Hey! In a couple months, my academics are gonna kick into high gear so I decided to make this blog for the motivation and stuff
So here’s some things about me:
•career: bioinformatics research
•intending to major in biology and minor computer science
•obtain a PhD in bioinformatics
•In the fall, I’m going to be starting a 2-year Bioscience Technologies college-prep program, which requires me to transfer to a much larger school (5x the size of my current one), though with that comes more academic opportunities
•my courses: AP US History, Honors Spanish IV, Honors English 11, and Honors Algebra II (really taking advantage of all the courses) alongside the bio program classes
•biology (molecular biology, genetics, evolution, DNA sequencing, etc.)
•computer science (analytics, programming, research)
•women’s history (suffrage, prohibition, ERA, rights of other countries, pre-suffrage, etc)
•quirky parts of history people forget to mention, kinda just history in general
•gardening and plants (succulents, vegetables, trees)
•baking, specializing in cupcakes
•reading, not just books but everything
•writing and making lists
•tea, mostly herbal
•walks and adventures
•currently have a part time jobs at a grocery store
•like background noise, music and tv shows I’ve already seen
There’s probably more I should mention, but I can’t think of anything right now.
DNA is an important part of modern crime evidence, but it is important to know when DNA is actually used in history, and the experiments it took to actually get DNA to be the robust science it is today. Hopefully this is helpful for your writing needs!
1866 – Gregor Mendel determines the principles of genetic
1902 – Sir Archibald Edward Garrod associated Mendel’s
theories with human disease alkaptonuria (black urine or black bone disease,
genetic disorder where the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine
1944 – Oswald Avery, working with MacLeod and McCarty determines
DNA as the “transforming principle”, while working with Streptococcus pneumoniae (bacteria causing pneumonia), it was
determined that dead/heat-killed S-strain (which is lethal) can “transform”
living R-strain (which is non-lethal) into lethal bacteria
1950 - Chargaff’s rules was developed by Edwin Chargaff, it
basically states that there is a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases, that
adenine = thymine, and guanine = cytosine, an important rule for base pairings
and the DNA double helix structure
1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase experimented with T2
phage and elemental isotopes; phosphorus-32 labelled DNA while sulfur-35
labelled the proteins; the progeny infected unlabelled bacteria, and since
phosphorus-32 showed up, it confirmed that DNA is the genetic material
1952 – Rosalind Franklin uses X-ray crystallography to
photograph DNA fibres
1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick uses Franklin’s
crystallography and previous research material to determine the double helix
structure of DNA
1959 – an extra chromosome 21 is linked to Down’s syndrome
1965 – Marshall Nirenberg worked with E.coli bacteria cells
to determine how DNA is involved with RNA and protein expressions, he helped
decipher the codons of the genetic code
1977 – Frederick Sanger develops a technique for rapid DNA
sequencing, the Sanger sequencing is also known as chain termination method
based on selectively incorporating chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides
1984 – Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the multi-locus RFLP
probes, a method to compare the variations in DNA of different individuals, leading way to genetic fingerprinting
1986 – The first use of DNA testing in a forensic case, using
Jeffreys’ multi-locus RFLP probes for DNA typing to catch Colin Pitchfork, who
sexually assaulted and murdered Lunda Mann in 1983 and Dawn Ashworth in 1986
1990 – the Human Genome Project begins, with the goal of
mapping all of the 3.3 billion bases of the human genome, and the genome of
other organisms, this project costed about $2.7 billion (this amount wasn’t
calculated for inflation) and took almost 15 years to complete, compare that to
now where it will take about $1000 to sequence the human genome and it will
take about a day to do so
2013 – it was discovered that identical (monozygotic) twins
actually have differences in their genetic make-up, with differences/mutations
called Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs)
I was feeling inspired last night, so I decided to make this purely for fun.
To the moon and back: Cold, dark nights clutching thermos flasks of hot coffee. Machinery whirring as telescopes trace a star across the sky. Intricate, geometric drawings of the celestial sphere. A messy bun and a NASA t-shirt. Filling in the logbook while punk rock blares in the background to keep you energised and awake. Pictures of nebulae and galaxies everywhere, because pretty space pictures is half the fun. Annoyed huffs every time someone mentions their star sign.
Natural Philosopher: Long, intellectual debates in coffee shops about mathematics, physics, philosophy. Chalkboards covered with equations and calculations in a precise, curving handwriting. That Eureka moment while deep in thought, expressed only with a small smile and a scribbled proof on the back of a serviette. Chaotic desks in front of bookshelves groaning with old textbooks. Antique lab equipment as functional decor.
“Trust Me, I’m a Scientist”: Large computer screens running freshly-typed code. Neat lab books and PDFs of journal articles. The smell of whiteboard markers. Polished new equipment in a tangle of cables, hooked up to a digital oscilloscope. Exact amounts of chemicals in rows in metal shelves. Resting your feet up on the bench after a long day in the lab. The satisfying hum of your colleagues as they work on their experiments around you.
Science Expedition: Dirt under your nails and a loosely-bound collection of field notes. Plant clippings carefully taken to be analysed back in the lab. Soft fur on tough, wild animals. The bitter smoke from eco-friendly firewood while you roast marshmallows and listen to a supervisor’s witty stories. Free-handing diagrams while looking through a microscope. Sketching flowers and that gorgeous ocean view from your last field trip. Reading Darwin on the bus home but falling asleep on your lab partner’s shoulder out of sheer exhaustion after the first three pages.
Life is a Science: Scrolling past an anti-vax facebook post and resisting the urge to burn down the internet. Shiny dissection kits and the sharp smell of formaldehyde. Making time to work out and pack a healthy lunch because your mind is sharpest when your body is well. Debunking the latest superfood fad with peer-reviewed journal articles. Making friends with some of the nicer med school kids in anatomy class. Colour-coded, neatly labelled diagrams and a thousand different terms memorised. Getting a double-helix DNA sculpture for your desk.
What they show on TV isn’t real hacking: Rubbing your eyes after staring at a screen for five hours straight. Having a blank keyboard because all the letters are rubbed off already. Energy drinks in strange colours at strange hours. Being fluent in four different coding languages. Circuit boards and printouts. Ones and zeroes. Running jokes about turning everything off and on again. Rage-quitting when you realise you forgot a comma or a colon somewhere. Black screens with brightly coloured lines. The comforting click-click of fingertips tapping keys. Applying to intern at Google every three months because maybe they’ll take you this time. Writing a piece of code to do something simple just because.
Extra binding to sugar
phosphate backbone by NH3
and Anthracyclines eg Doxorubicin (adriamycin)
Intercalates via major groove of DNA double helix
A topoisomerase poison - blocks action of topoisomerase II
by stabilising DNA-enzyme complex
I antitumour agent
Nucleophilic attack on trisulphide chain starts a rearrangement
This interacts with DNA to generate a DNA diradical,
which reacts with oxygen, resulting in chain cutting.
Highly active head, neck, testicular cancer (Hodgkin lymphoma)
Single and double-strand cleavage of DNA with several reduced
metal ions and O2
, Fe(II) highest in vivo activity.
Three regions -
bithiazole DNA binding domain (DBD) locks BLM into the
carbohydrate domain (CHD) H-bonds BLM to sugar
phosphate of DNA
metal binding domain (MBD) bonds to Fe(II)
A reaction with hydrogen peroxide gives Fe(III) and hydroxyl
radicals which abstract H atoms and cut the DNA chain.
Fe2+ + H2O2
Fe3+ + OH.
Lungs and skin have low
levels of BLM hydrolase - higher sensitivity and toxicity. Pneumonitis occurs in about
10% of patients, progresses
to pulmonary fibrosis. Over-expressed in malignant
cells, resistance to bleomycin
DNA UFO - 5D SUPERLUMINAL STAR CODE - EARTH ACTIVATION VIDEO
SACRED GEOMETRY IS THE ULTIMATE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE RESIDING BOTH IN PHYSICAL CRYSTALLINE MATTER AND ETHERIC SPIRITUAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS -
Video reveals UFO sighting in Toronto, where lighted craft ( ? ) form as DNA , strange yet interesting, fake or real it doesn’t matter, the truth of universal truths is within the spiral , the ladder to heaven, kundalini, serpent rising, spiritual etheric electromagnetic fields composing both physical and nonphysical matter- a matter that science is confused about at this time, simply because they haven’t expanded their consciousness - the topic of superconductive fractals, hypercubes and crystalline structure is a real technology that is already in motion within our earths grid networks and within the universal galactic existence - A Reality you must face within yourself, within your own illuminated pituitary gland - with the brightness of your heart the truth comes alive in Vision, the fear no longer exists- the initiation into the true art starts with yourself and Nature. All around you - the signs are, the signs are revealing - and the signs are in the geometric nature of existence - This video was formed to remind humanity that we are being upgraded and updated by Forces of light- All that is required is the meditative art and the inward sight, for if Eye is One , Body shall be full of light - The Oneness is a real experience where there is only One consciousness guiding, healing, restructuring and adjusting the Earths System. We are One with this. Ehani is One with the Family Of Light who CARE for all life, and want Life to flower and blossom in the times to come. One Light and One Love to All who visit this channel and this video- There is only Peace, Wisdom, Truth and Art here - Creativity from the Heart-Minds of Many, Collaborating over the course of many years to form a Galactic Database of Universal Communion.
This post is a documentation of my thoughts during G-Dragon’s ACT III MOTTE concert in Singapore (Day 1). If you don’t want any spoilers, please do not read further. And if you do, I hope you enjoy my interpretation / review of the concert.
I was almost sure Helix and their timely presentation into Felicity’s life - at a time when she needed information on Walker to support John was not coincidental and that Alena- Kojo Sledgehammer was working with Adrian - Prometheus; under a bigger big bad who I thought could be Talia. That Alena’s convenient presentation at the time must have been related to Adrian’s play on Oliver. The Talia/big bad speculation burned and crashed! LOL!
So I am reconsidering Alena and Helix on a purely separate basis from Prometheus. Still bad but not related bad!
I have long thought Alena bore a physical resemblance to Brie Larvan - the bug-eyed bandit; Felicity’s nemesis - the bee lady. Brie is of genius level intellect; and an evil hacker; who last wanted Felicitys chip in 4.17 because she had spinal cancer. It lead Felicity to a conversation with Thea where she wanted to do some good outside the team. So maybe Alena and Helix where there; watching and waiting? Maybe they’d been sitting there lurking waiting for an opening with Felicity and the search for the Walker files on the dark web raised a coincidental flag?
Aside: What is a helix? Our DNA has a double helix.. its a code.. GATC.. a sequence of 4 different molecules. Every person’s DNA is different unless you have a twin; because of the difference sequence each one of us carries.. Hence the initiative to map the human DNA- and since I am not a comic book fan; I would not waste a name like Helix on an organization that didn’t have medical applications in their repertoire!
The promo pictures posted for 5.16 show Felicity with Alena at Helix -headquarters; it looks like they have awesome technology; it also looks like they are in process for developing something. Felicity is looking up at something smiling. What could it be? Obviously not Oliver on the Salmon ladder! I think the favor they ask of Felicity is related to Palmer Technology; whether its the blue print to her spinal chip or help with coding; but I really think this is where the paralysis and the chip will finally come into play.
3.17 was when Felicity presented Ray with the chip that got the Atom suite to work; and 4.17 was when Brie wanted Felicity’s chip.
My hopeful speculation is that despite Alena and Helix’s villainous motivations; Felicity manages to outsmart them and uses their resources to complete her hopes of getting the chip to the masses and eventually by the end of the season deciding to start-up her own biomedical technology firm as either Smoak Technologies or Queen Inc, *wink, wink*
The data tell us that the radius of the quark is smaller than 43 billion-billionths of a metre (0.43 x 10−16 cm). That’s 2000 times smaller than a proton radius, which is about 60,000 times smaller than the radius of a hydrogen atom, which is about forty times smaller than the radius of a DNA double-helix, which is about a million times smaller than a grain of sand.
my professor started talking about the physics of x-ray diffraction for the dna double helix and every few sentences he would emphasize that it was rosalind franklin’s work and that watson and crick were pricks and i think that was the moment i fell in love with him
Your genome, every human’s genome, consists of a unique DNA sequence of A’s, T’s, C’s and G’s that tell your cells how to operate. Thanks to technological advances, scientists are now able to know the sequence of letters that makes up an individual genome relatively quickly and inexpensively.
omg thank you so much for putting rosalind franklin in the dna history post!!
i think it is more
correct to say that in 1953 Watson and Crick stole Rosalind’s picture to build
their model, and when they published it, of course they didn’t gave her any
credit. I think it is important for people to know that Rosalind Franklin
discovered the antiparallel structure of the DNA molecule, but since her
studies and researches were published after Watson and Crick’s, she didn’t get
any recognition until many years later. (Sorry for the long message!)
We can’t not talk about
Rosalind Franklin. She is an awesome lady that is slowly getting the
recognition she deserves in the scientific community.
(We also went to an all
girls catholic highschool with large emphasis on science, and her name always
came up in all of the science classes. It’s pretty hard to forget her name now.
We are also going to hijack these asks to give a more in-depth biography for
Franklin was a gifted
X-ray crystallographer. She was a research associate at King’s College London
in 1951, moved to Birkbeck College in 1953. She died at the early age of 37 due
to ovarian cancer. Really she should have gotten the same Nobel Prize that
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins shared in 1962 for the discovery of the DNA double
helix, but the Nobel Committee are pricks and don’t award prizes posthumously.
Franklin’s the one to
first contribute the concept of the two forms of DNA; A-DNA (dried, short and
fat), and B-DNA (wet, long and thin). Photo 51 (image from Wikipedia) is the
x-ray diffraction pattern developed while at King’s College that leads to the
discovery of DNA double helix structure.
There has been some controversies surrounding the nature of
her work being used by Watson and Crick. Allegations where made that Photo 51
was shown to Watson by her colleague Wilkins without Franklin’s permission (bad
science ethics here) but we are not sure how true that allegation is. Franklin
did not gain much recognition for her contribution originally, all that was
mentioned was a footnote acknowledging that it was based on “general knowledge”
of Franklin’s unpublished contribution.
Rosalind Franklin is a good example of sexism in science. She’s not gaining a lot of posthumous recognition for her work. I would also like to think that she’s an awesome role model for a lot of girls pursuing science as a field of study.