Kaiser von Österreich, 1830 - 1916. Freiherrendiplom für Generalmajor Guido Kober, Kommandant der VII. Infanterie-Truppen Division; Wien, 26.11.1882, m. e. U. des Kaisers, Gegenzeichnung Ministerpräsident Eduard Graf Taaffe und Ministerialrat Franz Ritter von Schrötter, Pergamentlibell,
The Sergeant Stubby was the most decorated WWI dog and the only dog to be promoted to sergeant through combat. The Boston Bull Terrier began as the mascot of the 102nd Infantry Yankee Division 26, and ended up becoming a fighting dog in the making. Raised in the front lines, was wounded in a gas attack from the start, which gave a sensitivity to gas that later allowed him to warn his soldiers inlet gas attacks by running and barking. He helped found the wounded soldiers, even capturing a German spy who was trying to assign Allied trenches. Stubby was the first dog to be given rank in the Armed Forces of the United States, and was decorated for his part in seventeen engagements, being wounded twice.
The New Testament contains five different metaphors for the foundation of the Church (Matt. 16:18, 1 Cor. 3:11, Eph. 2:20, 1 Pet. 2:5–6, Rev. 21:14). One metaphor that has been disputed is Jesus Christ’s calling the apostle Peter “rock”: “You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it” (Matt. 16:18).
Some have tried to argue that Jesus did not mean that his Church would be built on Peter but on something else.
Some argue that in this passage there is a minor difference between the Greek term for Peter (Petros) and the term for rock (petra), yet they ignore the obvious explanation: petra, a feminine noun, has simply been modifed to have a masculine ending, since one would not refer to a man (Peter) as feminine. The change in the gender is purely for stylistic reasons.
These critics also neglect the fact that Jesus spoke Aramaic, and, as John 1:42 tells us, in everyday life he actually referred to Peter as Kepha or Cephas (depending on how it is transliterated). It is that term which is then translated into Greek as petros. Thus, what Jesus actually said to Peter in Aramaic was: “You are Kepha and on this very kepha I will build my Church.”
The Church Fathers, those Christians closest to the apostles in time, culture, and theological background, clearly understood that Jesus promised to build the Church on Peter, as the following passages show.
Tatian the Syrian
“Simon Cephas answered and said, ‘You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.’ Jesus answered and said unto him, ‘Blessed are you, Simon, son of Jonah: flesh and blood has not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I say unto thee also, that you are Cephas, and on this rock will I build my Church; and the gates of hades shall not prevail against it” (The Diatesseron 23 [A.D. 170]).
“Was anything withheld from the knowledge of Peter, who is called ‘the rock on which the Church would be built’ [Matt. 16:18] with the power of ‘loosing and binding in heaven and on earth’ [Matt. 16:19]?” (Demurrer Against the Heretics 22 [A.D. 200]).
“[T]he Lord said to Peter, ‘On this rock I will build my Church, I have given you the keys of the kingdom of heaven [and] whatever you shall have bound or loosed on earth will be bound or loosed in heaven’ [Matt. 16:18–19]… . What kind of man are you, subverting and changing what was the manifest intent of the Lord when he conferred this personally upon Peter? Upon you, he says, I will build my Church; and I will give to you the keys” (Modesty 21:9–10 [A.D. 220]).
The Letter of Clement to James
“Be it known to you, my lord, that Simon [Peter], who, for the sake of the true faith, and the most sure foundation of his doctrine, was set apart to be the foundation of the Church, and for this end was by Jesus himself, with his truthful mouth, named Peter” (Letter of Clement to James 2 [A.D. 221]).
The Clementine Homilies
“[Simon Peter said to Simon Magus in Rome:] ‘For you now stand in direct opposition to me, who am a firm rock, the foundation of the Church’ [Matt. 16:18]” (Clementine Homilies 17:19 [A.D. 221]).
“Look at [Peter], the great foundation of the Church, that most solid of rocks, upon whom Christ built the Church [Matt. 16:18]. And what does our Lord say to him? ‘Oh you of little faith,’ he says, ‘why do you doubt?’ [Matt. 14:31]” (Homilies on Exodus 5:4 [A.D. 248]).
Cyprian of Carthage
“The Lord says to Peter: ‘I say to you,’ he says, ‘that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell will not overcome it. And to you I will give the keys of the kingdom of heaven … ’ [Matt. 16:18–19]. On him [Peter] he builds the Church, and to him he gives the command to feed the sheep [John 21:17], and although he assigns a like power to all the apostles, yet he founded a single chair [cathedra], and he established by his own authority a source and an intrinsic reason for that unity. Indeed, the others were that also which Peter was [i.e., apostles], but a primacy is given to Peter, whereby it is made clear that there is but one Church and one chair… . If someone does not hold fast to this unity of Peter, can he imagine that he still holds the faith? If he [should] desert the chair of Peter upon whom the Church was built, can he still be confident that he is in the Church?” (The Unity of the Catholic Church 4; 1st edition [A.D. 251]).
“There is one God and one Christ, and one Church, and one chair founded on Peter by the word of the Lord. It is not possible to set up another altar or for there to be another priesthood besides that one altar and that one priesthood. Whoever has gathered elsewhere is scattering” (Letters 43:5 [A.D. 253]).
“There [John 6:68–69] speaks Peter, upon whom the Church would be built, teaching in the name of the Church and showing that even if a stubborn and proud multitude withdraws because it does not wish to obey, yet the Church does not withdraw from Christ. The people joined to the priest and the flock clinging to their shepherd are the Church. You ought to know, then, that the bishop is in the Church and the Church in the bishop, and if someone is not with the bishop, he is not in the Church. They vainly flatter themselves who creep up, not having peace with the priests of God, believing that they are secretly [i.e., invisibly] in communion with certain individuals. For the Church, which is one and Catholic, is not split nor divided, but it is indeed united and joined by the cement of priests who adhere one to another” (ibid., 66:8).
“But what is his error … who does not remain on the foundation of the one Church which was founded upon the rock by Christ [Matt. 16:18], can be learned from this, which Christ said to Peter alone: ‘Whatever things you shall bind on earth shall be bound also in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth, they shall be loosed in heaven’ [Matt. 16:19]” (collected in Cyprian’s Letters74:16 [A.D. 253]).
“[Pope] Stephen [I] … boasts of the place of his episcopate, and contends that he holds the succession from Peter, on whom the foundations of the Church were laid [Matt. 16:18]… . [Pope] Stephen … announces that he holds by succession the throne of Peter” (ibid., 74:17).
Ephraim the Syrian
“[Jesus said:] ‘Simon, my follower, I have made you the foundation of the holy Church. I betimes called you Peter, because you will support all its buildings. You are the inspector of those who will build on earth a Church for me. If they should wish to build what is false, you, the foundation, will condemn them. You are the head of the fountain from which my teaching flows; you are the chief of my disciples’” (Homilies 4:1 [A.D. 351]).
“You cannot deny that you are aware that in the city of Rome the episcopal chair was given first to Peter; the chair in which Peter sat, the same who was head—that is why he is also called Cephas [‘Rock’]—of all the apostles; the one chair in which unity is maintained by all” (The Schism of the Donatists 2:2 [A.D. 367]).
Ambrose of Milan
“[Christ] made answer: ‘You are Peter, and upon this rock will I build my Church… . ’ Could he not, then, strengthen the faith of the man to whom, acting on his own authority, he gave the kingdom, whom he called the rock, thereby declaring him to be the foundation of the Church [Matt. 16:18]?” (The Faith 4:5 [A.D. 379]).
“It is to Peter that he says: ‘You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church’ [Matt. 16:18]. Where Peter is, there is the Church. And where the Church is, no death is there, but life eternal” (Commentary on Twelve Psalms of David 40:30 [A.D. 389]).
Pope Damasus I
“Likewise it is decreed … that it ought to be announced that … the holy Roman Church has not been placed at the forefront [of the churches] by the conciliar decisions of other churches, but has received the primacy by the evangelic voice of our Lord and Savior, who says: ‘You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it; and I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven… . ’ [Matt. 16:18–19]. The first see, therefore, is that of Peter the apostle, that of the Roman Church, which has neither stain nor blemish nor anything like it” (Decree of Damasus 3 [A.D. 382]).
“‘But,’ you [Jovinian] will say, ‘it was on Peter that the Church was founded’ [Matt. 16:18]. Well … one among the twelve is chosen to be their head in order to remove any occasion for division” (Against Jovinian 1:26 [A.D. 393]).
“I follow no leader but Christ and join in communion with none but your blessedness [Pope Damasus I], that is, with the chair of Peter. I know that this is the rock on which the Church has been built. Whoever eats the Lamb outside this house is profane. Anyone who is not in the ark of Noah will perish when the flood prevails” (Letters 15:2 [A.D. 396]).
“If the very order of episcopal succession is to be considered, how much more surely, truly, and safely do we number them [the bishops of Rome] from Peter himself, to whom, as to one representing the whole Church, the Lord said, ‘Upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not conquer it.’ Peter was succeeded by Linus, Linus by Clement. … In this order of succession a Donatist bishop is not to be found” (Letters 53:1:2 [A.D. 412]).
Council of Ephesus
“Philip, the presbyter and legate of the Apostolic See [Rome], said: ‘There is no doubt, and in fact it has been known in all ages, that the holy and most blessed Peter, prince and head of the apostles, pillar of the faith, and foundation of the Catholic Church, received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior and Redeemer of the human race, and that to him was given the power of loosing and binding sins: who down even to today and forever both lives and judges in his successors’” (Acts of the Council, session 3 [A.D. 431]).
Sechnall of Ireland
“Steadfast in the fear of God, and in faith immovable, upon [Patrick] as upon Peter the [Irish] church is built; and he has been allotted his apostleship by God; against him the gates of hell prevail not” (Hymn in Praise of St. Patrick 3 [A.D. 444]).
Pope Leo I
“Our Lord Jesus Christ … has placed the principal charge on the blessed Peter, chief of all the apostles… . He wished him who had been received into partnership in his undivided unity to be named what he himself was, when he said: ‘You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church’ [Matt. 16:18], that the building of the eternal temple might rest on Peter’s solid rock, strengthening his Church so surely that neither could human rashness assail it nor the gates of hell prevail against it” (Letters 10:1 [A.D. 445]).
Council of Chalcedon
“Wherefore the most holy and blessed Leo, archbishop of the great and elder Rome, through us, and through this present most holy synod, together with the thrice blessed and all-glorious Peter the apostle, who is the rock and foundation of the Catholic Church, and the foundation of the orthodox faith, has stripped him [Dioscorus] of the episcopate” (Acts of the Council, session 3 [A.D. 451]).
NIHIL OBSTAT: I have concluded that the materials presented in this work are free of doctrinal or moral errors. Bernadeane Carr, STL, Censor Librorum, August 10, 2004 IMPRIMATUR: In accord with 1983 CIC 827 permission to publish this work is hereby granted. +Robert
With on going protest in Milwaukee WI for the shooting death of Dontre Hamilton, Milwaukee police have began searching for specific organizers in the city. In a preemptive move, Milwaukee police have issued arrest orders for specific organizers and refuse to even inform these organizers or their attorneys of any charges until they are in custody.
Today at a press conference,Khalil Coleman speaks on the call for his arrest
For three years now dating back to the in custody death of Derek Williams, I have been a vocal activist for the group Occupy the Hood Milwaukee. Within these three years we have faced four very influential cases of injustice; Darius Simmons, Derek Williams, Corey Stingley, and now a national case with Dontre Hamilton.
Just recently, I have been arrested three times for civil disobedience, have been personally called out by our chief of police and now am wanted (without a warrant issued) for ‘interrogation and desire to charge’ by Milwaukee Police Department. They have searched for me for two days now using the Fugitive and Apprehension Division.
Since December 26, after our rally on 27th & Burleigh, targets were identified for arrest. On December 29th, we will be releasing information to the public regarding these “temporary warrants” issued. Our goal is to develop a community where we can police ourselves, correct ourselves, and have a community response team in place throughout identified neighborhoods.
We believe that these are intimidating and harassment tactics by MPD to isolate protesters and die down the movement. We stand against community repression, suppression and oppression. Milwaukee has been unjust for years and years, and we must bring a spotlight to this crisis of police violence.
Caroline here again for your monthly rec roundup! August’s episode is about fanworks for fun and profit: the creation and business of all things fannish, and so here we are. And if you’re wondering where the pastiche recs are? They’re coming up tomorrow in their own post. Stay tuned!
First of all, I just want to thank @desirexe for taking time out of her day and driving me all the way to Kent very, very early this morning for Seattle Rally. I feel incredibly bad that I could not get that shirt for you but hopefully that at any upcoming Key Club event I can get it for you.
Second - Seattle Rally from 9am - 4:30pm Today, I was able to meet some amazingly talented and incredibly funny people at Seattle Rally. For the first part we all played ice-breakers (which didn’t really help since for most of the games I stayed within my normal group of friends.) and was able to see all the different divisions in our district. I’ve gotta say, there were many spirited people here today to represent their division. But- 2-6!!!!
Before all of the forums, the whole district came together in the auditorium and heard many speeches. one that stuck out to me the most was “Hold up! … That is whack!" by the one and only Hoan Do. This guy never failed to keep me interested during his speech, and had nothing but great things to say that could relate to me. Not to mention he was absolutely hilarious and that fact the he re enacted his "Hey Micky” performance for us all in his cheerleading outfit. Haha.
We proceeded onto lunch and the entire time, Andry, @sharonfelix, Maxine and I were snackin’ on some fruit snacks. :). Oh! And wrote “Call Me Maybe?” on a piece of paper with a certain someone’s number on it and left it at the lunch table in hopes that someone else would pick it up and randomly call it to see if it was some hot girls number. But really it would M-Wo’s number. Lol. (Thank goodness he doesn’t have a tumblr.)
After that, we went on to the second part of the forums and some of us decided to to go “How to Woo With Wu”. Might I add, that that was the highlight of my day. I couldn’t help but laugh and agree with some of the things that he had said. And Sharon, Max and I couldn’t help but find it adorable that he was giving relationship advice and (for some reason) has never been in a real relationship before. He’s said some wise words, and I honestly have no idea how he’s never had a girlfriend.
Well, I don’t want to bore you with the rest of this, ‘cause most of the people that are reading this probably went to Seattle Rally. Or no one is actually reading this. (…awkward…)
But, to anyone that is reading this, I hope that this encourages some of you (high schoolers specifically) to join Key Club, 'cause in the end, it’s definitely worth it and you get to meet some incredible people. :)
Oh, and before I forget. Tell me why I was able to find about 5 or 6 cute guys today and Sharon and Max weren’t able to find one?
This Tiger from the 4th Coy of schwere Panzer Abteilung 506 knocked out a
T26E3 Pershing named Fireball of the 3rd Armored Division on 26
February near Elsdorf, Germany, but while attempting to withdraw, it was
immobilized and abandoned.