development aircraft

Fun fact, in 1962, India and Portugal went to war against each other, over small patches of land in India called Goa, Daman and Diu
that had belonged to the Portuguese for almost 500 years

It was a crushing defeat for the Portuguese, as they didn’t have enough military assets in the area to mount any credible resistance, and thanks to international pressure, their attempts at reinforcing their military presence where limited to shipments of infantry and small arms, their only heavy weapon of notice in the region being an obsolete sloop, the NRP Afonso de Albuquerque, of the pre-war era, that was quickly sunk by the more modern Indian warships:

The war was also the first time a developing nation used an aircraft carrier in a military operation, in the form of the INS Vikrant

Lasting over 36 hours, it was a quick but decisive conflict that finally gave India full sovereignty over her territories, while at the same time showing Portugal just how alone they were in their ultimately futile attempts at keeping their colonies, something that would be known as the Portuguese Colonial Wars, which lasted until 1974 and effectively brought to an end the Portuguese Empire. 

Six Soviet Su-7B fighter bombers are ready for take-off on an unidentified airfield strip.

The Sukhoi Su-7 (NATO designation name: Fitter-A) was a swept wing, supersonic fighter aircraft developed by the Soviet Union in 1955.

Originally, it was designed as tactical, low-level dogfighter, but was not successful in this role. On the other hand, soon-introduced Su-7B series became the main Soviet fighter-bomber and ground-attack aircraft of the 1960s.

The Su-7 was rugged in its simplicity but its shortcomings included short range and low weapon load.

Unknown photographer and date.

anonymous asked:

Why did the Imperial Japanese Army have aircraft carriers? That seems a bit ridiculous.

They had FOUR FUCKING CARRIERS to be precise:

The Akitsu Maru, which has the dubious honor of being the sunken carrier with the worst loss of lives of all time:

The Kumano Maru

The Yamashio Maru

And the Nigitsu Maru, which may or may not have actually been a carrier, as all of them where converted cargo ships.

As for why? Basically, the ridiculous rivalry between the army and the navy, mostly due to budget and political influence affairs, which not only led to this, but also, among other things, both service developing and operating aircraft of their on, AND BOTH OF THEM DEVELOPING AND OPERATING TANKS!

A bureaucratic nightmare that all it achieved was wasted precious resources, and in a positive way, at least for us, contribute to the defeat of Japan.

But I’m sure @lex-for-lexington and @fujisan-ni-noboru-hinode can tell us much more about this disaster. 

An Avro York of the Royal Air Force sits at Tempelhof Airport during the Berlin Airlift. The Western Allies supplied the people of West Berlin by air alone for the duration of the near one year blockade by Stalin, from 24 June 1948 to 12 May 1949. Yorks flew over 58,000 sorties – close to half of the British contribution.

The aircraft was developed from the wings, tail and undercarriage of the Lancaster bomber, given a new, much larger fuselage. It was an independent project undertaken by Avro, themselves seeing a need for a transport aircraft which they hoped could also find place in a post-war civil market. During the wars last few years individual Yorks were given to various VIPs including Churchill, who named his Ascalon - the lance or sword with which Saint George slew the dragon. The Viceroy of India and C-in-C South East Asia Command, Lord Mountbatten, also received one, repainted a light duck egg green.

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The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine, all weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF’s Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities including ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor and was responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems, and final assembly of the F-22, while program partner Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems. he high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile and lower cost F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.

The Curse of the DC-10

At the very end of the 60′s, the entry of the Jumbo Jet, the Boeing 747, into the airliner world, heralded a new age of aircraft development, the wide-body airliner, and following the success of this behemoth of the skies, the world-renowned american company Douglas Commercial, legendary for planes such as the DC-3, DC-4 and DC-8, quickly entered in this new market with a brand-new aircraft of their own, the DC-10

Little would they, and really, anyone else know, that this plane seemed to be hopelessly cursed in her early years:

November 3, 1973, National Airlines Flight 27: An uncontained engine failure in the N°3 engine due to vibrations of unknown origin, launched debris at the fuselage of the plane, penetrating it and causing rapid decompression of the cabin area, alongside damage to electrical and hydraulic systems. A passenger was ejected from the hole in the fuselage, and the rest survived as the pilots managed to safely land the plane.

March 3, 1974, Turkish Airliners flight 981: A design flaw in the cargo door resulted in a catastrophic in-flight failure that lead to an explosive decompression of the fuselage, critically damaging the control surfaces and leading to a crash that killed all 346 on board. 

May 25, 1979,  American Airlines Flight 191: Improper maintenance led to the loss of the N°1 engine during take-off, which took with it most of the left wing’s leading edge, effectively destroying its lift ability, which led to a stall and subsequent crash that killed all 271 on board plus 2 on the ground.

October 31, 1979, Western Airlines Flight 2605: Pilot error led to the collision with construction equipment after landing on a closed runway at Mexico City International Airport, killing 72 of the 88 people on board and one person on the ground.

November 28, 1979, Air New Zealand Flight 901: During a sightseeing flight into the Antarctic, lack of visibility and a dire navigational error by Air New Zealand’s management let the aircraft to fly into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, killing all 237 passengers and 20 crew on board.

1979 would be the worst year of the model, and while safety improved and therefore, crashes heavily diminished after that fateful year, the ugly head of this curse would still show up in the form of two of aviation’s most bizarre accidents:

July 19, 1989, United Airlines Flight 232: Uncontained engine failure on the N°2 (tail) engine due to a manufacturing defect of the titanium used in the engine’s fan assembly, lead to the destruction of the hydraulic systems, rendering the aircraft almost uncontrollable, where the excellent crew on board managed to control her enough with the remaining wing engines via the throttles, leading to a failed landing attempt that nonetheless managed to save 185 of the 296 people on board.

July 25, 2000, Air France Flight 4590: Curiously, the last fatalities brought by a DC-10 wouldn’t happen in the plane itself, but rather, in Concorde’s only crash, as the aircraft was lost after striking an engine thrust reverser fragment that fell from a DC-10 that belonged to Continental Airlines.

madhattressdelux  asked:

*Bursts in* I HEARD KIKI'S DELIVERY SERVICE HC HELLO YES

HELLO YES HI. Ok. Ok. So I was thinking that NaruHina would be pretty much like how KDS is already. Hinata leaves home for a year for her witch’s training except she never had a mother to show her the ropes so the only thing she knows how to do is flying (rather haphazardly, much like Kiki does actually) and gardening, which is something that she and Hanabi continued to do after their mother died. 

She finds a city, settles down at the bakery run by Kurenai and Asuma, meets Naruto but she’s flustered because he’s so incredibly excited to meet an actual witch that he forgets that personal space is a thing. But he’s very kind and very outgoing and he ends up showing her around. They become really good friends- he’s her only friend for a while, actually, and she is someone new and different and exciting who he is incredibly curious of. Inevitably he’s drawn to her kindness and her gentleness and her ability to laugh with him and believe in him whenever he doubts himself.  

Hinata loves her new city but she’s also disquieted because she’s spent her whole life not knowing exactly her place in the world (Hiashi, unfortunately, never quite knew how to navigate the particulars of the world of witches and his discomfort was always felt very keenly by Hinata) and now especially, she wants to take this year to prove to her father and to herself that yes, she’s a witch and that meant also that she had something special and unique to share.

She becomes more and more discouraged when she tries her hand at fortune telling, flying, casting spells, etc and nothing works out. It gets to the point where she really does lose her powers as she loses faith in herself and she’s even more discouraged and upset because that was the one thing that was always unique about her that she could count on, despite the complications it caused between her and Hiashi. Naruto sees this and gently encourages her to stay with his family, who she’s never met, for a few days as a break. 

She agrees after some persuasion from Kurenai and she meets Kushina and Minato who greet her with open arms and all the boisterous warmth and cheer that Hinata has never quite found at home (love, at home, was in the form of quiet teatime out on the porch and reading together in the living room and small but heartfelt smiles of pride). Kushina sweeps her up in a whirlwind of cooking and knitting and joking which have Hinata laughing so hard her cheeks ache and her stomach cramps. Minato invites her to help him and Naruto in their greenhouse which she accepts with pleasure and Naruto notes how the colour comes back in her cheeks and the sparkle appears in her eyes again as she cares for the various flowers and plants. (Minato, of course, does not miss his son’s unusually perceptive observation and informs Kushina. They spend the rest of the time making not so subtle winks and gestures towards Hinata at Naruto, of which Naruto always furiously blushes and mouths at them to knock it off. Hinata just thinks his family is wonderfully quirky.) 

Hinata finds a flora-based medicinal book wedged in between various gardening books, flips it open, and is hooked. She spends the rest of her time at the Uzumaki household learning how to combine various plants together to create medicinal balms, of which Kushina and Minato are both rather proficient at. Naruto doesn’t quite understand the appeal but he’s incredibly happy to see Hinata inspired again and he always keeps her company and watches her work. 

Hinata’s medicine is literally magic and her first couple of basic balms heals bruises and cuts in minutes. Kurenai introduces her to Sakura and Ino, frequent customers at the bakery and a doctor-in-training and florist respectively and they, plus Naruto, help Hinata set up her own small greenhouse at the back of the bakery where she lives. 

After a year, she decides to stay (though she does visit home and the way Hiashi’s eyes soften with pride and acceptance and care at her growth and confidence means the world to her; Hanabi of course also demands a detailed recounting of her year and at the end Hinata assures her that if she could make it through a year, Hanabi would definitely be fine) and her own greehouse/medicine shop is very successful. Naruto takes over caring for the plants and the greenhouse when demand for her balms and medicine runs high, and years later they get together (although everyone assumed they’ve always been together; Kushina throws her hands up and yells “FINALLY” the first time they went back to the Uzumaki household as a couple), marry, and have kids. 

Himawari is a natural flyer and Boruto invents and develops a biycycle-propelled aircraft so he can fly alongside her. Naruto and Hinata would spend evenings just watching them fly over the sea together. When it’s Hima’s time to go, she flies and settles close enough that Boruto can take his aircraft to visit her. 

This is honestly a pretty brief summary but it gets the main point of the idea. God I may have to write this. 

6

The curious circle of Mirage III derivatives and copies.

First, the French machines:

On top we have the original Mirage III, one hell of an interceptor and fighter, the living proof that a delta wing was the perfect solution for supersonic flight (instead of that god-awful wing used by the F-104), an overall and outstanding export success, effectively the west’s MiG-21, only superior.

The second is her first major upgrade, the Mirage V, a version almost tailor-made for Israel (but more of that in a sec), that sacrificed all-weather interception capacity for better ground-attack capabilities, with an stretched fuselaje, better payload, better range, more hard-points, and a nose cone designed to improve ground view. Another export success.

Third is the ultimate version, the Mirage 50, a throwback to the original all-weather interception capabilities, with a set of fixed canards to improve flying characteristics, a new radar and engine, not as successful as her predecessors, but still an aircraft to behold.

Now we get to the international copies and variants:

The fourth one is effectively an unlicensed Israeli version of the Mirage V, the IAI Nesher (Vulture). Build after France denied delivery of the V’s the Israelis both helped to make and payed in full, where, Israel being Israel, decided that fuck the french, they were getting their Mirages, so what they did was STEAL her blueprints using the Mossad, and effectively build them themselves, the only differences being the american ejection seats and some israeli-made avionics, quickly passed out and sold to Argentina following our next contender.

The fifth variant was a improvement over the Nesher, replacing the french-made engine with an american-made one, the same that powered the F-4 already in service with the IAF, the General Electric J79, giving birth to the IAI Kfir (Lion’s cub, a colombian C10 version is pictured), a superior variant with better avionics, higher payload and all-around performance, although with a reduced range.

And the final variant, the South African Atlas Cheetah, which is essentially a mix between a Kfir and a Mirage III, with a more powerful french-made engine (the same equipping the Mirage 50), much better avionics, improvements of dogfighting ability, and overall the ultimate version of the Mirage III, which in turn, curiously enough, would lead to the development of the upgraded Kfir C10 (seen on the fift pic), completing the circle. 

With the Cheetah died the development of this remarkable aircraft, as the French moved on to the far superior but far less successful Mirage 2000, the Israelis would try and fail to make their own fighter based on the lessons from the Nesher and Kfir, culminating in the cancelled (thanks to america) IAI Lavi, and the South Africans gave up on aircraft-making after the end of Apartheid brought an end to their military complex, the most advance in Africa.

4

Ensamblaje A350-1000.

El primer Airbus A350-1000, la versión más grande de la familia A350XWB, salió de la Estación 40 en la Línea de Ensamblaje Final de Airbus en Toulouse, Francia.

El A350-1000 tiene capacidad para transportar hasta a 366 pasajeros en tres clases en rutas de hasta 8 mil millas náuticas y será equipado con motores Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97, los cuales, son los motores más poderosos desarrollados para una aeronave Airbus.

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A350-1000 assembly. 

The first Airbus A350-1000, the largest version of the A350XWB family, left the station 40 in the Final Assembly Line for Airbus in Toulouse, France. 

The A350-1000 is capable of carrying up to 366 passengers in three classes on routes up to 8,000 nautical miles and will be equipped with Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97, which engines are the most powerful engines developed for an Airbus aircraft.

3

1/72 Airfix Bristol Beaufighter TF.X -  The Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter (often referred to simply as the “Beau” or “Torbeau” for the MkX torpedo carrying version) is a multi-role aircraft developed during the Second World War by Bristol Aeroplane Company in the UK. It was originally conceived as a heavy fighter variant of the Bristol Beaufort bomber. The Beaufighter was a versatile aircraft used in service initially as a night fighter, and later mainly in the maritime strike and ground attack roles; it also replaced the earlier Beaufort as a torpedo bomber.

The Mk X became the main production mark of the Beaufighter. The strike variant of the Torbeau was designated the Mk.XIC. Beaufighter TF Xs would make precision attacks on shipping at wave-top height with torpedoes or “60lb” RP-3 rockets.

8

    Some aircraft look out of place in the desert, but this bird looks right at home resting among the Joshua trees of Edwards Air Force Base. At first glance, she may look like a standard Fairchild-Republic A-10, but this bird is much more. Number 73-1664 served as the first A-10A. She first flew on February 15, 1975, as one of six original DT&E (Development, Test and Evaluation) aircraft. 

     In March of 1979, this airframe would begin conversion to the prototype N/AW A-10 (Night/All-Weather Attack). Systems were added, including a Westinghouse WX-50 ground-mapping radar and a Texas Instruments AAR045 FLIR camera, housed in pods hanging from weapons pylons. The vertical stabilizers were extended upward by 20 inches, then reduced slightly during testing, though the rudder was never extended. INS, PAVE TACK and radar altimeter systems were added. With these modifications, she became the first and only dual cockpit A-10 in order to accommodate an Electronic Warfare Officer. Her canopy opened to the side, rather than a standard clamshell configuration. These modifications cost 1.5 million dollars and added 2,000 pounds to the gross weight of the aircraft.

     After five months of modifications, the N/AW A-10 flew on October 23, 1971. She tested successfully, but was quickly made obsolete by advancing night attack technology and the N/AW A-10 program was cancelled. 73-1664 was redesignated as the YA-10B as advertisement for a theoretical trainer aircraft, but it too was cancelled. She was destined to be the only two-seat A-10 ever built.

     Today, 73-1664 rests under the desert sky at the Air Force Flight Test Museum on Edwards Air Force Base, just a short distance away from the runway from which she flew in testing. Much of the information in this article was referenced from the book “Warbird Tech Volume 20: Fairchild-Republic A/0A-10 Warthog” by Dennis Jenkins, who kindly lent me his personal copy to aid my research. Thanks much, Dennis.

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          Aviation frontiersman Jack Northrop was bound and determined to develop a practical flying wing. His company, Northrop Aviation Corporation, was nearly destroyed by politics in an attempt to exploit the advantages of this relatively unexplored region of aeronautics. Ultimately, Jack would live to see his life’s work realized with the development of the B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber.

     The first vehicle in this series, the 1941 N-1M, was a proof of concept all-wing vehicle. The prototyping process was successful and Jack planned to expand this design into a large bomber, but first, an interim step was required to reduce risk and further study lessons learned from the N-1M. To perform this task, the 1942 N-9M was developed, which is the aircraft featured in the photos above.

     Our N-9M is a 1/3 scale version of what would become the enormous YB-35 and YB-49 designs. Only four of these aircraft were built, N-9M1, N-9M2, N-9MA and N-9MB, respectively. Each one used different control surface designs for speed brake and yaw control, experimenting with what might work best for the future YB-49. These aircraft were flown by legends like Chuck Yeager, Bob Hoover and Glen Edwards. They were painted yellow on one side and blue on the other so when engineers saw the aircraft on black and white film, they could tell whether they were looking at the topside or bottom of the aircraft. 

     At this point in time, all aircraft had ‘reversible flight controls’. This type of system directly connects to the pilot’s stick to the control surfaces. If a force acts upon a control surface, the same force will be applied to the control stick inside the cockpit. If the force acting upon the control surface is too great, the pilot may not be able to overcome this force, locking his control stick in an undesirable position, causing the aircraft to become uncontrollable. On 19 May 1943, Pilot Max Constant was flying N-9M1 near Muroc Army Base (now Edwards Air Force Base), performing stall tests with an aft CG. Once stalled, Max entered an unrecoverable spin. Max initiated a bailout by jettisoning his canopy and unbuckling his lap belt, however, the air rushing over the aircraft pinned his elevon in an upward position, forcing the control yoke against his chest, making escape impossible. The N-9M1 crashed with Max Constant trapped inside. This was a tragic loss, but the program continued.

     Prototype number three, N-9MA, corrected this problem with a system that fed stick inputs to control surfaces via hydraulic system. This was aviation’s first 'irreversible flight control system’, a feature which is now commonplace in many aircraft.

     N-9MB, the aircraft shown above, was the fourth and final prototype. She represents the final control configuration that made it into the YB-35 and ultimately the YB-49. Once testing was complete, N-9MB was spared from the scrapyard, unlike the rest of the N-9M prototypes. This aircraft sat in disrepair until 1982, when Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California began a decade-long endeavor to painstakingly restore her to flying status. When this piece of history isn’t soaring over an airshow crowd, she rests on display for any visitor to experience.

2

The Schienenzeppelin (rail zeppelin) Berlin, June 1931. Photographer: Georg Pahl - an aluminum bodied experimental railcar with a streamlined zeppelin airship look. Designed and developed by the German aircraft engineer Franz Kruckenberg in 1929. A rear propeller provided the propulsion for the Schienenzeppelin. On 21 June 1931, it set a world railway speed record of 230.2 km/h (143.0 mph) -  the railcar still holds the land speed record for a petrol powered rail vehicle. Only a single example was ever built - due to safety concerns it remained out of service and was finally dismantled in 1939. (images via Wikipedia)

6

The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American twin-engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic in the early 1970s. It is the only United States Air Force production aircraft designed solely for close air support, including attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets with limited air defenses. The A-10 was designed around the 30 mm GAU-8 Avenger rotary cannon that is its primary armament. The A-10’s airframe was designed for durability, with measures such as 1,200 pounds (540 kg) of titanium armor to protect the cockpit and aircraft systems, enabling it to absorb a significant amount of damage and continue flying.  The A-10’s official name comes from the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt of World War II, a fighter that was particularly effective at close air support. The A-10 is more commonly known by its nicknames “Warthog” or“Hog”. Its secondary mission is to provide airborne forward air control, directing other aircraft in attacks on ground targets. The A-10’s service life may be extended to 2028, though there are proposals to retire it sooner.