dissection of human body

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Horizontal Sections of the Adult Male
Top-to-Bottom: Mid-section of skull, section at maxilla [hard palate between sections], section below mandible

Eugène-Louis Doyen was a revolutionary (if flamboyant and controversy-loving) Parisian surgeon who lived between 1859 and 1919.

Long before the Visible Human Project created its 1,871 “slices” of Joseph Paul Jernigan at 1 mm intervals, and created over 65 gigs of anatomical data (and later created 40 gigs of data with a female cadaver), Doyen presented a new way of visualizing the cadaver: longitudinal and horizontal sections, showing exactly how the human anatomy goes together in each area, without the context of seeing the full organs or bones.

Though the full usefulness of these unorthodox sections wasn’t truly appreciated until the advent of tomography in the early 1970s, they were noted to be helpful to early radiologists, and especially to the burgeoning fields of criminal forensics and forensic archaeology.

Atlas d'anatomie topographique. Eugène-Louis Doyen. 1911.

Non Magic Medicine In Thedas

A talk with “Surgeon” in Skyhold nets a good look at the state of medical science in Thedas. It’s quite interesting because for all that the world of Dragon Age seems to have healing magic it’s ideas about medicine seem to be quite primeval.  

Surgeon tells us that Magic can’t cure everything, and that she believes that science is the way of the future

Here is where things get interesting. Apparently Thedas believes in the idea of the Humors! History lesson time!

Belief in the four humors and their effects on the body was a system of medicine that started with the Greeks and lasted through most of history since then until the start of modern medicine (the discovery of germs and such) in the 1800s

Basically the idea is that the body is filled with four different humors. When these were in balance the body was healthy but if one had too much or too little of one type it caused illness

treatments included things such as bleeding to get rid of the excess blood.

To clarify bleeding meant cutting a patient or sticking leaches on them.

I also think however that, despite believing in humorism, people like surgeon would have had a major advantage over their real world counterparts that I think would have made non magical medicine in Thedas a LOT more successful. 

People in Thedas did not to deal with the actions of the christian church!

For one thing witch hunts would likely not have destroyed centuries worth of herbal knowledge by killing those who used herbs to heal. Herbalism is a skill that is established and respected in the world of dragon age. I mean we see the use of potions, and poultices in the games. So chances are a good deal of Surgeon’s herbal tonic’s would work if she also has some not based on the concept of humorism. 

Then there is the fact that from what I have seen I think it is unlikely that the Chantry has placed a ban on dissecting the human body, Or even if it has I find it difficult to believe that healing magic does not require a basic understanding of how the body works, and thus that it is highly unlikely people like Surgeon are going around with the impression that human’s have four stomachs because the closest thing to a human they have ever dissected or heard of the distinction of is a cow.

I think what Thedosians do not understand when it comes to medicine is what causes illness. They do not have microscopes to see germs! Magic has likely given them a decent understanding of how the body works. What they do not understand is why it stops working. “Magic can’t cure everything” “Good Health is not magic”

medical student!wonwoo

anon askedmedicine student!wonwoo please :)

wow i am totally not educated in this field. i’ll do my best!


  • smart as fuck
  • he studies everything because he knows it’ll be important
  • is satisfied when he understands something
  • there’s a lot of work to do, whether it’s easy or hard
  • he sucks it up and studies studies studies
  • recites his oral exam to himself so he doesn’t forget any terms
  • anatomy freaked him out
  • it wasn’t just diagrams
  • they had to dissect a donated body to learn more about the human body
  • wonwoo almost cried
  • made lots of friends
  • helped them study
  • everyone loves him
  • sighs loudly whenever he watches a medical drama
  • he hates them
  • but he still watches them for some reason who knows
  • clenches his fists whenever non medic friends/family ask him questions
  • pls ask someone who’s a doctor he’s still studying
  • never forgets to wash his hands when needed
  • doesn’t drink
  • cause he’ll vomit the next day if he does
  • you can’t handle medical stuff if u drink the day before /: don’t get hangovers children
  • once wore colours that weren’t grey, white, black, or navy to a lecture
  • professor noticed him right away lol rip
  • got asked most of the questions
  • thank GOODNESS he was a diligent student or else he would’ve been screwed
  • quite extremely stressed
  • doesn’t show it cause he’s cccccool
  • chills from time to time (when he can)
  • really wants 2 graduate
  • tries to avoid sneezing
  • sneezes inside his shirt since he doesn’t want to spread the germs in the air
  • is intelligent
  • still knows how to have fun
  • loves girls/boys but can’t get into a relationship
  • bc studying
  • focus wonwoo focus
  • ends up dating u
  • lol some1 pls help him he just wants to graduate and become rich and help ppl who need it
Med School Update

I STARTED DISSECTING A HUMAN BODY TODAY

Originally posted by yourreactiongifs

At 7 weeks into school we’ve had our first anatomy lab dissection finally happen! By now it had been all hyped up and all I could think about it was DO NOT FAINT!

Guess what? I didn’t faint!! At first i could not dissect - my group members started the dissection. But I eased into it. I tried a little bit and then a bit more and then I was good. I reminded myself to think about how humbled I am to receive an opportunity to learn in this way. I am grateful to the donors who donated their bodies to science for my education. To get a deeper look into the human body is an amazing experience already

Back to the lab:

We, by no means, knew what we were doing.

Originally posted by n-wordbelike

We were scared that we were going to cut to far ( and we did a number of times) and we didn’t know if anything we were doing was right but we called over the teachers and TAs plenty of times. “ Is that a nerve?” “ What does an artery look like?” “ Do we keep cutting?” We started dissection with the superficial back muscles and identified the trapezius and latissimus dorsi and a few more. That’s the Lats and the Traps for all of you hard core work out people!

It is all a learning process and I am excited to see how my anatomy lab journey goes!! :D

anonymous asked:

please explain to me the appeal of kirin jindosh, i am genuinely baffled as to what people like about him?? also i am hiding from his rabid fans behind this anon, those fans scare me (teamemily/teamcorvo/teamoutsider)

Anon, this is going to take several paragraphs to explain, so make sure you’re sitting comfortably.

The thing that people like about Jindosh is not so much his character, but that he has character. This is a bold, generalising statement and I will explain as best I can why I say that. The elimination targets in Dishonored 2 are for the most part not as well-developed as those in the first game, but Jindosh is an exception. He is also a more polarising character than most others in both of the games. (The story behind the story of DH2, i.e. Breanna Ashworth’s plan to bring Delilah back from the Void and set up the coup in Dunwall, is much simpler than the competing conspiracies headed by Lord Spymaster Burrows and the Loyalists plus Daud, Granny Rags and Slackjaw’s subplots, which when all considered, makes DH1 a much more well-rounded game than DH2.)

Jindosh is mechanically brilliant as well as artistic, as evidenced by the performance of the mansion and the invention of the clockwork soldiers, and their elegance and human likeness. (It’s not easy to simulate human walking movements, because we have complex back muscles and require constant feedback from the semi-circular canals in our ears to maintain balance.) Putting aside how difficult you or other players find it to destroy clockwork soldiers, it seems that Jindosh managed to invent robotics all by himself in the Dishonored universe.

However, his brilliance and ingenuity are not his only character traits. From speaking to him through the locked glass door (if you choose to) in the Clockwork Mansion mission, he says if you die as a result of mucking around in his mansion or at the hands of his clockwork soldiers, that he will dissect your body in order to further his understanding of the world. He has built a mansion with transforming rooms, staffed by inhuman soldiers, and happily allows random strangers to wander inside and potentially injure themselves or die as a result of the machinations of his house. I would deduce that he lacks, if not human ethics, then at least some human empathy. He also has poorly developed social skills, preferring to leave notes and notices up for his servants rather than speak to them directly. We do not know what happened between him and his staff before he put up the notices, but since they generally run along the lines of “If you are stupid enough to bring the arc pylon up without switching it off first, your death is not on my hands” we can make a good guess as to what it is like working with him.

We hear that he was expelled from the Academy of Natural Philosophy for conducting an experiment. This experiment is not detailed but we can assume it broke the Academy’s rules, and the implication is that it was ethically or morally unacceptable. From Jindosh’s manner of speech, recordings, journals etc we can learn that he is most interested in advancing the cause of science and gaining personal knowledge so that he can surpass Anton Sokolov. So it is not too far a leap to postulate that he broke the Academy’s rules in order to push the boundaries of science.

[One of the anecdotes that I read about concerning Jindosh is that he dissected a cat. As initially repulsive as that may be, if you are (for example) a cat-owner or a cat-lover, the most information I have is that he dissected a cat. Not vivisected which is dissection while alive, which is a whole different thing. The counter-argument, then, is that dissection i.e. cutting something up after death, was a period-accurate activity as it was in the 17th and 18th centuries in our world that the study of anatomy through public and recorded dissection started to flourish. And one can argue that study of the human body to this degree would have been necessary for development of human-like limbs for the clockwork soldiers.]

The most telling piece of evidence is found if the electroshock machine is used on him. He reverts to a child-like state in which he says, amongst other things, that “I know I’m not smart. Now the other students will laugh at me” (I’m paraphrasing, that’s not a direct quote). The implication here is that Jindosh was bullied as a child, or is neurodivergent, or both. There is the potential that his poor social skills are a result of neurochemical imbalance, or perhaps a difficult childhood/upbringing, or both. My source for a lot of this particular paragraph is discussions between Dishonored bloggers that I’ve seen on tumblr, so I unfortunately cannot provide one convenient link for supporting evidence. The wikia page for Jindosh also has very little on this aspect of his nature. Thus I can understand why you’re baffled about this, because if you don’t follow the sort of people who are prepared to (a) discuss Jindosh’s personality as well as (b) defend Jindosh, then you wouldn’t have these discussions appearing on your dash and thereafter bouncing around in the back of your head, like I do.

Jindosh being an antagonistic and morally dubious character doesn’t exclude him from being liked by people in the Dishonored fandom. An analogy is the fourth movie in the Resident Evil live action movies, Resident Evil: Afterlife. I thought it was a pretty poor movie for many reasons. However, that I quite enjoyed and like it, because I happen to like the main characters and overall idea of the series. Of course with Jindosh we should not omit the number one reason why, I think, people like him: because of his devastating non-lethal elimination. It’s pretty clear that the electroshock machine takes away more than just his intention to aid the Duke and build an army of clockwork soldiers. Some people choose to take away from the text (DH2) that this non-lethal elimination is more cruel than killing him outright and preventing any lingering suffering. The counter-argument to that is “I thought that, in fact, that was the whole point of the non-lethal elimination in DH1 - to make the target suffer. A quick death, though messy, is quick. Toiling away in your own silver mines, unable to speak - or being held captive in order to take you out of the way so you can’t aid the Lord Regent - that shows that Corvo as you are playing him, wants the target to feel pain.” And the extension to that line of thinking is then: “Would the creative team behind DH1 really make it so that either you could get the non-lethal elimination achievement by finishing the game without killing anyone, or you could spare the key targets years of suffering, but not both?” And I think from our experiences with the two games, that the answer is, yes, yes they would, because the founding idea of Dishonored is that your actions have consequences and the game will make you feel those consequences.

From the viewpoint “we SHOULD have had a better way to eliminate Jindosh than the electroshock machine, and the writing of this part of the game is poor” it is not too big a leap to say “we feel sympathy for Jindosh as he is not totally understood by the characters in the game” and “I feel the need to defend some of Jindosh’s actions/personality” thus you get people who are fans of Jindosh. It is then easier to see why some people would prefer to concentrate on the positive aspects of his personality. I am neither condoning nor condemning your, or their, viewpoints, I am trying to illustrate why both sides might have the views they do. I hope I answered your question.

tl;dr - Jindosh is a morally dubious character but that is not the same as liking or disliking him.

Shit in High School That Actually Matters

A lot of students (you guys) ask the question: Why do I have to do this? Why does this matter? How does this apply in the real world? 

Well, here’s your answer. Brace yourselves. 

Why do I have to learn-?

Math: Mainly for logic and decision making, but also because as long as you live in a currency based society, math will be important. Your income and how you spend it will impact how you live, where you live, what you can afford to get by in life, etc. You cannot just say “I’m not a math person.” Bullshit, you don’t like word problems. Get over it. Be a math person and not a broke person.

English: For obvious reasons, it’s the fucking language you speak if you live in the western world. Coherency is a huge part of communicating and being understood. I don’t care if you don’t like grammar- how you write and speak impacts how people perceive you. A well spoken conversation or a well written essay (read as: resume and job application) can change your life. 

Literature/The Arts: Books, theatre, artists, and more give us insight. To elaborate, they give us insight into situations and circumstances that impact you and people you know. You have to read The Great Gatsby because it’s the most accessible way to teach you that the American Dream is bullshit and you should strive for more than being famous or wealthy. You’ll have to watch plays like Fences so you, as someone who is presumably not African-American or working class, can understand the struggle and see what life is like outside your bubble. The arts open doorways of comprehension you would have never found before. You need the arts to be a well rounded human being. 

Biology/Chemistry/Physics/Sciences: It’s appalling that most people, especially those in the power, don’t understand how the world works. They don’t get climate change, female anatomy, reproductive processes, or fundamental facts of the goddamn universe. That person could be you, and you could be responsible for not only dictating how people live, but how our planet survives. Even if you aren’t, you need to be an informed member of the population who can help make decisions for the better.

History: History repeats. Patterns always emerge and replay themselves over time. I think a huge reason the Gay Civil Rights movement has seen so much progress in the past ten years is because we have a generation of adults who witnessed/studied the Black Civil Rights movement. They understand the similarities in the struggle. The same applies to politicians and methods of discourse used in elections. I won’t name names, but history repeats- unless you do something about it. 

PE: For the love of your self, you need to exercise. Our culture is sedentary enough as is, all you need is 30 minutes a day to not gain weight, an hour to lose weight. Develop the habits now while your metabolism is malleable and use the class to find something you like. 

Computers: You know the answer already. Technology is only getting more essential. Keep up or get left behind. 

But I don’t like that/any of those subjects!

  1. Tough titties because you don’t always get to do the things you like to do. Learn to suck it up now and be a better adult for it.
  2. It’s not just you in that school. Your peers will take wildly different paths from you. They may need to learn calculus because they’re going to be dealing with abstract figures in their careers. Maybe someone wants to be a college-level professor who can dissect Hamlet with ease. Maybe someone wants to study the human body so they can be a physical therapist and heal their loved ones someday. We all require different things in our lives. 

But even if you don’t like any of those, bear this in mind:

Having an overwhelming amount of knowledge in one subject and next to no insight for anything else makes you so goddamn insufferable as a human being. This goes back to an earlier point in that everyone is different and not everybody likes what you do. If you gain a well rounded knowledge with some understanding of many things, you will find so many people to connect to and you will grow as a person. You will even enjoy it, trust me. However, should you choose to live a myopic life where your only interaction is with others who act as a sounding board for your thoughts, then you will live a stunted life unaware that you could have understood anything more than what you already perfected. 

School isn’t just about grades and college mills. You are literally being trained to be a functioning adult in our society. Now get to work. 

Also, an important note:
Turning in Assignments: Jesus Christ, just do it. Most of your grades in High School are based on your homework. Not even doing it well, just doing it. Seriously, this impacts you later in life because nobody gives a crap about who you are unless you have something to show for it. Just. FUCKING. DO IT.

Nier Automata’s two quirky brothers has reminded me of Add.

Imagine Mastermind as Adam, and Lunatic Psyker as Eve.

Mastermind will be completely obsessed with humans and androids, killing and dissecting android bodies in a fruitless attempt at seeing if there are any human parts inside an android’s.

Lunatic Psyker will not be too keen on Mastermind’s obsession, mainly because the entire android organization will likely hunt down to kill him and half of the machine network. He stays by his side to protect him, and uses the scraps of androids to create weapons to support and defend Adam.

…Imagine MM in Adam’s clothes and LP in Eve’s.
Yes, this is basically why I even bothered writing this.

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Superficial muscles of the thorax and back

While all muscles in a region are affected by a workout, when anaerobic workouts are undertaken, the superficial muscles are the ones that form the majority of the bulk that you see in hardcore athletes and bodybuilders.

There are deep “flat” muscles beneath the superficial layers in these regions, and below and lateral to those, there are the “long” muscles. These are all skeletal muscles - voluntary and striated. Surrounding the muscles is connective tissue, including the linea alba (the dividing line between the two halves of the abdomen), the fascia, and the aponeuroses. All of these consist of dense, fibrous connective tissue, and protect the body from intrusion, as well as protecting the muscles from each other, as they flex and relax in different directions.

Atlas and Text-Book of Human Anatomy. Dr. Johannes Sobotta, 1914