diphtheriae

Before I start this little spiel, I need you all to know: I’m not hating on people who don’t vaccinate their kids, and while I know for a fact BASED ON facts that vaccines don’t cause autism or other “defects”, I’m all for continuing research to make them even better and safer.

But you know what really, really scares me about the anti-vax movement? As a future Public Health Professional, the thing that scares me most about this is the fact that our cultural mindset has become so CHILL about vaccine-preventable/”childhood” diseases that there is even room for such a movement. Let me explain.

Do y’all know what an R0 is? The R-naught, as it is called, is the basic reproduction rate of a disease. It tells you how many new infections can come from one existing infection. For example, an R-naught of 3 (R3) means that, on average, one sick person will infect three other people. Every disease has an R-naught, some greater and some lesser.

Do you remember when everyone was freaking out about Ebola? Everyone was terrified of catching it, because it’s SOOOOO contagious and deadly, right? Ebola has an R-naught of 2. That’s it. R2. One person with Ebola, on average, will get 2 more people sick. And we were freaking out about that.

Well guess what? Measles is the most contagious disease known to mankind, and it has an R-naught of 18. 18. One person with measles will give it to 18 new people, and those people will give it to 18 new people EACH, and so on. That’s what happened with the Disneyland outbreak; it’s so ridiculously contagious that just ONE sick child was enough to start an epidemic.

And yet very few people are as scared of measles as they are of Ebola. Why is that? One reason could be the nature of the disease, sure; Ebola is terrifying in its progression and symptoms. But I would suggest that a major reason is that measles has been so well-contained by vaccination that people no longer fear it. It’s not a part of every-day life anymore; this disease is no big deal because nobody gets it, because so many people are vaccinated against it. Let’s put this another way.

What are the diseases that scare everyone the most: Ebola, HIV/AIDS, and SARS are pretty high on the list of terror diseases. But let’s look at the R0s, shall we: Ebola-R2. HIV/AIDS-R5. SARS-R5. 

Now let’s look at diseases that people are voluntarily rejecting vaccinations against: Measles, Pertussis, and Diphtheria are the major ones. Their R0s? Measles-R18. Pertussis-R17. Diptheria-R7.

Everyone focuses on the former set of diseases– rightly so, I suppose– because they’re more dangerous at the present time. What makes them more dangerous? Not their R0; it’s the fact that there is no viable treatment, and NO VACCINE. Seriously, that’s why the medical community is worried about them. There’s no way to treat or PREVENT their spread biologically. Well guess what? There’s no viable treatment for Measles or Pertussis, and only limited treatment options for Diphtheria. That’s why the medical community doesn’t focus on them as much, because we can prevent them at the biological level, safely and effectively.

But now that the Anti-Vax movement has taken hold so firmly, the medical community is now being forced to once more worry about diseases it had almost eradicated. And not only that, it’s endangering herd immunity for the people who can’t receive their own vaccines due to compromised immune systems. I’m allergic to eggs, so I can’t receive the flu shot, but I’m also asthmatic so I can’t get the inhaled vaccine. I rely entirely on the people I associate with to keep me safe from the flu by getting their yearly shot. This made public school a living nightmare, because almost NOBODY got their shot. They caught it, and while it didn’t affect them TOO terribly because they were generally healthy, when I caught it, it was very dangerous because of my asthma. And then there’s that time when I caught the flu, and then right after because of my weakened immune system, I caught Whooping Cough from someone who hadn’t been vaccinated. I HAD been vaccinated, but my body was so fatigued from the flu that it couldn’t keep up with immune demands. And so I caught it.

Have you ever had Pertussis (whooping cough)? It’s hard enough on someone with full lung capacity; it can break ribs, it makes you cough so hard. You cough until there is literally no air in your lungs, and you have to inhale so forcefully it makes the “whooping” sound that gives it the name. It’s painful beyond belief, and it can last for weeks. Some people will survive it. But add that to asthma, or to a young child, or to an elderly person, and you are looking at either permanent damage or death, no exceptions. When I had it, I was about 6 years old, and asthmatic; I spent 81 hours awake because the coughing was so violent I physically couldn’t sleep. I tore abdominal muscles. I vomited during coughing fits and aspirated the vomit. I was actively dying. The doctors could barely suppress the cough enough for me to breathe at all. My inhaler wasn’t helping, none of the cough syrups or breathing treatments were helping; I was getting pneumonia on top of the virus. It was Hell. I was LUCKY that I didn’t die.

Who would wish that on their child? Nobody, I hope. And if you KNEW you could keep your child from ever experiencing that, wouldn’t you do whatever it took to ensure their safety?

Or would you look at the safeguard and say, “Nah. I’ll take my chances with my child’s life.”?

That is what the anti-vax movement is doing. Perhaps not purposefully, but that’s the end result. These aren’t just names on syringes designed to make a child cry; the diseases are real, and real threats to health and life, and the vaccines are how you prevent them. Yet we are so far removed from the impact and effects of these diseases BECAUSE of the peace brought to us BY vaccines that people now feel no qualm about refusing vaccines.

That’s what scares me about the anti-vax movement; people have become so complacent that they no longer worry about these very real, very deadly diseases. They’d rather risk their child’s life than get a shot? The side effects of vaccines are unproven (nonexistent), but the efficacy of vaccines are very much proven.

When the pertussis vaccine first came out, people jumped on it right away. They were so grateful to have it, and for a while everything was smooth sailing, and whooping cough was on the decline. Then, in the 70s, some groups started claiming the pertussis vaccine was causing brain injury in young children. Less than 50 in 15 million cases were reported, but it was enough to scare people away from the vaccine. And children began dying again. It was later discovered that it was NOT the vaccine, but the result of infantile epilepsy, that caused the brain damage. People began once more vaccinating their children, but not before hundreds if not thousands had died.

And that’s what’s happening now. A falsified claim scared just enough people that time-tested, lab-tested, fully-proven, totally safe vaccines are being rejected, and we’re already starting to pay with lives. And I’m scared it’s going to get worse. People don’t really grasp the full import of these diseases and the necessity of the vaccines until they have experienced the disease. I’m scared that it’s going to come down to new epidemics before people will realize the mistake of not vaccinating.

Right now we’re still in the semi-safe zone. Enough of the population is immunized that we could probably keep most pandemics of these diseases at bay. But if this movement keeps gaining momentum, there might come a day when measles and pertussis could once again destroy thousands of people yearly. Imagine if some terrorist group weaponized Ebola and used it against this country; so many people would die, because we have no vaccine for it, no way to prevent it. That is what could happen with diseases like mumps, rubella, measles, pertussis, Diphtheria, and polio. Except it wouldn’t be terrorists using a disease as a weapon; it would be some kid in your child’s class, or your neighbor across the street, or the guy who delivers the mail to your office. That’s how life used to be, and if someone from the pre-vaccine era could see us now, they’d weep for joy at the idea that we can prevent these horrific diseases; and then they’d weep in sorrow at the idea that people are voluntarily turning down that safeguard.

It’s true, vaccines aren’t always 100% effective; I was immunized, but still got Whooping Cough (lowered immune function, if you recall). But you know who didn’t get it? My baby sister. My big sister. My cousins. My mother and father. My classmates, the other kids at my doctor’s office. The nurses at the hospital. The pharmacy workers. Their children. The kids my mom taught at school. All those people were safe because of vaccines. And you know what else? When I was in India, I was exposed to polio. Didn’t get it. Know why? I was vaccinated. I was exposed to chicken pox in 5th grade. One unvaccinated kid got it, and the other 4 kids in our class who weren’t vaccinated got it. But you know who didn’t? The rest of us who WERE vaccinated.


Vaccination may not be perfect, and the only way we will improve them is by continuing research. But the fact remains that as they are now, vaccines cause no lasting side effects (injection site pain goes away), and are extremely effective at preventing dangerous, painful, debilitating, often deadly diseases. Let’s keep researching, yes, but in the mean time, PLEASE vaccinate. It’s not worth your life, or your child’s, or anyone else’s. Vaccines save lives, not destroy them.

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The Sick Rose is a visual tour through the golden age of medical illustration. The nineteenth century experienced an explosion of epidemics such as cholera and diphtheria, driven by industrialization, urbanization and poor hygiene. In this pre-color-photography era, accurate images were relied upon to teach students and aid diagnosis. The best examples, featured here, are remarkable pieces of art that attempted to elucidate the mysteries of the body, and the successive onset of each affliction.  From here

I hate the anti-vaccine movement. 

Imagine, for a moment, how it would feel to have someone say TO YOUR FACE that they would rather have a dead child than one like you. Imagine how much that hurts, how cruel it is not only to you, but to that child who did nothing wrong and now may get malaria, whooping cough, measles, fucking diphtheria, because their stupid parents decided a doctor’s research that has been REPEATEDLY disproved and even got his license taken away, was worth more than their lives

In 1894, Dr. Joseph Kinyoun traveled from New York to France’s Pasteur Institute to learn about the new diphtheria antitoxin from Emile Roux.  Diphtheria was a personal enemy of Kinyoun’s; his three year-old daughter had died from it, and the death of a four year-old from it had nearly caused him to abandon his medical career years before that.  Kinyoun was ecstatic about the new treatment in which horses that had been infected with diphtheria were bled and the antitoxin serum given to patients.  He brought the technique back to the Hygienic Laboratory of the U.S. Marine Hospital Service, which soon began producing the antitoxin.  It was the first step in the Laboratory becoming the place where all antitoxins, vaccines, and serums manufactured in the U.S. were tested for safety and efficacy, a job now done by the Food and Drug Administration. Kinyoun’s laboratory was the precursor to the National Institutes of Heath.

2

“Tremendous progress has been achieved in recent decades in advancing the European Region’s health, education and living standards. Vaccines have played a fundamental role in this progress and vaccines also have a fundamental role in achieving the Global 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 

Each year, the European Region celebrates vaccine’s contribution to development through the European Immunization Week initiative. This year, we focus on the importance of vaccines in every stage of life. And we have much to celebrate, relatively few people living in the region today will ever experience first hand the effects of polio, measles, mumps, congenital rubella syndrome, diphtheria, pertussis, or tetanus. Most will live to see polio eradicated. 

Today we can protect babies from deadly diarrhea, young women from cervical cancer, and the older population from complications of pneumonia. Sometimes we take these achievements for granted, which makes celebrating European Immunization Week even more important…

Crown Princess Mary, in her role as patron of WHO, has recorded a video statement in connection with the 2017 European Immunization Week (04/23 - 04/29/17). 

You can listen to the Crown Princess’ entire video statement here in English. 

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charité // historical figures {2/?}

emil von behring (1854-1917) was a german physician and scientist. he is credited with the discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin and the development of an antiserum (together with his colleagues kitasato shibasaburō, paul ehrlich and erich wernicke), thereby creating an effective cure for the infection that was a major cause for child death at the time. the press hailed him as the “saviour of the children”. later, he was also to become known as the “saviour of the soldiers” when he developed an improved cure for tetanus that was used to treat the soldiers fighting in the dirty trenches of world war one.

in 1901, he received the first nobel prize for medicine. in the same year, he was ennobled.

emil von behring was unpopular with colleagues, employees and students, due to his ruthless character. he cheated his jewish colleague paul ehrlich out of his fair share of profits for the diphteria anti-serum. behring himself, who had worked his way up from a poor background, became rich through the production of the anti-serum; but he remained tough on himself and others. he suffered from depression for most of his life and was addicted to morphine and opium, spending several years in psychiatric institutions.

Medicinal Herbs & Uses: Dandelion

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

Other Names Common Dandelion, Lion’s Tooth, Priest’s Crown, Pu Gong Ying, Swine’s Snout, Dent de Lion Dandelion

External Uses

The fresh juice of Dandelion is applied externally to fight bacteria and help heal wounds. The plant has an antibacterial action, inhibiting the growth of Staphococcus aureus, pneumococci, meningococci, Bacillus dysenteriae, B. typhi, C. diphtheriae, proteus. The latex contained in the plant sap can be used to remove corns and warts.

Internal Uses

Dandelion is also used for the treatment of the gall bladder, kidney and urinary disorders, gallstones, jaundice, cirrhosis, hypoglycemia, dyspepsia with constipation, edema associated with high blood pressure and heart weakness, chronic joint and skin complaints, gout, eczema and acne. As a tonic, Dandelion strengthens the kidneys. An infusion of the root encourages the steady elimination of toxins from the body. Dandelion is a powerful diuretic but does not deplete the body of potassium.

Research is revealing that the many constituents of Dandelion including Taraxacin, Taraxacoside, Inulin, Phenolic acids, Sesquiterpene lactones, Triterpenes, Coumarins, Catortenoids and Minerals, mainly Potassium and calcium, are very valuable in curing a number of disorders and illnesses. Dandelion is traditionally used as a tonic and blood purifier, for constipation, inflammatory skin conditions, joint pain, eczema and liver dysfunction, including liver conditions such as hepatitis and jaundice.

Other Uses

When placed in a paper bag with unripe fruit, the flowers and leaves of Dandelion release ethylene gas ripening the fruit quickly. A liquid plant food is made from the root and leaves. A dark red dye is obtained from Dandelion root. A cosmetic skin lotion made from the appendages at the base of the leaf blades distilled in water, is used to clear the skin and is effective in fading freckles.

Uses:

Dandelion Sap for
Warts
Calluses
Corns
Rough skin

Dandelion salad for
Sluggish liver
Constipation
Urinary problems
Fluid retention

Dandelion tincture for
Skin problems
Sluggish liver
Constipation
Urinary problems
Fluid retention
Arthritis
Gout
Hangovers
Chronic illness

Dandelion flower infused oil for
Muscle tension
Muscle aches
Stiff necks
Arthritis

Magickal Uses

Gender: Masculine
Planet: Jupiter
Element: Air
Deity: Hecate
Power: Divination, wishes, calling spirits

Drink dandelion tea or coffee to promote psychic powers. Leave a cup of this hot infusion by the bed to call spirits.

Dandelion Coffee:

Dig up the roots, trim off the leaves and stems and any small rootlets. Wash off the earth and scrub the roots well, leave them in a warm place to drain and dry. Cut any larger roots in half and into short lengths, spread the pieces on a shallow roasting tin and bake in a hot oven (400F, 200C, Gas 6) for 30 minutes until the roots are brown and dry all through. Allow to cool then grind. Spread the grounds on the roasting tin and roast them for 7 minutes in a moderate oven (350F, 180C, Gas 4). Put 5-6 tablespoons grounds in a warm jub, pour on 500ml/2 cups/1 pint boiling water, stir and stand for 30 minutes. Strain into a pan and re-heat.

Dandelion Fizz

Gather the dandelion flowers in the sun, when they are fully open. The drink is very mildly alcoholic, sweet and quenching.

1 litre/5 cups prepared dandelion flowers
1 ½ litres/4 ½ US quarts water
1 kilo/4 cups sugar
2 lemons

Trim the stalks from the flowers, but leave the green sepals on and discard any overblown flowers or unopened buds. The prepared dandelions should fill a 1 litre/5 cups measure when gently pressed down.

Wash the flowers in a colander and tip them into an earthenware, enamel or plastic container preferably with a well fitting lid. Pour the boiling water on to the dandelions, cover the vessel with a lid, board or weighted plate and leave to stand for 12 hours.

Strain the liquid through a double thickness of muslin into a large saucepan. Add the sugar and the pared rind and juice of the lemons. Heat gently and stir until the sugar has dissolved, but do not allow to boil. Strain the liquid into jugs and leave to cool. Pour into clean, dry bottles with strong screw caps. Store in a cool, dark place. The brew is ready to rink in three or four weeks.


PCT Day 143: Payphones and Park Rangers

It was a blessed relief to wake up naturally, without the sound of an alarm clock, having no clue what time it was. I got dressed and ambled down the hill to the restaurant for breakfast. The fact that I didn’t feel the least bit sick or run-down after yesterday’s escapade felt like a small miracle, and I was hungry to boot. I wolfed down two pancakes that were the size of the plate, and washed them down with a succession of cups of coffee.

I was pretty much the only one in the restaurant that early, so I never got done with more than half a cup before someone was coming around to top me off again. I can’t wait to start having coffee like this–hot–every day, instead of the shitty instant stuff mixed cold with cocoa and protein powder. (Not that I’m ungrateful; that combo has gotten me through some hard mornings. But.)

(Lake Chelan, from the Stehekin dock)

Amidst my errands in town–the post office, calling a bunch of people on the payphone, etc.–I got talking with Hippie Gypsy and Just Bob, the same couple who took the bus down with me last night, and who got the last room at the lodge. They were beyond apologetic–they’d known what sorry shape I was in, and felt bad that I’d had to tent out, but at $200 a room I was happy (or at least willing) to camp for free and take my chances with diphtheria and whooping cough.

They were lovely people, full of energy and dedication to the moment, and they even bought me a beer. That I’d be sitting outside in the sunshine smiling and drinking a Hefeweizen would have seemed completely impossible 24 hours ago. How much happens in a day!

(The cleanest, best-dressed man in town.)

I came out here on this hike for a whole host of reasons, not least of which were the solitude and scenery, but as I look back I find the things I remember most and most fondly are the people. The connections I’ve made out here, the pure unadulterated kindness I’ve been shown–it’s all been such magic. People, man.

I had another chance to feel this way in the evening, after taking the shuttle bus back to trail and hiking a few hours out. I set up camp in a flat space next to a site marked “closed”–I was hoping the marker didn’t apply to my site, too. Wrong. I was in the middle of cooking dinner when a North Cascades National Park Ranger approached me. It turned out my site *was* closed, due to overuse; it also turned out that I needed an additional permit to camp at any designated site in the national park, though my bus driver had told me otherwise.

But the ranger, Cliff, didn’t take the opportunity to work out on me or take a power trip. He calmly explained why these things were the way they were, got my information, and told me I was welcome to stay where I was–no sense hiking out another 7 miles this close to dark when your tent’s already set up, said Cliff. He had every reason to be a dick, given how badly in the wrong I was, and didn’t take the opportunity. He was kind and helpful, and oh boy did I appreciate it. Getting some huge fine with 3 days to go on this hike would have been a stone-cold bummer; I’m so glad that people like Cliff are the way they are.

(I also got to try the goods at the famed Stehekin bakery today, on my way out on the bus. It certainly wasn’t life-changing, as it’s been made out to be, but I had a damn good cinnamon roll, at least. I’m sure I would have felt even sunnier towards the whole thing if I’d’ve eaten there straight off of the trail, like you get to do on the earlier shuttles.)

Diphtheric Conjunctivitis

While many people who know of the infectious disease diphtheria - which we’re protected against by the TDaP vaccine, and which was the impetus for the “Great Race of Mercy”, which is commemorated by the Iditarod - know that it can cause systemic infections and death by suffocation, one of the most common complications is often confused for other conditions.

Diphtheria can cause an acute conjunctivitis if the bacteria infect the conjunctiva of the eye. If it is not brought under control promptly, the toxins exuded by the bacteria can cause necrosis in both the eyelid and the cornea, which can lead to serious vision problems or blindness in patients.

Historically, blindness was a major problem for survivors of diphtheria, scarlet fever, ocular gonorrhea, and smallpox.

Atlas of the External Diseases of the Eye. Dr. O. Haab, 1899.

anonymous asked:

it is so refreshing to see a vegan who isn't against vaccinations! if you choose not to get vaccinated, you are putting so many people in danger (newborn babies, chemotherapy patients, organ transplant patients) who cannot get vaccinated themselves and rely on "herd immunity" for safety. Vaccines may not be vegan, but getting vaccinated against preventable diseases is surely the most compassionate way to live as it protects so many other people. Thanks Ally x

No problem ☺️ It’s a sad reality that animal testing still exists but if I hadn’t been vaccinated as a kid I might not still be alive today or could have made other children dangerously ill. Since introducing vaccines, Diphtheria, H. influenza, Hep A or B, Measles, Mumps, Polio and Rubella all decreased between 98-100%. I’m very grateful for that xx

2

For sixpenceee

This is the grave of a little girl known as “Violin Annie”. Annie was a young girl who lived near my hometown in the late 1800’s. While alive, she was very passionate about her violin. She would play for everyone, and even wanted to become a professional violinist. Unfortunately, she passed away at the age of eleven due to diphtheria. She was buried in Elmwood Cemetery in Southern Illinois. Her parents erected this statue of her above her grave to symbolize her love for violin playing. I had always heard about her, but I wanted to visit her myself. Rumors say if you go to the cemetery at night and listen hard enough, you can hear her playing her violin. They also say that if you visit her grave on Halloween night, you can see her statue glowing.

kixboxer  asked:

Baltic Thunder

COMPETITIVE DOGSLED RACING AS A COVER FOR INTERNATIONAL ESPIONAGE AU

victor has won the iditarod for five years in a row. this is yuuri’s first year at the head of the pack (NO DOGS DIE IN THIS OKAY I REFUSE). he and victor ~glimpse one another though the trees~ like a really cold game of flirty peek-a-boo that’s only sexy to them and everyone else is just…wtf. yuuri needs to get a diphtheria vaccine to a childhood friend, minami, on the other side of alaska and this is 1920 so no other way to get there b/c reasons.  

the espionage bit is basically due to being able to see russia from alaska, and someone smuggles state secrets in a pie that they’ve conveniently placed on yuuri’s sled so they can frame him if something goes wrong. 

something definitely goes wrong. 

yuuri eats the pie with victor on a romantic picnic in the snow, shivering in one another’s arms while they feed each other bites of a frozen boysenberry pie (boysenberry is the most furtive berry, perfect for espionage) and the state secrets are lost forever. they were plans for a pie factory to end pillsbury’s  monopoly on pastries. dastardly.

never bake state secrets into a pie.

minami lives. yuuri is a hero and vicchan is the best dog. he gets an animated film made about him

anonymous asked:

Your dirty ass Muslim make me laugh talking shit about white people GET THE FUCK OVER YOUR SELF

Hello Becky. Nice to see you again :)

You got a lot of nerve to say “dirty” out of your cracker ass mouth and aim it at ANYONE but your own race.

You got a lot of nerve calling muslims dirty when we’ve been taking showers 5 times a day since the year 610. While your crusty ass expired mayo jar of ancestors were all over the world spreading bubonic plague, chicken pox, pneumonic plague, cholera, diphtheria, influenza, measles, scarlet fever, smallpox, typhus, tuberculosis, and whooping cough.

All due to the fact that your (and I repeat) CRUSTY ASS ANCESTORS didn’t know how to WASH THEIR ASS. 

Becky when it comes to hygiene, I suggest you keep quiet. 

Your ancestors were so god damn crusty that Native Americans had to walk around with flowers shoved up their noses to avoid the smell of DIRTY ASS EUROPEANS. Ring around the rosie pocket full of posies. POCKET FULL OF POSIES HOE. POCKET FULL OF FUCKING POSIES. 

The Moors (Muslim inhabitants of Islamic Spain) were the ones who showed the Europeans proper hygiene after the were consistently stricken with illnesses due not bathing.

YOUR ANCESTORS WERE AFRAID OF BATHS. DONT TALK TO ME.

You see becky, you and you fellow islamphobes can argue whether Islam is a religion of peace or a religion of violence. 

But I’ll tell you one thing Becky.

ISLAM IS A RELIGION OF HYGIENE.

Now go kiss your dog.  

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Sometime in the late 1890s or early 1900s, Martha Rendall moved in with Thomas Nichols Morris after he separated from his wife. Thomas was in custody of the five children from the failed marriage and Martha would force them to call her mother and began to abuse the children. She once beat one of the kids so bad that the young girl could not walk for weeks. The investigating officer of the incident said that Martha “delighted in seeing her victims writhe in agony, and from it derived sexual satisfaction.” Her first intended victim was 7 year old Annie. Martha’s m.o was to give the child something to drink that would give them a sore throat, then she would swab the back of their throats with hydrochloric acid. This would inflame the child’s throat causing them to be unable to eat leading to a long slow death from starvation. Annie died on July 28th 1907 with a death certificate stating she died of diphtheria. Next she would turn to the next daughter, who died on October 6th 1907, again with a death certificate stating it was diphtheria. In the winter of 1908 Martha then poisoned the third son. He was a bit older and it took longer to for him to succumb to her treatments. He died on October 6th 1908. Even after an autopsy nothing was found to incriminate Martha. In April of 1909 she turned her attention to George, the second son. He soon began to complain of a sore throat which Martha coated with her special syrup. He then ran away to his mothers house. His disappearance caused neighbors to ask questions about his location, eventually going to the police. Inspector Harry Mann began his investigation and heard lots of stories of the children having their throats swabbed with syrup. One of the neighbors claimed he often peeked into the windows and saw Martha standing in front of a screaming victim, rocking back and forth as if in ecstasy. Inspector Mann located George, the second son, who claimed that Martha had killed his brothers and sisters and was trying to kill him with spirits of salts, otherwise known as hydrochloric acid. When inspector Mann found out that Martha had purchased large quantities of spirits of salts during the time of the children’s illnesses it gave him enough information to get permission for an autopsy on the already deceased young ones. When the autopsy was done, a diluted hydrochloric acid trace was found on the throat tissue. At first both Martha and Thomas were charged with the murder however Thomas was soon acquitted as it was plain to see he had no part in Martha’s sadistic torture games. Although she proclaimed her innocence throughout she would be eventually found guilty and sentenced to death. She was executed October 6th at Fremantle Prison becoming the only woman to be hanged legally in Western Australia. Pictured above: Martha Rendell, some newspaper clippings about the case, Inspector Harry Mann and Martha’s grave, plot 409 at Fremantle Prison.

Young woman with elephantiasis, 1877 -  At a time when infant mortality and childhood infectious diseases were far more common than today, this girl contracted diphtheria and scarlet fever at age 5. By age 17 she had developed elephantiasis documented here. The childhood sickness had infected her body’s lymphatic system and closed the lymph vessels at the top of her legs, causing the fats usually transported by that system to stay put, swell, and harden. Five days after this photograph was taken, the girl died of complications from the infection at New York’s Bellevue Hospital

NCLEX tip of the day

KNOW KNOW KNOW!

TRANSMISSION-BASED PRECAUTIONS:

AIRBORNE

My - Measles
Chicken - Chicken Pox/Varicella Hez - Herpez Zoster/Shingles TB

or remember…
MTV=Airborne
Measles
TB
Varicella-Chicken Pox/Herpes Zoster-Shingles

Private Room - negative pressure with 6-12 air exchanges/hr Mask, N95 for TB

DROPLET

think of SPIDERMAN!
S - sepsis
S - scarlet fever
S - streptococcal pharyngitis P - parvovirus B19

P - pneumonia
P - pertussis
I - influenza
D - diptheria (pharyngeal) E - epiglottitis

R - rubella
M - mumps
M - meningitis
M - mycoplasma or meningeal pneumonia An - Adenovirus

Private Room or cohort Mask

CONTACT PRECAUTION

MRS.WEE
M - multidrug resistant organism
R - respiratory infection
S - skin infections *
W - wound infxn
E - enteric infxn - clostridium difficile E - eye infxn - conjunctivitis

SKIN INFECTIONS VCHIPS
V - varicella zoster
C - cutaneous diphtheria

H - herpez simplex

I - impetigo
P - pediculosis

S - scabies