directrix

Somali Astronomical/Astrological terms

Astronomy/Astrology;
Space = Fagaagga
Space and Time = Fagaagga iyo Semen
Solar System = Iskujoogga qorraxda
The Solar System = Isku-joog qorraxeed
Galaxies = Diillimo-caanoodyo


Planets = Meerayaasha
Planet = Meere
Planet = Malluug

The Sun = Qorraxda
Moon = Dayax
Mercury = Dusaa
Venus = Waxaraxirta(Sugra) ama Bakool
Earth = Dhulka
Mars = Farraare
Jupiter = Cirjeex
Saturn = Raage
Uranus = Uraano
Neptune = Docay

Saturn rings = Garaangaraha Raage ama Saxal
Dwarf planet = meere-cillin ah
Nebulae = Ciiryamada xiddigaha
Crab Nebula = Ciiryaamada
Super Nova = Xiddig dhimanaaya


Asteroids = Dhadhaabyo
Comets = Dibdheeryo
Meteorider = Burburka jibinta ama xiddigaha ridma
Meteor = Jibin
Meteorites = cir-kasoo-dhac ama shiidmadoobe

Light Year = If-sanadeed
Black holes = Dalool-madowbaha
Open Universe = Koonka Furan
Closed Universe = Koonka Xiran
Expanding Universe = isbaahidda Koonka
Light = ifka
Speed of Light = Xawliga ifka
Cosmos = Koonka
Color Spectrum = shucaaca ilayska-ifka

Lunar Eclipse = Dayax-madoobaad
Solar Eclipse = Qorrax-madoobaad
Calendar = Shintiris-sanadeedka
Leap Year = Sanad shindhalad ah

Astronomy = Xiddiga'aqoonta
Astronomers = ogaalyahannada xiddigo-aqoonta
Satellite = Dayaxgacmeed
Navigation Satellites = Hagidda dayaxgacmeedyada
Space Exploration = Sahminta fagaagga sare adduunka
Earth-based observatories = Rugaha kuurgalka fagaagga dhulkaku Saldhigan
Research Centres = Rugo cilmibaaris
Spacecraft = Gaadiidka Cir-maaxidda
Spaceships = Maraakiibta cir-maaxidda
Robot Vehicle = Alaadaha dadoobisan
Telescope = Doorbin
Mirror = Biladdaye
Lenses = Quraarada cadaska
Zoom = Waxweyneynta
Observatories = Rugo-kuurgal


Spherical = Ugxan
Rotation = meerwareeg
Rotate = udub-wareeg
North Pole = Qudbiga waqooyi
South Pole = Qudbiga konfur
Northern Lights = Wirwirka Qudbiga woqoyi
Southern Lights = Wirwirka Qudbiga koofureede
Equator = dhulbaraha

Core = Bu’
Inner core = Bu’da gudo-xigeenka
Sulfuric Acid = aashitada kibriidka
Greenhouse effect = kulaylkaydinta

Astronomical unit = Halbeegga xiddigaha
Diameter = Dhexroorka
Formula = Hab-xisaabeed

Particles = bitaanbitooyin
Anti-Particles = lidka-bitaanbitooyinka
Particles = iniino
Nuclear reaction = iskushubmidda bu'aha
Magnetic Field = Birlabta
Charge electricity = Cabbeynta Shixnadaha Jacda

Gravitational Forces = cuf-isjiidashada ama xoogga-jiiddada
Gravity = Cuf-jiiddada
Circuit: Mareegta
Current= Qulqulka
Forces = Xoogag
Earth’s gravity = Xoogga-jiiddada dhulka

Inertia Law = Xogta qaynuunka nuuxsi wax-negaadsan
Acceleration = Xowli
Response Act = Qaynuunka falka iyo falcelinta
Theory of Relativity = Fikriga isudhiganka
Quantum Theory = Fikriga imisada ama meeqada
Mass = Jir
Energy = Tabarta
Relative = Hadba Rogmada
Electromagnetic wavelengths = Dhererka hirarka ku danabeysan birlabta

Pyramids = Taallo-tiirriyaadyo
Zodiac = Cutubka Meecaad
Constellations = Cutubyada xiddigaha


Aries = laxo
Scorpion =daba-alleele ama dib-qallooc
Cancer = naaf
Gemeni = mataanaha
Virgo = afaggaal
Sagittarius = dameerajoogeen
Pleiades =Urur
Leo = Libaax


Capacitor = Madhxiye
Resistor = Caabiye
Diode = Laba Qotinle
Transformer = Dooriye
Socod Karaarsan = Accelerated Motion
Samaan = Time
Barobax = Displacement
Fogaan = Distance
Karaar = Acceleration
Keynaan = Velocity
Xawaare = Speed
Celcelis = Average
Socod Winiin = Circular Motion
Barobax –xagleed = Angular Displacement
Gacan = Radius
Karaar –xagleed = Angular Acceleration
Keynaan –xagleed = Angular Velocity
Xoog = Force
Culeys = Weight
Xoog –cuf –isjiidad = Gravitational Force
Xoog –dilaac = Shear Force
Xoog –giigsan = Tensile Force (tension)
Xoog –islis = Frictional Force
Xoog –ligan = Normal Force
Xoog –taab = Tangential Force
Xoog –urrur = Compressive Force (compression)
Xoog –xudumeed = Centripetal Force
Weheliyaha isliska = Coefficient of Friction
Daafad = Momentum
Daafad –xagleed = Angular Momentum
Gujo = Impulse
Gujo –xagleed = Angular impulse
Kalka = Period
Maroojin = Moment
Maroojinta Wahsiga = Moment of inertia (Angular mass)
Walhade = Pendulum
Tamar = Energy
Hawl = Work
Awood = Power
Tamar-keyd = Potential Energy
Tamar-socod = Kinetic Energy


Speed = Xawaare
Velocity = Kaynaan
Acceleration = Karaar (I think this is more appropriate than xowli and this is how i remember it from Fiisigiska)
Deceleration = Karaar-jab


Average Velocity: Kaynaan Celcelis
Momentum: Daabadayn
Diffusion: Saydhin
Capacitor: Madhxinta
Capacitance Capacitor: Madhxinta madhxiye
Radio Activity: Kaah
Infrared: Casaan Dhiimeed
Decay: Qudhmis
Decay series: Qudhmis isdaba Joog
Resistance: Iska caabin
Concave Mirror: Bikaaco Golxeed
Convex Mirror: Bikaaco Tuureed
Virtual Image: Humaag Beeneed
Real Image: Humaag runeed
Displace Ment: Baro bixin
Noble gases: Hawooyinka Wahsada
Vector: Leeb
Hir = Wave
Daryan = Echo
Itaal = Intensity
Tooxda maqalka = Range of audibility
Danan = Pitch
Isku duba-dhac = Resonance
Ileys = Light
Noqod = Reflection
Daahfurran/gudbiye = Transparent
Falaar abaareed = Incident ray
Golxo = Concave
Tuur = Convex
Xagasha qiirqiirka = Critical angle

Xisaab - Maths

Tiro = Number
Tiro tirsiimo = Natural number
Tiro idil = Whole number
Abyoone = Integer
Jajab/Tiro lakab = Rational number
Mutaxan = Prime
Farac = Composite
Tiro maangal ah = Real number
Tiro maangad ah = Imaginary number
Tiro kakan = Complex number
Wadar = Sum
Faraq = difference
Taran = Product
Qeyb = Quotient
Urur = Set
Hormo-urur = Subset
Hormo-urur quman = Proper subset
Dhextaal = Intersection
Isutag = Union
Duleedin = Complement
Aljebro = Algebra
Doorsoome = Variable
Tibix = Term
Hawraar = Expression
Tibxaale = Polynomial
Heer = Degree
Hawraar lakab = Rational expression
Isirayn = Factorization
Isir = Factor
Isle’eg = Equation
Isle’eg toosan = Linear equation
Isle’eg wadajira = Simultaneous equation
Sunsun = Sequence
Dareerimo = Series
Faansaar = Function
Wanqar = Symmetry
Tikraar = Intercept
Made = Asymptote
Tiirada = Slope
Weydaar = Inverse
Qiime sugan = Absolute value
Xididshe = Radical
Saabley = Quadratic equation


Joomitiri - Geometry

Bar = Point
Xariiq = Line
Xagal = Angle
Fool = Bearing
Barbaro = Parallel
Qoton = Perpendicular
Sallax = Plane
Goobo = Circle
Gacan = Radius
Dhexroor/Dhexfur = Diameter
Qaanso = Arc
Fatuuq = Sector
Labojibaarane = Square
Dhinac = Side
Laydi = Rectangle
Joog = Length
Balac = Width
Saddex-xagal = Triangle
Sal = base
Dherer = Height
Gundho = Centroid
Barbaroole = Parallelogram
Koor = Trapezoid
Qardhaas = Rhombus
Gunbur = Pyramid
Toobin = Cone
Dhululubo = Cylinder
Gabal Toobineed = Conic section
Goobo = Circle
Saab = Parabola
Gees = Vertex
Jeedshe = Directrix
Kulmis = Focus
Qabaal = Ellipse
Kulmisyo = Foci
Dhidib weyne = Major axis
Dhidib yare = Minor axis
Labosaab = Hyperbola
Dhidib-wadaaje = Transverse axis
Dhidib-xisti = Conjugate axis
Taxaneyaal = Matrices
Taxane = Matrix
Jiiftax = Row
Joogtax = Colunm
Suge = Determinant
Leeb = Vector
Itimaal = Probability
Abnaqan = Factorial
Raaboqaad = Permutation
Racayn = Combination
Waqdhac = Event
Xigidda = Differentiation
Xad = Limit
Xigsin = Derivative
Lid-xigsin = antiderivative
Abyan = Integration
Abyane huban = Definite integral

The hyperboloid

“In geometry, a surface S is ruled (also called a scroll) if through every point of S there is a straight line that lies on S. The most familiar examples (illustrated here in three-dimensional Euclidean space) are the plane and the curved surface of acylinder or cone. Other examples are a conical surface with elliptical directrix, the right conoid, the helicoid, and the tangent developable of a smooth curve in space.” - wikipedia

A ruled surface can always be described (at least locally) as the set of points swept by a moving straight line.

youtube

Divine Styler- Sound Quest

Origami axioms

Origami, the art of paper folding, can be interpreted as an intriguing geometrical model. Folds represent lines, and intersections of folds, points. Now, to model origami, we need to know which new folds one can make from a given configuration. The most natural model uses the axioms of Huzita-Hatori-Justin, describing the operations that can be made when folding a piece of paper.

Humiaki Huzita discovered and reported the first six axioms in 1991. The seventh independent construction was discovered by Koshiro Hatori in 2001. Jacques Justin, however, already published the complete system with seven axioms in 1989, but his work remained unnoticed.

  • Axiom 1: one can fold a line through two given points.

  • Axiom 2: one can fold a given point onto another given point.

  • Axiom 3: one can fold a given line onto another given line.

  • Axiom 4: one can fold a given line onto itself, while folding through a given point.

  • Axiom 5: one can fold a given point onto a given line, while folding through a given point.

  • Axiom 6: one can fold two given points on two given lines.

  • Axiom 7: one can fold a given line onto itself, while folding a given point onto another given line.

The first two axioms don’t seem that exciting, but they are needed for basic constructions. Axiom 3 states the construction of bissectrices, axiom 4 the construction of perpendiculars. Axiom 5, interestingly, provides a method for solving quadratic equations by origami; the new fold is in fact a tangent line to a parabola (with the given point and fold as focus and directrix, respectively) through a given point. Axiom 6 even allows us to solve cubic equations, which is in general not possible using only straightedge and compass!