@chaste-waifu, I’ve decided to reply like you in this manner because for some reason my computer gets ridiculously slow when I try to reblog from your blog.
First of all, I have never dismissed that there are women in the sex industry who are not unhappy (If you read my reply you would’ve seen that I said the complete opposite.) I’m starting to get a bit tired of you implying that sex work being dangerous is my personal opinion. It is not. I feel like this discussion is dishonest because right now it seems like we are having a back and forth based on personal opinions, when in reality everything I’ve said is in fact based on research. I’ve compiled a list of studies supporting my claims which you can read (or you can just check the stats/conclusions I’ve mentioned, if you don’t have time/ability to read.)
Show me another industry, legal or not, that has such high number of traumatised and abused women in it. Show me another industry where women are subjected to the same cruel treatment and risk of murder. Show me another industry where the “customers” have such low opinions of the people serving them. To deny that there is something seriously wrong with the sex industry and that there are a lot of women in it who are in dire need of help is not only disgusting but also extremly ignorant.
Finally, you seem to imply that I am against any sort of decriminalization of sex work. I am not. I support the Nordic Model, which means that the act of prostitution is legalized while the act of buying sex remains a criminal offense. I believe this is the most effective way of assuring that people being taken advantage of in the industry are able to reach for help while simultaneously punish those who would inflict harm on them.
Regarding the girls and women who enter the sex industry
A study survering 859 prositutes across five continents found that 59% of them had been physically abused as children, 63% had been sexually abused, 75% had been/was homeless and 47% entered the industry before the age of 18. Source:“Farley, Melissa, Cotton, Ann, Lynne, Jacqueline, Zumbeck, Sybille, Spiwak, Frida, Reyes, Maria E., Alvarez, Dinorah, & Sezgin, Ufuk (2003). Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder”
Another study which survied 200 juvenlies and adult women in San Franciso found that 78% had entered the industry before they turned 18 and 62% before the age of 16. 60% of them had experienced child abuse from the ages of 3 to 16 and 70% of those reported that sexual abuse was a factor in their decision to do sex work. Source: “Silbert, Mimi H., & Pines, Ayala M. (1981a). Sexual Child Abuse as an Antecedent to Prostitution. Child Abuse & Neglect"
A study from 1993 found that 85% of 123 survivors from the sex industry had been victims of incests as children. 90% had been physically abused and 98% had been emotionally abused. Source: “Hunter, Susan Kay (1993). Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children. Michigan Journal of Gender and Law”
The organisation WHISPER conducted interviews with formely prosituted women in Minneapolis and found that 90% had been battered and 74% had been subjected to sexual abuse between the ages of 3 and 154. Source: “Giobbe, Evelina (1994). Confronting the liberal lies about prostitution. In Alison M. Jaggar (Ed.), Living with contradictions"
A study by Simons and Whitbeck from 1991 found that “early sexual abuse increases the probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of any influence exerted through factors such as running away from home, substance abuse, and other deviant activities” Source: “Simons, Ronald L., & Whitbeck, Les B. (1991). Sexual abuse as precursor to prostitution and victimization among adolescent and adult homeless women. Journal of Family Issues”
In Sweden, studies have shown that young adults who have been prostituted confirm high correlations to prior sexual childhood abuse, neglect and homelessness. Source: “Abelsson, Jonna, & Hulusjö, Anna (2008 [At the borders of sexuality: A study of youth in Gothenburg and surroundings who sell or barter sexual services]. Gothenburg: Göteborgs Stad, Social resursförvaltning”
In 2008, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention found that poverty and discrimination are two key structual factors for recruitment into trafficking in Sweden, Finland and Estonia. A majority come from the lowest of social strata. Source:“(Swedish Nat'l Council for Crime Prevention) (2008). The Organisation of Human Trafficking: A Study of Criminal Involvement in Sexual Exploitation in Sweden, Finland, and Estonia”
Regarding the mental damage done to girls and women in the sex industry
The study by Farely et. al which I’ve referenced above found that 68% of the prostituted women they interviewed met the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Their symptoms were higher or equal to those of Vietnamn veterans. These symptoms were found regardless of whether prositution was legalized or criminalized.
Similar studies have been done in Sweden where pyschiatrists working with trauma and recovery of prostitued women testified that they had severe symtoms of mental disorders such as grave sleep- and concentration disorders, recurrent anxiety and panic attacks, grave depression, severe anorectic reactions, self-desctructive behavious, extensive dissocation, problems with impulse control and manifest suicidality. Source: “Ramos-Ruggiero, Luis, & Hännestrand, Brita (2010, October 12)Statement: Regarding Young Women’s Mental Condition and Reactions Caused by Prostitution and Trafficking [Traumacenter Sweden]”
A Korean study from 2009 also found that prositution was strongly related to PTSD even when controlling for childhood abuse. The study also revelaed a significantly higher symptoms of disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS) among the prostituted women compared to the controll group. This number remained high even amongst women who left the industry over a year earlier. Source:"Choi, Hyunjung, Klein, Carolin, Shin, Min-Sup, & Lee, Hoon-Jin (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) symptoms following prostitution and childhood abuse. Violence against Women”
Regarding the mortality and murder rate among girls and women in the sex industry
The American Journal of Epidemiology from 2005 showed that in a population of 1969 prosituted women in Colorado Springs, those active in prostitution ran a risk of murder 18 times higher than in a comparable non-prostituted population. The homicide rate was 204 per 100.000, which is many times higher than the highest workplace homicide rates in the United States. Source: “Potterat, John J., Brewer, Devon D., Muth, Stephen Q., Rothenberg, Richard B., Woodhouse, Donald E., Muth, John B., Stites, Heather K., & Brody, Stuart (2004). Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women. American Journal of Epidemiology”
The Special Committe on Pornography and Prostitution in Canda estimated that the mortality for prostituted women may be 40 times higher than the national average. Source:“Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution in Canada (1985). Pornography and Prostitution in Canada: Report of the Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution in Canada. Vols. 1 & 2. Ottawa, Canada: Supply & Services”
Women and men in prostitution have been documented as particularly vulnerable to victimization by serial murderers. Source: “Hickey, Eric W. (2002).Serial Murderers and their Victims (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.
Regarding violence against girls and women in the sex industry done by men who buy sex
Tricks (people who buy sex) were found to be the primary source of sexual violence in a Canadian study (referenced above, Special Committe on Pornography & Prostitution) Another Canadian federal inquiry came to the same conclusion. Source: "Committee on Sexual Offences against Children and Youths (Canada) (1984). Sexual Offences Against Children: Report of the Committee on Sexual Offences Against Children and Youths”
The previous study mentioned done by Silbert and Pines found that among the 200 juvenile and adult prostituted women, 70% reported having been raped or similarly abused by tricks an average of 31.3 times.
A survey done in Chicago found that out of 222 prostituted women, 21% acknowledged having been raped over 10 times. Source: “Raphael, Jody, & Shapiro, Deborah L. (2004). Violence in indoor and outdoor prostitution venues. Violence Against Women”
A study done in Portland, Oregon found that 85% of the 55 prostitution survivors had been subjected to aggravated assult on average 103 times a year. 78% of them had been subjected to rape 49 times a year and 53% were sexually tortured on average 54 times a year.Pornography was reportedly often made during the torture. Source: “Hunter, Susan Kay (1993). Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children. Michigan Journal of Gender and Law”
Studies conducted in Canada found that weapons such as baseball bats and crowbars were often used against prostitutes, as well as the offenders jerking the prostituted women’s head against car dashboards or walls. Source: “Farley, Melissa, Stewart, Mary, & Smith, Kyle (2007). Attitudes toward Prostitution and Sexually Coercive Behaviors of Young Men at the University of Nevada at Reno. In Melissa Farley (2007a), Prostitution and Trafficking in Nevada: Making the Connections”
Similarly, numerous witness in Swedish court hearings have testified experiencing daily beatings, gang-rapes and torture. Source: “Helsingborgs tingsrätt [Helsingborg Dist. Ct.], 2005-09-25, B 1230–05 (Swed.), "Stockholms tingsrätt [Stockholm Dist. Ct.], 2003-03-21, B 4205–02 (Swed.) (“Ludvig Case”). among others”
When considering these previous statistics on rape it’s important to remember that rape tends to be commonly underreported by prostituted persons themselves. Source: “SOU 1995:15 [The Sex Trade: Final Report of the 1993 Prostitution Inquiry] [government report series] (Swed.)”
Regarding the possibility for girls and women to leave the sex industry
A US study from 2003 found that the exploitation done to prostituted women often appears to lead to a ruined psychic and social development as well as a lack of realistic alternative means for income. Source: “Herman, Judith Lewis (2003). Introduction: Hidden in Plain Sight; Clinical Observations on Prostitution. In Melissa Farley (Ed.), Prostitution,Trafficking, and Traumatic Stress (pp. 1– 14). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press.”
Previously referenced study by Farley et al. which survied prostitutes in over five continents found that 87% of the prostituted person explicitly said they wanted to leave but could not because they get stuck in coercive circumstances.
A factor which makes it difficult for women to leave the sex industry is that a lot of shelters put limitations on who they allow in (for example, women with children, pets, HIV; communicable diseases, criminal records or who have not been drug-free for a specified time or recently got released from prision might not be allowed.) Source: “Williams, Jody (2007). Barriers to Services for Women Escaping Nevada: Prostitution and Trafficking. In Melissa Farley (2007a), Prostitution and Trafficking in Nevada: Making the Connections (pp. 159– 172). San Francisco: Prostitution Research and Education”
Regarding the men who buy sex from girls and women in the sex industry
Tricks (people who buy sex) are to a significant extent aware of the fact that prostituted people are economically strapped, subjected to violence and other grave hardships, are often pimped/trafficked as well as knowing most were abused or neglected as children. Source: “Durchslag, Rachel, & Goswami, Samir (2008). Deconstructing The Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights From Interviews With Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex. Chicago: Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation.” Source: “Farley, Melissa, Macleod, Jan, Anderson, Lynn, & Golding, Jacqueline M. (2011, March 28). Attitudes and social characteristics of men who buy sex in Scotland. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy” Tricks have a tendency to deny or neutralize their own abusive contributions. Source:“Di Nicola, Andrea, & Ruspini, Paolo (2009). Learning from clients. In Andrea Di Nicola (Ed.), Prostitution and human trafficking: Focus on clients (pp. 227–235). New York: Springer.”
In interviews done with tricks in London, 47% openly admitted that “women did not always have certain rights during prositution.” 25% openly admitted that they believed the very concept of raping a prostitute or call girl was ridiculous. Source: “Farley, Melissa, Bindel, Julie, & Golding, Jacqueline M. (2009). Men Who Buy Sex: Who They Buy and What They Know. London: Eaves”
In Chicago, 43% of 113 trick-interviewees stated that women should do “anything he asks” when paid. 22% admitted that the buyer is “entitled to do whatever he wants to the woman” (Durschlag et al., referenced above.)
Again, obviously there are women who do sex work and are not part of these statistics. However, to even attempt to argue that encouraging these people to do sex work would in any way be more or even anywhere near as important as protecting the majority of women in the industry who are subjected to appalling conditions is ridiculous.