development aircraft

13 Reasons to Have an Out-of-This-World Friday (the 13th)

1. Not all of humanity is bound to the ground

Since 2000, the International Space Station has been continuously occupied by humans. There, crew members live and work while conducting important research that benefits life on Earth and will even help us eventually travel to deep space destinations, like Mars.

2. We’re working to develop quieter supersonic aircraft that would allow you to travel from New York to Los Angeles in 2 hours

We are working hard to make flight greener, safer and quieter – all while developing aircraft that travel faster, and building an aviation system that operates more efficiently. Seventy years after Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier in the Bell X-1 aircraft, we’re continuing that supersonic X-plane legacy by working to create a quieter supersonic jet with an aim toward passenger flight.

3. The spacecraft, rockets and systems developed to send astronauts to low-Earth orbit as part of our Commercial Crew Program is also helping us get to Mars

Changes to the human body during long-duration spaceflight are significant challenges to solve ahead of a mission to Mars and back. The space station allows us to perform long duration missions without leaving Earth’s orbit.

Although they are orbiting Earth, space station astronauts spend months at a time in near-zero gravity, which allows scientists to study several physiological changes and test potential solutions. The more time they spend in space, the more helpful the station crew members can be to those on Earth assembling the plans to go to Mars.

4. We’re launching a spacecraft in 2018 that will go “touch the Sun”

In the summer of 2018, we’re launching Parker Solar Probe, a spacecraft that will get closer to the Sun than any other in human history. Parker Solar Probe will fly directly through the Sun’s atmosphere, called the corona. Getting better measurements of this region is key to understanding our Sun. 

For instance, the Sun releases a constant outflow of solar material, called the solar wind. We think the corona is where this solar wind is accelerated out into the solar system, and Parker Solar Probe’s measurements should help us pinpoint how that happens.  

5. You can digitally fly along with spacecraft…that are actually in space…in real-time!

NASA’s Eyes are immersive, 3D simulations of real events, spacecraft locations and trajectories. Through this interactive app, you can experience Earth and our solar system, the universe and the spacecraft exploring them. Want to watch as our Juno spacecraft makes its next orbit around Juno? You can! Or relive all of the Voyager mission highlights in real-time? You can do that too! Download the free app HERE to start exploring.

6. When you feel far away from home, you can think of the New Horizons spacecraft as it heads toward the Kuiper Belt, and the Voyager spacecraft are beyond the influence of our sun…billions of miles away

Our New Horizons spacecraft completed its Pluto flyby in July 2015 and has continued on its way toward the Kuiper Belt. The spacecraft continues to send back important data as it travels toward deeper space at more than 32,000 miles per hour, and is ~3.2 billion miles from Earth.

In addition to New Horizons, our twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. Continuing on their more-than-37-year journey since their 1977 launches, they are each much farther away from Earth and the sun than Pluto. In August 2012, Voyager 1 made the historic entry into interstellar space, the region between the stars, filled with material ejected by the death of nearby stars millions of years ago.

7. There are humans brave enough to not only travel in space, but venture outside space station to perform important repairs and updates during spacewalks

Just this month (October 2017) we’ve already had two spacewalks on the International Space Station…with another scheduled on Oct. 20. 

Spacewalks are important events where crew members repair, maintain and upgrade parts of the International Space Station. These activities can also be referred to as EVAs – Extravehicular Activities. Not only do spacewalks require an enormous amount of work to prepare for, but they are physically demanding on the astronauts. They are working in the vacuum of space in only their spacewalking suit. 

8. Smart people are up all night working in control rooms all over NASA to ensure that data keeps flowing from our satellites and spacecraft

Our satellites and spacecraft help scientists study Earth and space. Missions looking toward Earth provide information about clouds, oceans, land and ice. They also measure gases in the atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide and the amount of energy that Earth absorbs and emits. And satellites monitor wildfires, volcanoes and their smoke.

9. A lot of NASA-developed tech has been transferred for use to the public

Our Technology Transfer Program highlights technologies that were originally designed for our mission needs, but have since been introduced to the public market. HERE are a few spinoff technologies that you might not know about.

10. We have a spacecraft currently traveling  to an asteroid to collect a sample and bring it back to Earth

OSIRIS-REx is our first-ever mission that will travel to an asteroid and bring a sample of it back to Earth. Currently, the spacecraft is on its way to asteroid Bennu where it will survey and map the object before it “high-fives” the asteroid with its robotic arm to collect a sample, which it will send to Earth.

If everything goes according to plan, on Sept. 24, 2023, the capsule containing the asteroid sample will make a soft landing in the Utah desert.

11. There are Earth-sized planets outside our solar system that may be habitable

To date, we have confirmed 3,000+ exoplanets, which are planets outside our solar system that orbit a Sun-like star. Of these 3,000, some are in the habitable zone – where the temperature is just right for liquid water to exist on the surface.  

Recently, our Spitzer Space Telescope revealed the first known system of SEVEN Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these plants are firmly in the habitable zone, and could have liquid water on the surface, which is key to life as we know it.

12. Earth looks like art from space

In 1960, the United States put its first Earth-observing environmental satellite into orbit around the planet. Over the decades, these satellites have provided invaluable information, and the vantage point of space has provided new perspectives on Earth.

The beauty of Earth is clear, and the artistry ranges from the surreal to the sublime.

13. We’re building a telescope that will be able to see the first stars ever formed in the universe

Wouldn’t it be neat to see a period of the universe’s history that we’ve never seen before? That’s exactly what the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to do…plus more!

Specifically, Webb will see the first objects that formed as the universe cooled down after the Big Bang. We don’t know exactly when the universe made the first stars and galaxies – or how for that matter. That is what we are building Webb to help answer.

Happy Friday the 13th! We hope it’s out-of-this-world!

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com.

The F-117 Nighthawk stealth attack aircraft was developed in near-complete secrecy. This is the first F-117 (U.S. Air Force serial number 79-10780) during final assembly at the Lockheed Skunk Works facility in Burbank, California, circa 1980. This aircraft was one of five pre-production aircraft that were flown to test performance, stability and control, and mission systems. The test aircraft were all airlifted to test site via C-5, departing Burbank in the middle of the night. Company test pilot Hal Farley made the F-117’s first flight in this aircraft on 18 June 1981, but the existence of the Nighthawk was not publically revealed until 10 November 1988. This aircraft is now on permanent static display at Nellis AFB, Nevada. © Lockheed Martin

Fun fact, in 1962, India and Portugal went to war against each other, over small patches of land in India called Goa, Daman and Diu
that had belonged to the Portuguese for almost 500 years

It was a crushing defeat for the Portuguese, as they didn’t have enough military assets in the area to mount any credible resistance, and thanks to international pressure, their attempts at reinforcing their military presence where limited to shipments of infantry and small arms, their only heavy weapon of notice in the region being an obsolete sloop, the NRP Afonso de Albuquerque, of the pre-war era, that was quickly sunk by the more modern Indian warships:

The war was also the first time a developing nation used an aircraft carrier in a military operation, in the form of the INS Vikrant

Lasting over 36 hours, it was a quick but decisive conflict that finally gave India full sovereignty over her territories, while at the same time showing Portugal just how alone they were in their ultimately futile attempts at keeping their colonies, something that would be known as the Portuguese Colonial Wars, which lasted until 1974 and effectively brought to an end the Portuguese Empire. 

Six Soviet Su-7B fighter bombers are ready for take-off on an unidentified airfield strip.

The Sukhoi Su-7 (NATO designation name: Fitter-A) was a swept wing, supersonic fighter aircraft developed by the Soviet Union in 1955.

Originally, it was designed as tactical, low-level dogfighter, but was not successful in this role. On the other hand, soon-introduced Su-7B series became the main Soviet fighter-bomber and ground-attack aircraft of the 1960s.

The Su-7 was rugged in its simplicity but its shortcomings included short range and low weapon load.

Unknown photographer and date.

TDR-1 assault drone in flight, 1942 ww2dbase via USN

The TDR unmanned assault drone aircraft was developed by Interstate Aircraft starting in Apr 1942 by request of the United States Navy. The prototype took its first flight in 1942. They were built using steel-tube framing from the bicycle manufacturer Schwinn and molded wood skin. They were powered by two 220-horsepower engines. They were equipped with fixed tricycle landing gears which were jettisoned following takeoff for an operational mission. They could be flown either from a control aircraft (which was usually a TBF Avenger torpedo bomber fitted with a television display, seeing a display transmitted from the camera at the TDR drone’s nose), or aboard the drone itself (for test flights). Originally the US Navy envisioned, under Operation Option, a force of 1,000 to 2,000 assault drones, organized into 18 squadrons with 162 control aircraft. Ultimately, however, the contract was reduced to 300 assault drones. In 1944, TDR-1 aircraft were deployed to the South Pacific. They conducted their first operational sortie on 27 Sep 1944, bombing Japanese ships. On 27 Oct 1944, 50 TDR-1 aircraft were launched against the Japanese stronghold of Rabaul, New Britain; 31 of them reached the target and damaged several buildings. The project was canceled on 28 Oct 1944, one day after the small success at Rabaul, the project was cancelled. By this date, a total of 189 production examples were built.

SPECIFICATIONS

TDR-1

MachineryTwo Lycoming O-435-2 opposed piston engines, rated at 220hp each

Armament1x2,000lb (910kg) bomb or 1x aerial torpedo

Span15.00 m

Weight, Maximum2,676 kg

Speed, Cruising225 km/h

Range, Maximum425 km

anonymous asked:

Why did the Imperial Japanese Army have aircraft carriers? That seems a bit ridiculous.

They had FOUR FUCKING CARRIERS to be precise:

The Akitsu Maru, which has the dubious honor of being the sunken carrier with the worst loss of lives of all time:

The Kumano Maru

The Yamashio Maru

And the Nigitsu Maru, which may or may not have actually been a carrier, as all of them where converted cargo ships.

As for why? Basically, the ridiculous rivalry between the army and the navy, mostly due to budget and political influence affairs, which not only led to this, but also, among other things, both service developing and operating aircraft of their on, AND BOTH OF THEM DEVELOPING AND OPERATING TANKS!

A bureaucratic nightmare that all it achieved was wasted precious resources, and in a positive way, at least for us, contribute to the defeat of Japan.

But I’m sure @lex-for-lexington and @fujisan-ni-noboru-hinode can tell us much more about this disaster. 

4

Lisbon, Portugal, 10th October 2017, Day 1 of the Dutch State Visit to Portugal.

His Majesty King Willem-Alexander and Her Majesty Queen Máxima are to pay a state visit to the Portuguese Republic from 10 to 12 October 2017 at the invitation of President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa.
The King and Queen will visit Lisbon, Alverca, Sintra and Cascais. They will be accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation will head a parallel trade mission to Portugal with representatives of the airport development and aircraft manufacturing industry and the environmental technology and sustainable energy sector.

Source: Dutch Royal House
Photos: ANP, RDV, Patrick van Katwijk

The curious circle of the Dassault Mirage delta family

First, the French machines:

On top we have the original Mirage III, one hell of an interceptor and fighter, the living proof that a delta wing was the perfect solution for supersonic flight (instead of that god-awful wing used by the F-104), an overall and outstanding export success, effectively the west’s MiG-21, only superior.

Then came her first major upgrade, the Mirage V, a version almost tailor-made for Israel (but more of that in a sec), that sacrificed all-weather interception capacity for better ground-attack capabilities, with an stretched fuselaje, better payload, better range, more hard-points, and a nose cone designed to improve ground view. Another export success.

And finally, the ultimate version, the Mirage 50, a throwback to the original all-weather interception capabilities, with a set of fixed canards to improve flying characteristics, a new radar and engine, not as successful as her predecessors, but still an aircraft to behold.

Now we get to the international copies and variants:

This is effectively an unlicensed Israeli version of the Mirage V, the IAI Nesher (Vulture). Build after France denied delivery of the V’s the Israelis both helped to make and payed in full, where, Israel being Israel, decided that fuck the french, they were getting their Mirages, so what they did was STEAL her blueprints using the Mossad, and basically built the aircraft themselves, the only differences being the american ejection seats and some Israeli-made avionics, quickly passed out and sold to Argentina, getting renamed Dagger, and following a small upgrade, Finger

Now came a true Israeli modification, a big improvement over the Nesher, which replaced the french-made engine with an american-made one, the same that powered the F-4 already in service with the IAF, the General Electric J79, giving birth to the IAI Kfir (Lion’s cub, a colombian C10 version is pictured), a superior variant with better avionics, higher payload and all-around performance, although with a reduced range.

And the final variant, the South African Atlas Cheetah, which is essentially a mix between a Kfir and a Mirage III, with a more powerful french-made engine (the same equipping the Mirage 50), much better avionics, improvements of dogfighting ability, and overall the ultimate version of the Mirage III, which in turn, curiously enough, would lead to the development of the upgraded Kfir C10 (seen on the Kfir pic), completing the circle.

With the Cheetah died the development of this remarkable aircraft, as the French moved on to the far superior but far less successful Mirage 2000

While the Israelis would try, and ultimately fail, to make their own fighter, based on the lessons from the Nesher and Kfir, culminating in the cancelled (thanks to america) IAI Lavi

Which, curiously enought, would help to give birth to the first fully indigenous chinese fighter jet, the Chengdu J-10

And finally, the South Africans just gave up on aircraft-making, after the end of Apartheid brought an end to their military complex, the most advanced in Africa.

An Avro York of the Royal Air Force sits at Tempelhof Airport during the Berlin Airlift. The Western Allies supplied the people of West Berlin by air alone for the duration of the near one year blockade by Stalin, from 24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949. Yorks flew over 58,000 sorties – close to half of the British contribution.

The aircraft was developed from the wings, tail and undercarriage of the Lancaster bomber, given a new, much larger fuselage. It was an independent project undertaken by Avro, themselves seeing a need for a transport aircraft which they hoped could also find place in a post-war civil market. During the wars last few years individual Yorks were given to various VIPs including Churchill, who named his Ascalon - the lance or sword with which Saint George slew the dragon. The Viceroy of India and C-in-C South East Asia Command, Lord Mountbatten, also received one, repainted a light duck egg green.

Hatching A Nighthawk

The F-117 Nighthawk stealth attack aircraft was developed in near-complete secrecy. This is the first F-117 (U.S. Air Force serial number 79-10780) during final assembly at the Lockheed Skunk Works facility in Burbank, California, circa 1980. This aircraft was one of five pre-production aircraft that were flown to test performance, stability and control, and mission systems. The test aircraft were all airlifted to test site via C-5, departing Burbank in the middle of the night. Company test pilot Hal Farley made the F-117’s first flight in this aircraft on 18 June 1981, but the existence of the Nighthawk was not publically revealed until 10 November 1988. This aircraft is now on permanent static display at Nellis AFB, Nevada.

via Lockheed Martin

The Curse of the DC-10

At the very end of the 60′s, the entry of the Jumbo Jet, the Boeing 747, into the airliner world, heralded a new age of aircraft development, the wide-body airliner, and following the success of this behemoth of the skies, the world-renowned american company Douglas Commercial, legendary for planes such as the DC-3, DC-4 and DC-8, quickly entered in this new market with a brand-new aircraft of their own, the DC-10

Little would they, and really, anyone else know, that this plane seemed to be hopelessly cursed in her early years:

November 3, 1973, National Airlines Flight 27: An uncontained engine failure in the N°3 engine due to vibrations of unknown origin, launched debris at the fuselage of the plane, penetrating it and causing rapid decompression of the cabin area, alongside damage to electrical and hydraulic systems. A passenger was ejected from the hole in the fuselage, and the rest survived as the pilots managed to safely land the plane.

March 3, 1974, Turkish Airliners flight 981: A design flaw in the cargo door resulted in a catastrophic in-flight failure that lead to an explosive decompression of the fuselage, critically damaging the control surfaces and leading to a crash that killed all 346 on board. 

May 25, 1979,  American Airlines Flight 191: Improper maintenance led to the loss of the N°1 engine during take-off, which took with it most of the left wing’s leading edge, effectively destroying its lift ability, which led to a stall and subsequent crash that killed all 271 on board plus 2 on the ground.

October 31, 1979, Western Airlines Flight 2605: Pilot error led to the collision with construction equipment after landing on a closed runway at Mexico City International Airport, killing 72 of the 88 people on board and one person on the ground.

November 28, 1979, Air New Zealand Flight 901: During a sightseeing flight into the Antarctic, lack of visibility and a dire navigational error by Air New Zealand’s management let the aircraft to fly into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, killing all 237 passengers and 20 crew on board.

1979 would be the worst year of the model, and while safety improved and therefore, crashes heavily diminished after that fateful year, the ugly head of this curse would still show up in the form of two of aviation’s most bizarre accidents:

July 19, 1989, United Airlines Flight 232: Uncontained engine failure on the N°2 (tail) engine due to a manufacturing defect of the titanium used in the engine’s fan assembly, lead to the destruction of the hydraulic systems, rendering the aircraft almost uncontrollable, where the excellent crew on board managed to control her enough with the remaining wing engines via the throttles, leading to a failed landing attempt that nonetheless managed to save 185 of the 296 people on board.

July 25, 2000, Air France Flight 4590: Curiously, the last fatalities brought by a DC-10 wouldn’t happen in the plane itself, but rather, in Concorde’s only crash, as the aircraft was lost after striking an engine thrust reverser fragment that fell from a DC-10 that belonged to Continental Airlines.

madhattressdelux  asked:

*Bursts in* I HEARD KIKI'S DELIVERY SERVICE HC HELLO YES

HELLO YES HI. Ok. Ok. So I was thinking that NaruHina would be pretty much like how KDS is already. Hinata leaves home for a year for her witch’s training except she never had a mother to show her the ropes so the only thing she knows how to do is flying (rather haphazardly, much like Kiki does actually) and gardening, which is something that she and Hanabi continued to do after their mother died. 

She finds a city, settles down at the bakery run by Kurenai and Asuma, meets Naruto but she’s flustered because he’s so incredibly excited to meet an actual witch that he forgets that personal space is a thing. But he’s very kind and very outgoing and he ends up showing her around. They become really good friends- he’s her only friend for a while, actually, and she is someone new and different and exciting who he is incredibly curious of. Inevitably he’s drawn to her kindness and her gentleness and her ability to laugh with him and believe in him whenever he doubts himself.  

Hinata loves her new city but she’s also disquieted because she’s spent her whole life not knowing exactly her place in the world (Hiashi, unfortunately, never quite knew how to navigate the particulars of the world of witches and his discomfort was always felt very keenly by Hinata) and now especially, she wants to take this year to prove to her father and to herself that yes, she’s a witch and that meant also that she had something special and unique to share.

She becomes more and more discouraged when she tries her hand at fortune telling, flying, casting spells, etc and nothing works out. It gets to the point where she really does lose her powers as she loses faith in herself and she’s even more discouraged and upset because that was the one thing that was always unique about her that she could count on, despite the complications it caused between her and Hiashi. Naruto sees this and gently encourages her to stay with his family, who she’s never met, for a few days as a break. 

She agrees after some persuasion from Kurenai and she meets Kushina and Minato who greet her with open arms and all the boisterous warmth and cheer that Hinata has never quite found at home (love, at home, was in the form of quiet teatime out on the porch and reading together in the living room and small but heartfelt smiles of pride). Kushina sweeps her up in a whirlwind of cooking and knitting and joking which have Hinata laughing so hard her cheeks ache and her stomach cramps. Minato invites her to help him and Naruto in their greenhouse which she accepts with pleasure and Naruto notes how the colour comes back in her cheeks and the sparkle appears in her eyes again as she cares for the various flowers and plants. (Minato, of course, does not miss his son’s unusually perceptive observation and informs Kushina. They spend the rest of the time making not so subtle winks and gestures towards Hinata at Naruto, of which Naruto always furiously blushes and mouths at them to knock it off. Hinata just thinks his family is wonderfully quirky.) 

Hinata finds a flora-based medicinal book wedged in between various gardening books, flips it open, and is hooked. She spends the rest of her time at the Uzumaki household learning how to combine various plants together to create medicinal balms, of which Kushina and Minato are both rather proficient at. Naruto doesn’t quite understand the appeal but he’s incredibly happy to see Hinata inspired again and he always keeps her company and watches her work. 

Hinata’s medicine is literally magic and her first couple of basic balms heals bruises and cuts in minutes. Kurenai introduces her to Sakura and Ino, frequent customers at the bakery and a doctor-in-training and florist respectively and they, plus Naruto, help Hinata set up her own small greenhouse at the back of the bakery where she lives. 

After a year, she decides to stay (though she does visit home and the way Hiashi’s eyes soften with pride and acceptance and care at her growth and confidence means the world to her; Hanabi of course also demands a detailed recounting of her year and at the end Hinata assures her that if she could make it through a year, Hanabi would definitely be fine) and her own greehouse/medicine shop is very successful. Naruto takes over caring for the plants and the greenhouse when demand for her balms and medicine runs high, and years later they get together (although everyone assumed they’ve always been together; Kushina throws her hands up and yells “FINALLY” the first time they went back to the Uzumaki household as a couple), marry, and have kids. 

Himawari is a natural flyer and Boruto invents and develops a biycycle-propelled aircraft so he can fly alongside her. Naruto and Hinata would spend evenings just watching them fly over the sea together. When it’s Hima’s time to go, she flies and settles close enough that Boruto can take his aircraft to visit her. 

This is honestly a pretty brief summary but it gets the main point of the idea. God I may have to write this. 

8

The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine, all weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF’s Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities including ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor and was responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems, and final assembly of the F-22, while program partner Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems. he high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile and lower cost F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.

Leutnant Walter Blume (10 January 1896 – 27 May 1964) was a German fighter ace of World War I. During World War I, he flew with Jastas 26 and 9, gaining 28 aerial victories and earning the Iron Cross and the Pour le Merite.

Post World War I he became a prominent aircraft designer for both Albatros and Arado, being one of the pioneers of jet propulsion design in airplanes.

Walter Blume was born in Hirschberg, Silesia, and originally served in the 5th Silesian Jaeger Battalion in September 1914. After being wounded early in the conflict, he trained as a pilot beginning 30 June 1915. He began his flying career in two-seater Aviatik aircraft with Feldflieger abteilung (Field Flier Detachment) 65 from 18 June 1916 through 20 January 1917. He received an Iron Cross Second Class during this time, on 24 July 1916. He then successfully asked for a transfer to flying single-seat fighters for Jasta 26 in January 1917. In August 1916, he was promoted to Vizefeldwebel. On 31 January 1917, he was commissioned a leutnant. This was also the month he would shift to Jasta 26.

He scored his first victory for Jasta 26 on 10 May 1917. On 14 August, he received the Iron Cross First Class. He became an ace on 24 October 1917, and on 29 November 1917 received a serious chest wound in combat with No. 48 Squadron RFC’s Bristol F.2 Fighters. He was hospitalised for over 3 months.

After a spell with Fliegerersatz-Abteilung (Replacement Detachment) 3, on 5 March 1918 Blume returned to active duty, commanding Jasta 9. He scored a further 22 victories, all with his new unit. With the exception of double scores on 31 August 1918 and 14 September 1918, he accumulated his successes singly, mostly fighters. Only four of his victories were over two-seater aircraft. He flew in both Albatros fighters and the Fokker D.VII.

Blume was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the House Order of Hohenzollern on 7 August 1918. This was followed by his receipt of the German Empire’s most prestigious medal, the Pour le Merite on 2 October 1918, the same day as his 27th and penultimate victory.

He resigned from military service on 15 January 1919.

After World War I, he remained in aviation. He trained as an aeronautical engineer at the Technical University at Hanover, and subsequently joined the German Arado Flugzeugwerke in the mid-1920s, where he was involved in the design of the Ar 95, Arado Ar 96, and Ar 196. In early 1933 he was appointed Chief Design Engineer of Arado Flugzeugwerke and over the next ten years was responsible for the design of some of the world’s first jets, such as the Ar 234 twin-jet reconnaissance aircraft, which he saw through its development in several different prototypes and finally to the twin-jet bomber, the Ar 234 Blitz. Towards the end of World War II he led the Arado design team in upgrading the Ar 234 to a Four-Jet Bomber variant, but one which only reached “Proof of Concept” form. He attempted to revive one of his designs, the Blume Bl.502, for Arado as a light civil aircraft, but met with no commercial success.After the German surrender he was captured by the Soviet Army and taken to the Soviet Union, where for several years he helped develop their fledgling jet aircraft program.

6

The curious circle of Mirage III derivatives and copies.

First, the French machines:

On top we have the original Mirage III, one hell of an interceptor and fighter, the living proof that a delta wing was the perfect solution for supersonic flight (instead of that god-awful wing used by the F-104), an overall and outstanding export success, effectively the west’s MiG-21, only superior.

The second is her first major upgrade, the Mirage V, a version almost tailor-made for Israel (but more of that in a sec), that sacrificed all-weather interception capacity for better ground-attack capabilities, with an stretched fuselaje, better payload, better range, more hard-points, and a nose cone designed to improve ground view. Another export success.

Third is the ultimate version, the Mirage 50, a throwback to the original all-weather interception capabilities, with a set of fixed canards to improve flying characteristics, a new radar and engine, not as successful as her predecessors, but still an aircraft to behold.

Now we get to the international copies and variants:

The fourth one is effectively an unlicensed Israeli version of the Mirage V, the IAI Nesher (Vulture). Build after France denied delivery of the V’s the Israelis both helped to make and payed in full, where, Israel being Israel, decided that fuck the french, they were getting their Mirages, so what they did was STEAL her blueprints using the Mossad, and effectively build them themselves, the only differences being the american ejection seats and some israeli-made avionics, quickly passed out and sold to Argentina following our next contender.

The fifth variant was a improvement over the Nesher, replacing the french-made engine with an american-made one, the same that powered the F-4 already in service with the IAF, the General Electric J79, giving birth to the IAI Kfir (Lion’s cub, a colombian C10 version is pictured), a superior variant with better avionics, higher payload and all-around performance, although with a reduced range.

And the final variant, the South African Atlas Cheetah, which is essentially a mix between a Kfir and a Mirage III, with a more powerful french-made engine (the same equipping the Mirage 50), much better avionics, improvements of dogfighting ability, and overall the ultimate version of the Mirage III, which in turn, curiously enough, would lead to the development of the upgraded Kfir C10 (seen on the fift pic), completing the circle. 

With the Cheetah died the development of this remarkable aircraft, as the French moved on to the far superior but far less successful Mirage 2000, the Israelis would try and fail to make their own fighter based on the lessons from the Nesher and Kfir, culminating in the cancelled (thanks to america) IAI Lavi, and the South Africans gave up on aircraft-making after the end of Apartheid brought an end to their military complex, the most advance in Africa.