In March of 2015, 8-year-old Gabriel Marshall was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer called anaplastic astrocytoma. After surgery, he told his dad, Josh, that he felt like a “monster” due to the large scar on the side of his head. Josh, a doting father, responded by getting a tattoo of a scar on the side of his own head to resemble his son’s scar - “I told him if people wanted to stare, they could stare at both of us.”
Mark has mentioned that there will be a charity live stream soon, but he doesnt know for what yet.
My father has had a debilitating disease for 11 years now: Multiple Sclerosis. He is on ventilator, trachea, oxygen and feeding tube, plus a slew of other machines he needs to ensure his health. I was 5 when he was diagnosed, so I’ve never known him when he was healthy.
He hasn’t walked in seven years and likely never will again. As of 2017, there is no working and/or available cure for MS.
So, I would really appreciate if Mark’s next charity live stream could go to some kind of Multiple Sclerosis research? Yes, those other causes are noble, but I’d really love to see this disease get some representation, as it’s basically been swept under the rug. In my 16 years, I’ve read exactly one article about it in the normal media, and I know no one in my entire circle of people I’ve met who even knows it’s a disease.
Mark has greatly helped me cope with my dad’s illness, and I’d really love to see it recognized by someone who has a big following, maybe it could kick start some kind of research? Maybe I’m overly hopeful, but this has been my dream since 2014.
@ people with disabilities that dont affect them greatly or every day
you are still disabled
your struggles are still valid
just because you arent sick all the time, it doesnt mean you arent sick.
just because you dont have many limitations, it doesnt mean you cant vent about the limitations you do have, because if your illness takes away even one experience/ability/feeling from you, its already taken too much.
dont let people invalidate you because you arent as “disabled as you could be”, because you are disabled, come @ them if they try to tell you youre not.
dont feel like you shouldnt be upset that you have this illness, just because it doesnt always affect you, or doesnt constantly affect you, it doesnt mean it doesnt affect you.
please dont feel like you have to constantly prove youre disabled, and if you do, remember that you are disabled, and you do have hardships and that you deserved to be believed.
I am so sorry you have to go through this, you shouldnt have to.
and above all
youre important and your issues, whether they be small or large, are important.
For every “terrorist” you’re keeping out of the country, you’re keeping out thousands of doctors, researchers, scientists and students who were working in the health fields to make your life better and possibly even save your life in the future. Nice going.
One of the worst epidemics in human history, a sixteenth-century pestilence that devastated Mexico’s native population, may have been caused by a deadly form of salmonella from Europe, a pair of studies suggest.
In one study, researchers say they have recovered DNA of the stomach bacterium from burials in Mexico linked to a 1540s epidemic that killed up to 80% of the country’s native inhabitants. The team reports its findings in a preprint posted on the bioRxiv server on 8 February1.
This is potentially the first genetic evidence of the pathogen that caused the massive decline in native populations after European colonization, says Hannes Schroeder, an ancient-DNA researcher at the Natural History Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen who was not involved in the work. “It’s a super-cool study.”
Dead bodies and ditches
In 1519, when forces led by Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés arrived in Mexico, the native population was estimated at about 25 million. A century later, after a Spanish victory and a series of epidemics, numbers had plunged to around 1 million.
The largest of these disease outbreaks were known as cocoliztli (from the word for ‘pestilence’ in Nahuatl, the Aztec language). Two major cocoliztli, beginning in 1545 and 1576, killed an estimated 7 million to 18 million people living in Mexico’s highland regions.
“In the cities and large towns, big ditches were dug, and from morning to sunset the priests did nothing else but carry the dead bodies and throw them into the ditches,” noted a Franciscan historian who witnessed the 1576 outbreak.
There has been little consensus on the cause of cocoliztli — although measles, smallpox and typhus have all been mooted. In 2002, researchers at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City proposed that a viral haemorrhagic fever, exacerbated by a catastrophic drought, was behind the carnage2. They compared the magnitude of the 1545 outbreak to that of the Black Death in fourteenth-century Europe.
In an attempt to settle the question, a team led by evolutionary geneticist Johannes Krause at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, extracted and sequenced DNA from the teeth of 29 people buried in the Oaxacan highlands of southern Mexico. All but five were linked to a cocoliztli that researchers think ran from 1545 to 1550.
Ancient bacterial DNA recovered from several of the people matched that of Salmonella, based on comparisons with a database of more than 2,700 modern bacterial genomes.
Further sequencing of short, damaged DNA fragments from the remains allowed the team to reconstruct two genomes of a Salmonella enterica strain known as Paratyphi C. Today, this bacterium causes enteric fever, a typhus-like illness, that occurs mostly in developing countries. If left untreated, it kills 10–15% of infected people.
It’s perfectly reasonable that the bacterium could have caused this epidemic, says Schroeder. “They make a really good case.” But María Ávila-Arcos, an evolutionary geneticist at UNAM, isn’t convinced. She notes that some people suggest that a virus caused the cocoliztli, and that wouldn’t have been picked up by the team’s method.
The question of origin
Krause and his colleagues’ proposal is helped by another study posted on bioRxiv last week, which raises the possibility that Salmonella Paratyphi C arrived in Mexico from Europe3.
A team led by Mark Achtman, a microbiologist at the University of Warwick in Coventry, UK, collected and sequenced the genome of the bacterial strain from the remains of a young woman buried around 1200 in a cemetery in Trondheim, Norway. It is the earliest evidence for the now-rare Salmonella strain, and proof that it was circulating in Europe, according to the study. (Both teams declined to comment on their research because their papers have been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.)
“Really, what we’d like to do is look at both strains together,” says Hendrik Poinar, an evolutionary biologist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. And if more ancient genomes can be collected from Europe and the Americas, it should be possible to find out more conclusively whether deadly pathogens such as Salmonella arrived in the New World from Europe.
The existence of Salmonella Paratyphi C in Norway 300 years before it appeared in Mexico doesn’t prove that Europeans spread enteric fever to native Mexicans, says Schroeder, but that hypothesis is reasonable. A small percentage of people infected with Salmonella Paratyphi C carry the bacterium without falling ill, so apparently healthy Spaniards could have infected Mexicans who lacked natural resistance.
Paratyphi C is transmitted through faecal material, and a collapse of social order during the Spanish conquest might have led to the poor sanitary conditions that are ripe for Salmonella spread, Krause and his team note in the paper.
Krause’s study offers a blueprint for identifying the pathogens behind ancient outbreaks, says Schroeder. His own team plans to look for ancient pathogens in Caribbean burial sites that seem to be linked to catastrophic outbreaks, and that were established after the Europeans arrived. “The idea that some of them might have been caused by Salmonella is now a distinct possibility,” he says.
Here’s an animation test from before we began the animation of the film. I had almost no time to figure out the style of the smoke and a way to animate it but yeah it was fun to experiment and I’m very happy with the result !:)
Edit: So you can put 10 images up to 10MB each in one post but it seems like a single gif can’t live here on tumblr if it’s more than 3MB.. So as this stuff is mostly texture work, below 3MB there’s nothing left thank you tumblr I love you so much so much.
@ people who are ill in anyway but are still trying to find a diagnosis
you are valid
your issues are valid
I am so sorry you have to go through all this
just because you arent sure whats wrong, doesnt mean something isnt wrong.
just because you havent been diagnosed, it does not mean you are not sick.
you are not making it up
Its okay to feel panicked, scared, stressed or anything else because this is a scary thing to go through, your emotions are valid.
its okay to not know how to feel, because this is a very hard situation to go through, any form of confusion or frustration you might feel is valid.
whether you are home, in school, or working, your health is the most important thing, please put yourself first. and never feel ashamed for putting yourself first.
you are going through so much, and im sorry you couldnt just be diagnosed and at least know whats wrong, i hope you get whatever amount of help you need soon.
do not let people invalidate you, do not let them say youre lying, and do not let them treat you like youre lying. this goes for friends, family, strangers and even doctors. you are a person, you deserve to be treated like a person. you deserved to be believed.
you matter, you are amazing and im so proud of you.
stop invalidating the discrimination people with disabilities face from doctors and hospitals.
stop saying “its the doctors job to make sure youre telling the truth”, they couldve done that job without assuming i was making everything up, they didnt have to call me a liar
stop saying “well if you looked sicker, they wouldnt have been like that to you”, dont blame me for a doctors incompetence, they shouldnt have treated me like that in the first place.
stop saying “you have to understand, your illness isnt common, you cant expect them to have known what to do”, lmao not knowing what to do doesnt give them the right to mistreat me in any way, they couldve TRIED to do something instead of calling me crazy, a liar, an attention seeker and everything else.
stop saying “you cant expect a doctor to know everything, theyre human too ya know” i didnt expect them to know everything, or anything for that matter, this isnt a matter of their knowledge as a doctor, its a matter how human decency, something i was robbed of because doctors didnt even try to help me, they told me to go away, or that im overreacting.
stop saying “everyone makes mistakes, even them”, the constant discrimination i faced, the lack of help i got from doctors cause they were too busy calling me a liar has altered my life, it wasnt a mistake, it was a tragedy.
stop saying “well you know not all doctors are like that,” Yeah, i do know, i also know that alot of doctors are, and that it gets worse if people try to excuse what they do.
Im tired of being told to get over what i went through, im tired of being told to get over being told i wasnt sick, that i was insane, that i was a liar, because not only was it something awful to go through, but its something i am still going through. because there will be other people, and other doctors who think this.
only now its “i dont know what your illness is, it sounds fake”
and “i dont know how to help but let me act like i do”
now i have a diagnosis and i will face other types of discrimination by hospital and doctors. and people will tell me to let it go when i do.
and ill tell them to fuck off, cause it isnt somethig you just let go of.