development

To Hell and Back: How Rwanda’s Women Helped It Become a World Leader

By Shaya Tayefe Mohajer

A high efficiency rating may seem like a dull statistic, but it’s a big deal for the future of a country that is post-genocide.

The Swiss may be known for their mastery of clocks, perfecting fine chocolates, and running trains on time—but when it comes to running an efficient government, Rwanda has them beat.

The small, landlocked Central African nation has topped the Swiss by two ranks to come in seventh in the world in government efficiency, according to the World Economic Forum. The U.S. doesn’t even make the top 10.

Through a rigorous look at dozens of factors, the nonprofit global organization credits Rwanda’s low level of waste in government spending and a factor called labor market efficiency for the country’s overall high ranking—noting that the nation of 10.6 million has seen dramatic improvements in economic life: A GDP that hovered at around $200 per capita in 2000 rose to nearly $700 in 2013.

Something perhaps even more remarkable about Rwanda is buried in these stats: It ranks third out of the 144 countries scored for the ratio of women in the labor force. For every man working in Rwanda, 1.02 women are employed. To boot, Rwanda is also the only country on Earth where more women than men serve as elected officials.

In part, that’s because the country created a constitutional quota in 2005 that women must make up at least 30 percent of leadership in decision-making organs. That means women compose about 64 percent of the nation’s lower parliament and 38 percent of its senate. By comparison, the U.S. has never elected a Congress that’s more than 20 percent women.

When President Barack Obama was in Kenya on a state visit last weekend, he gave a speech extolling the virtues of letting women lead.

“Any nation that fails to educate its girls or employ its women and allowing them to maximize their potential is doomed to fall behind in a global economy,” Obama told the audience.

Rwanda may be the best proof of just how right he is.

There’s a less uplifting reason, however, for the droves of women working and leading in Rwanda. They are a reflection of a de facto population—namely, those who survived the 1994 genocide. During several bloody months, Hutus laid waste to Tutsis, and nearly a million people were slaughtered, including the systematic and targeted killing of those who were educated, those who were leaders—those who were crucial parts of the social fabric. The bloodshed left behind a population that was 70 percent women and a country that was in desperate need of functional leadership at every level.

By now, the male-female ratio has mostly evened out. Yet, the mark left by the genocide is as indelible as it is invisible, in many ways, according to Azeb Tadesse, the deputy director for the African Studies Center at the University of California, Los Angeles. Tadesse has visited Rwanda a number of times, spending most of her time in the capital city of Kigali—which she describes as a clean and modern place—as the U.S. director for the Women’s Leadership Project, a global effort to improve gender equality for women through advanced education and improved access.

The genocide doesn’t come up explicitly in conversation, but it’s an unspoken part of the national psyche.

“I think when you go through such a traumatic experience as a society, you start questioning everything. And maybe one of the things is, ‘Has it really done us much good to keep women out of the leadership and the professional life of the nation?’ ” Tadesse said in an interview with TakePart.

Rwanda’s rare moment of reckoning has, in some way, helped lead to a remarkable 20-year transformation since the genocide—something Tadesse attributes, in part, to the broad-minded conversation about how to move forward and shape a national identity that goes beyond inclusion for Hutus and Tutsis and also looks atmen and women as equals.

“Something that you would notice if you’re working in Rwanda is the number of female colleagues you will have at the different levels,” said Tadesse. “Not to say it has surprised me—but it is something to take note of.”

Rwanda’s authoritarian leadership, headed by President Paul Kagame, may also claim credit for the order and high efficiency ranking of the country. Though he counts among his fans globe-trotting philanthropists from Bill Clinton to Bill Gates, Kagame has been called a strongman. Still, he’s credited for rebuilding the broken country after the genocide. Perhaps it takes a very strong man to advocate for such a powerful female presence.

Kagame isn’t alone in drawing criticism as far as human rights go. The countries that top the World Economic Forum’s list of most efficient nations are a mixed bag. Leaders in top-ranked Qatar have faced criticism for treatment of low-paid migrant workers since their successful bid to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, and there is some domestic dissent over free expression. Singapore may rate highly for efficiency, but caning and corporal punishment are still common there.

Neither enjoys the stats that Rwanda does when it comes to the rights and inclusion of half the population—women.

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Cross-border traders, kinship networks, and formal and informal businesses are building a form of regional integration that has the potential to make a real difference for African people. Official institutions should support this form of “regionalism of the people”, rather than deny it or, even worse, oppose it.
ЧТО нужно ЗНАТЬ РЕБЁНКУ, поступающему в 1 КЛАСС?
http://new-children.ru

- знать свою фамилию, имя и отчество, как зовут родителей, кем они работают, домашний адрес и телефон;

- знать, в каком городе/стране он живет, и уметь назвать прочие знакомые ему страны мира;

- знать названия самых распространенных растений, животных, насекомых, уметь различать зверей, птиц и рыб, отличать диких животных от домашних, деревья от кустарников, фрукты - от ягод и овощей;

- объяснить почему одних животных называют дикими, а других - домашними. Объяснить, какую пользу приносят разные домашние животные человеку.

- назвать главные внешние (анатомические) отличия птиц и животных (нос-клюв, перья-шерсть, лапы-крылья, их количество и т.д.)

- назвать детенышей лошади, коровы, овцы, козы, собаки, кошки, свиньи, медведицы, лисы, волчицы, белки, ежихи, курицы, утки, гусыни, индюшки.

- знать, что овощи растут в поле или огороде, а фрукты в саду.

- привести примеры фруктов и ягод, которые растут на кустах, и которые растут на деревьях. Привести примеры овощей, которые растут в земле, лежа на грядке или висят на ветках. Назвать овощи и фрукты красного, зеленого, жёлтого, оранжевого цвета. Назвать лесные деревья, кусты, ягоды и грибы.

- назвать комнатные растения, которые есть дома и в детском саду.

- какой транспорт называют воздушным, морским, наземным, подземным и подводным.

- показать левый глаз, правое ухо, левое колено, правый локоть.

- дотронуться левой рукой до правого уха, правой рукой до левого колена.

- как называется город, в котором живем.

- какие профессии знает.

- какие предметы в комнате похожи на шар, треугольник, квадрат, круг.

- какие предметы относятся к мебели, посуде, одежде, фруктам, овощам, обуви.

- ориентироваться во времени, знать время суток, времена года, их последовательность, сколько месяцев в году, дней в месяце, дней в неделе, часов в дне, знать дни недели;

- иметь представления о природных и погодных явлениях;

- знать основные цвета;

- знать понятия: право - лево, вверху - внизу, перед (ним) - за (ним); вверху слева…

- знать названия популярных видов спорта, самых распространенных профессий, основные правила дорожного движения и дорожные знаки;

- уметь назвать фамилии известных писателей и поэтов;

- знать праздники;

- уметь рассказать, чем он любит заниматься;

- самое главное: ответить на вопрос “ зачем он идет в школу? ”

Интеллектуальное развитие

- решать простые логические задачки, головоломки и ребусы, отгадывать загадки;

- находить лишний предмет в группе;

- добавлять в группу недостающие предметы;

- рассказывать, чем похожи или отличаются те или иные предметы;

- группировать предметы по признаку и называть его;

- восстанавливать последовательность событий (что было сначала, потом); раскладывать картинки в правильной последовательности.

Слух, зрение, внимание, память, речь

- находить 10-15 отличий на двух похожих картинках;

- точно копировать простой узор;

- описывать по памяти картинку;

- запомнить предложение из 5-6 слов и повторить его;

- писать графические диктанты (“одна клетка вверх, две клетки влево, две клетки вниз, одна клетка вправо”);

- прочитать наизусть стихотворение, рассказать сказку;

- пересказать услышанный рассказ;

- составлять рассказ по картинке!

Основы математики

- уметь считать от 1 до 10 и обратно

восстанавливать числовой ряд, в котором пропущены некоторые числа;

- выполнять счетные операции в пределах десяти, увеличивать/уменьшать количество предметов “на один”, “на два”;

- знать понятия “больше-меньше-поровну”;

- знать простые геометрические фигуры, уметь составлять аппликации из геометрических фигур;

- уметь сравнивать предметы по длине, ширине и высоте;

- решать простые арифметические задачки;

- уметь поделить предмет на две/три/четыре равные части.

Чтение. Важно, чтобы ребенок:

- отличал буквы от звуков, гласные от согласных;

- чем отличаются гласные звуки от согласных.

- мог найти нужную букву в начале, середине и конце слова;

- подбирал слова на заданную букву;

- делил слово на слоги;

- читал предложения из 4-5 слов и понимал прочитанное.

Навыки письма:

- правильно держать ручку и карандаш в руке;

- проводить непрерывные прямые, волнистые, ломаные линии;

- обводить по контуру рисунок, не отрывая карандаша от бумаги;

- уметь рисовать по клеточкам и точкам; уметь дорисовать отсутствующую половину симметричного рисунка;

- копировать с образца геометрические фигуры;

- уметь продолжить штриховку рисунка;

- уметь аккуратно закрашивать рисунок, не выходя за контуры.

5

July 22 2015 - In the Bolivian city of Potosi striking miners and their supporters clashed with police after blasting the doors off a government building. The violence comes after failed negotiations between the government and regional leaders over the course of a week-long miners’ protest. They are demanding that the government fulfill their promise to build more hospitals and roads, as well as an international airport in the city. [video]/[video]

I’ve been working on a new version of Character Generator, this time, effectivelly upgradable and friendly in case of glitches or typos.

It’s already working 100%, but I still wanna tweak some details before I put it out there for you guys. :) I’ll also be contacting some of my friend artists to pre-alpha try it :P if you guys roll something interesting to draw, it should mean it more than works, to wich case I could die happy.

I had some work programming this little dude. And believe me, I think it’s one of the simplest ideas I’ve ever had. But I can guarantee it works exactly as I intended it to. So yeah. That happened. I’m pretty happy with it.

Flow means ‘go’ for proper lymph system development

The lymphatic system provides a slow flow of fluid from our organs and tissues into the bloodstream. It returns fluid and proteins that leak from blood vessels, provides passage for immune and inflammatory cells from the tissues to the blood, and hosts key niches for immune cells. How this system develops hasn’t been well understood, but now researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania have found from experiments in mice that the early flow of lymph fluid is a critical factor in the development of mature lymphatic vessels.

“Once the primary lymph vessels are in place, an enormous amount of maturation has to happen, and what we’ve found is that the maturation process is triggered by physical forces from the earliest flow of lymph fluid in a developing embryo,” said senior author Mark L. Kahn, MD, the Edward S. Cooper, M.D./Norman Roosevelt and Elizabeth Meriwether McLure Professor in the department of Medicine.

The findings, published online ahead of the August issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, represent a big step forward in the basic scientific understanding of lymphatic system development. They also should contribute to a better understanding of lymphatic disorders, including the lymphedema that affects many women following breast cancer surgery.

Daniel T. Sweet, Juan M. Jiménez, Jeremy Chang, Paul R. Hess, Patricia Mericko-Ishizuka, Jianxin Fu, Lijun Xia, Peter F. Davies, Mark L. Kahn. Lymph flow regulates collecting lymphatic vessel maturation in vivo. Journal of Clinical Investigation, July 2015 DOI: 10.1172/JCI79386

Lymph flow drives development of lymphatic valves in collecting lymphatic vessels in the embryonic mouse mesentery. Two transcription factors: PROX1 (green) and FOXC2 (red) are highly unregulated in the valve endothelial cells, and are required for development of the valves. The extracellular matrix protein Laminin-alpha5 (blue) is expressed in the valve leaflets and in the arterial basement membrane of the underlying artery. Credit: Daniel Sweet, PhD and Mark Kahn, PhD, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

Alone At Home Headcanons

Send a symbol to hear a headcanon about one of my muse’s…

€ - junk food cravings
£ - friday-night-in activities
Ұ - songs sung in the shower
₴ - ways to half-ass chores
$ - tv shows they binge watch
₰ - websites they spend hours on
¢ - stay-at-home clothing choices
₤ - ways they avoid leaving home
¥ - naughty/nsfw solo tendencies

I moved to San Francisco for its radical politics. Lots of people did, for generations. Maybe it was like moving to Los Angeles if you wanted to be a movie star: If you wanted to be part of the grand project of reconstructing the American Left in the petri dish of a single city, San Francisco beckoned.

The quirky, counter-cultural San Francisco so many of us fell in love with is almost gone now, destroyed by high housing costs. We’ve lost not only the politics, but all kinds of cultural experimentation that just doesn’t thrive in places that are expensive.

We are watching the old San Francisco slip away before our eyes. Every time a housing unit becomes vacant, it goes on the market at a price so high that no organizer, writer, teacher, activist or artist could dream of affording it. Trying things that don’t have monetary potential just isn’t possible anymore.

How did we get here?

What’s the Matter With San Francisco? 

[Photo: kropic1 / Shutterstock.com]

lozey-jones asked:

How long did it take you to develop and finish writing Trying Human? and how many ideas that you were sure you were going to go with at some point were eventually just thrown out the window?

Oh god I’ve been working on TH since I was like 13/14 but it was just sort of a daydream.  I also very rarely drew the characters since I was so scared of the Greys and alien abduction stuff.  It wasn’t until college that I really put a lot of it down on paper.  A lot of stuff changed over there years but here’s some of the major stuff from off the top of my head:

- The first flashback (minus the epilogue stuff) was Phillis going out to the Roswell crashsite as part of the retrieval crew for EBE1.  I scrapped it because I didn’t want her to ever be off the base and to make her seem more trapped.

- Roger didn’t exist in the plot for a looong time and there really were no conflicts.  It was just kind of a slice of life/sappy romance thing between Rose and Hue.  In fact Rose and Hue were the only characters besides General Merraine and EBE1 (plus a kid and her grandma that lived across the hall from Rose).

- 8 used to have a port-wine stain birthmark over her left eye but I moved it onto a different character who shows up in TH2 if that ever becomes a thing…

- I tossed around different ideas of shacking Shade up with Roger and things like that pre-2007 but dropped it because Shade is amazing and Roger is trash.

- The Reptoids were very late additions to the story.  Quazky was the first and that’s why his name is made up and doesn’t follow the muscle names that the others have.  I also don’t think he was hanging around with Hue until pretty much the last second.  I wanted Hue to have a friend he could talk to but one that couldn’t be there 24/7.

- EBE1′s injuries took up the whole left side of his body and he walked with a cane but I figured a Grey would just carry himself on telekinesis rather than depending on a cane.  Also I didn’t want to draw a half-robot looking Grey for 1000+ pages lewl

I can’t think of anything else right now but yeah.

PS - Longus was straight.