feature i really like about one note is the fact you can make the paper look like whatever you want. such as blank paper, margined + lined paper, graph paper etc. this is really helpful when writing notes and especially drawing diagrams !!

also, across the top is literally everything you’ll ever need.


Please download OneNote !! it’s so user-friendly and customisable. I was honestly shocked that more people weren’t using OneNote in the studyblr community. It’s such a lifesaver near test + exam time because all of your notes are in one place !!

also, OneNote autosaves and doesnt close if you close your laptop [as long as you’re not logged out or the computer is shut down] so you’ll never lose your work !!

HERE is another post about me yelling about OneNote lmao

If you have any questions or problems, feel free to ask !! ((-:

Discovery of nano ‘footballs’

Research from the University of York has unearthed a ‘simply breathtaking’ discovery.

The work states that genes are controlled by ‘nano footballs’ – structures that look like footballs but are in fact 10 million times smaller than the average ball.

Professor Mark Leake, Chair of Biological Physics at the University of York, and who led the project said, ‘Our ability to see inside living cells, one molecule at a time, is simply breathtaking.

‘We had no idea that we would discover that transcription factors operated in this clustered way. The textbooks all suggested that single molecules were used to switch genes on and off, not these crazy nano footballs that we observed.’

Leake and his colleagues – supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden – placed glowing probes on transcription factors, which are chemicals inside cells that control whether a gene is switched on or off. From this, it was determined that the transcription factors operate as a cluster of approximately seven to ten molecules.

The discovery could improve understanding about how genes operate and potentially provide more information on health problems associated with genetic disorders.

‘We found out that the size of these nano footballs is a remarkably close match to the gaps between DNA when it is scrunched up inside a cell,’ Leake added. ‘As the DNA inside a nucleus is really squeezed in, you get little gaps between separate strands of DNA which are like the mesh in a fishing net. The size of this mesh is really close to the size of the nano footballs we see.’

This, continued Leake, means that a nano football ‘can roll along segments of DNA but then hop to another nearby segment’, so it can find the specific gene it controls more quickly.

Molecule of the Day: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a polymeric compound comprised of a double helix of antiparallel DNA strands. Each strand consists of many nucleotides, which are used as the building blocks of DNA. Each nucleotide has a deoxyribose molecule, which has a phosphate group bound to its 5’-end via phosphodiester bonds, and a nitrogenous base bound to its 1’-carbon.

The nitrogenous bases in DNA are a set of 4 compounds - adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Their sequence in DNA encodes the genetic information in our chromosomes. The sugar-phosphate backbone acts as a supporting structure to stabilise the DNA strand and hold the double helix together. This allows complementary nitrogenous bases (adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine) to form hydrogen bonds with each other, thus ensuring that the strands are complementary to each other and that the molecule is stabilised.

This weak linkage through hydrogen bonds allows the double helix to be separated by helicase during DNA replication and transcription to expose the nitrogenous bases. In DNA replication, this allows DNA polymerase III to match complementary deoxyribonucleotides with the template strand and synthesise the complementary DNA strand.

On the other hand, in transcription, RNA polymerase matches complementary ribonucleotides with the template strand and synthesises the complementary mRNA strand, which is then used for protein translation. The DNA sequence determines the RNA sequence, and thus the sequence of amino acids in the resultant protein. This results in a specific, unique protein with a particular conformation, and this is how DNA encodes genetic information.

Originally posted by dimensao7

I had an interview today and I totally rocked this question:
  • Interviewer: How would you explain DNA to an 8 year old?
  • Me: I would tell them that DNA is like Legos. Like four different colored legos. Individually, they can't do much, but when you build them in a certain order, you can make different things, like a house or a tree or little lego people. It's the same in your body. Four different DNA molecules fit together to create the unique you.
  • Interviewer: *brief pause* That's a really good answer.
  • Me: Thank you. I like Legos and science.
Molecule of the Day: Cisplatin

Cisplatin [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] is an metal complex that is used as an antineoplastic agent (anti-cancer drug). It is one of the archetypal transition metal complexes, being well-known and having a long history.

Cisplatin was first synthesised in 1845 by Michele Peyrone, and was known as Peyrone’s salt. Its medicinal effects, however, were not known until the late 20th century, until it was discovered by chance.

In 1961, a physics professor by the name of Barnett Rosenberg at Michigan State University embarked on a project to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on cells during mitotic division. To his surprise, the setup caused the E. coli to elongate instead (below right), without undergoing cell division.

Eventually, the suspicion fell on the platinum electrodes. They were indeed the culprit; in the presence of oxygen, it had produced cisplatin. The researchers then decided to test its effects on mammalian cells by injecting it into mice with tumours; the results are remarkable, as can be seen from the images below. The tumour of the mouse that was injected with cisplatin (2nd row) had completely regressed by day 8, while the mouse that was not (1st row) eventually died on day 21.

Currently, cisplatin is used to treat various, but not all, forms of cancer, such as breast, lung, testicular, and ovarian cancer. When administered, the Cl atoms are displaced by water molecules, which themselves are displaced by guanine or adenine molecules in DNA. Since two ligands can be displaced, cross-linking of DNA occurs, interfering with cellular division.

Interestingly, its geometric isomer, transplatin, does not have any medicinal effect; it is believed to be due to its rapid hydrolysis when administered, causing it to be unable to react with the DNA to cross-link it. Additionally, the inter-strand cross-linking it causes could be more easily repaired by DNA repair mechanisms than the intra-strand cross-linking that cisplatin causes.

Cisplatin is synthesised from potassium tetrachloroplatinate via multiple ligand exchange reactions with potassium iodide, followed by ammonia, silver nitrate, and potassium chloride respectively.


How would the Universe change if we grew an extra dimension?

“Imagine what would happen if all-of-a-sudden, the forces binding electrons to nuclei became weaker. If there was a change in how strong that interaction was. You don’t think about it, but at a molecular level, the only thing holding you together is the relatively weak bonds between electrons and nuclei. If you change that force, you change the configurations of everything. Enzymes would denature; proteins would change shape; ligand-gated neurons wouldn’t fit together anymore; DNA wouldn’t encode the molecules it was designed to encode.”

If we take a look at a two-dimensional surface, it’s pretty apparent that we’re pretty omnipotent in comparison. We can draw or erase anything in that dimension, add or remove objects, rearrange their internal structures without leaving them any defense, etc. All of that might lead you to wonder whether there’s the possibility of a fourth spatial dimension out there, and whether that could be part of our Universe? Geometrically, it’s certainly possible. From a historical perspective, there’s no reason a dimension needs to stay the same size over time, either. In 1980, Alan Chodos and Steve Detweiler showed that a Universe that began with four spatial dimensions could have easily evolved into a Universe very much like the one we see today. Building on that, it would be possible for a very small extra dimension to grow large over time. If it did, the consequences would be devastating, but fascinating.

Come find out the full story of what it would mean if the Universe grew an extra dimension!

Nobel Laureate Elizabeth Blackburn is a pioneer in telomere biology. Organisms store their genetic information in DNA molecules, which are packaged into chromosomes. At the tips of each chromosome you will find a telomere capping it. This telomere “cap” protects the chromosome and the genetic material that it carries from damage and shortening. This cap is incredibly important for cell division – to ensure all of our genetic information is completely copied. Blackburn was the first to discover the DNA sequence of telomeres as well as the enzyme that synthesizes telomere DNA, called telomerase.
Three cheers for telomeres and our resilient DNA!
Happy Women’s History Month!

#stemeducation #sciart #scicomm #womeninstem #womenshistorymonth#telomere #telomerase #jkxcomics


Originally posted by wolfeverything

Originally posted by smboys

▪ Quiet
▪ Keeps to himself
▪ Looks frail
▪ Has more arm strength than you’ll ever have
▪ Smile is his pride
▪ His own fanclub of ‘useless girls’
▪ Cringes at them
▪ 'Teenage girls are scary.’ - Him
▪ 'You’re just a sissy.’ - Jeno
▪ 'I hate you.’ - Him
▪ Ignores most people
▪ Has the same problem with biting that Mark does
▪ Oral fixation
▪ Likes chewing on things
▪ Biting
▪ Candy addict
▪ Oddly enough maintains perfect teeth
▪ Doesn’t know how to function in large groups
▪ Loud laugh
▪ Awkward shit
▪ Semi nerd
▪ Blurts random useless facts when nervous
▪ 'Did you know there is enough DNA in an average person’s body to stretch from the sun to Pluto and back 17 times?’ - Him
▪ Everyone turns to stare at him with a 'what the hell nerd?’ look
▪ That’s how you met
▪ You over heard
▪ 'The genetic code in each human cell, contains 23 DNA molecules each containing from 500 thousand to 2.5 million nucleotide pairs.’
▪ When he looked at you, he froze
▪ You were so beautiful
▪ And cute with your books against your chest
▪ As your eyes met, you both k n e w
▪ From that moment, you were his
▪ He was yours
▪ 'I thought teenage girls were scary?’ - Jeno
▪ 'Go jump off of a cliff, Jeno.’ - Him
▪ Homework buddies
▪ You are connected at the hip
▪ Soulmates
▪ He’s a bit bipolar
▪ One moment a brat
▪ The next a sweetheart
▪ One minute hates being touched
▪ The next in literal tears for love
- wolf -
▪ Stays at the back of the pack
▪ Since you’re always around, he always drops his head in your lap
▪ 'I’m not a good pack member..’ - Him
▪ You frown, letting him vent
▪ He does this about once a week
▪ Sometimes two
▪ Self conscious about being one of the more scrawny wolves
▪ Becomes horribly dangerous in threatening situations
▪ Might think lowly of his abilities, but would rip someone to shreds for looking at you wrong
▪ Often patrols with Jeno, Hansol, or Mark
▪ You eventually help him realize how strong he is
▪ How crucial he is to the pack
▪ Stands tall at the front with Mark after you made your appearance in his life
▪ Show off
▪ F e t c h
▪ Another taxi
▪ Likes having you on his back
▪ Running through the forest
▪ Enjoys the wind in his fur
▪ Running through puddles to piss you off
▪ Always makes it up to you
▪ Can’t sleep without you around
▪ You’re his candy supplier
▪ 'You need protein- not sugar, you’re a growing cub.’ - Taeil
▪ 'The protein didn’t get you very far, so..’ - Him
▪ Taeil often has a hard time with him and Donghyuck
▪ He likes rolling on his back
▪ Belly rubs
▪ Paw massages
▪ He loves the affection
▪ He became a different person thanks to you

The Meaning of the Spiral

This fascinating shape repeats itself in nature from the double helix of the DNA molecule, to the shape of a shell, to a fern, to a galaxy a hurricane and the cream in your coffee.

One form of the spiral arises out of the famous Fibonacci sequence.  It is the most sacred of geometry.  It is used symbolically in every culture on Earth from the earliest neolithic to today.  Its shape, a center starting place then repeating orbits gaining in diameter at a constant rate is generally seen as relating  to coming into being, birth, time, growth, life, evolution, cosmic force and emergence.

In modern times it has come to be associated with Pantheism. Think of a spiral as a circle that moves forward and so does not terminate.  This is the Dharma.  Every orbit is a moment of existence yet each of these moments, rather than being distinct are actually continuous connected in an unbroken spiral to the moment before it and the moment after.  In this way time can be seen as an infinite spiral of interconnected moments.  Thus, everything that was, is, and ever will be are connected in the spiral of existence.

🐚 Saṃsāran 🐚