deter aggression

Personality Disorder: Masterpost

What are personality disorders? How many are there? If you need help to self dx or are just curious as I was while researching this, I hope this post helps you.

Personality Disorders: An Overview

Each of us has a unique personality made up of traits that come from both our genetic make-up and our life experiences and is a vital part of what makes us who we are and how we interact with others.  

A personality disorder is a type of mental disorder in which you have a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving certain things, such as relationships, people in general and emotions. However, that does not make you dumb, broken or worse.

Personality disorders usually become noticeable in adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes start in childhood. They can make it difficult for those affected to start and keep friendships or other relationships, and they may find it hard to work effectively with others. They may find other people very scary, and feel very alienated and alone.

In general, individuals with personality disorders may have difficulty sustaining close or intimate relationships. They may experience chronic interpersonal problems, or have difficulties in establishing a coherent sense of self or identity. Others may perceive them to be impulsive, irritable, fearful, demanding, hostile, manipulative, or even violent. Problem alcohol or drug use, mood disorders, certain anxiety or eating disorders, self-harm, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and sexual problems often accompany personality disorder.

The diagnosis applies if you have personality difficulties which affect all aspects of your life, all the time, and make life difficult for you and for those around you.

The different types of personality disorders

Psychiatrists in the UK tend to use an American system of diagnosis which identifies 10 different types of personality disorder. These types can be grouped into three categories, which are usually called ‘clusters’:

♦ Suspicious ♦ - Cluster A ( odd, eccentric )

  • Paranoid
  • Shizoid
  • Shizotypal

The common features of the personality disorders in this cluster are social awkwardness and social withdrawal. These disorders are dominated by distorted thinking. 

♦ Emotional and impulsive ♦ -  Cluster B ( dramatic, emotional, and erratic )

  • Borderline
  • Histrionic
  • Narcissistic
  • Antisocial

Disorders in this cluster share problems with impulse control and emotional regulation. 

♦ Anxious ♦ - Cluster C

  • avoidant
  • depedent
  • obsessive compulsive

One person may meet the criteria for several different types of personality disorder, while a wide range of people may fit the criteria for the same disorder, despite having very different personalities. 

Quick overview of all the different personality disorders

••Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)••

This is characterised by a lack of regard for the rights and feelings of others, and a lack of remorse for actions that may hurt others. People with this diagnosis frequently ignore social norms of acceptable behaviour; they may disregard rules and break the law. Consequently, if you have this diagnosis you may also have a criminal record; you may also have problem drug or alcohol use. Sadly, this kind of behaviour is also likely to result in difficulties in relationships, with rejection (given or received) a major feature.  

Antisocial personality disorder signs and symptoms may include:

  • Disregard for right and wrong
  • Persistent lying or deceit to exploit others
  • Being callous, cynical and disrespectful of others
  • Using charm or wit to manipulate others for personal gain or personal pleasure
  • Arrogance, a sense of superiority and being extremely opinionated
  • Recurring problems with the law, including criminal behavior
  • Repeatedly violating the rights of others through intimidation and dishonestyImpulsiveness or failure to plan ahead
  • Hostility, significant irritability, agitation, aggression or violence
  • Lack of empathy for others and lack of remorse about harming others
  • Unnecessary risk-taking or dangerous behavior with no regard for the safety of self or others
  • Poor or abusive relationships
  • Failure to consider the negative consequences of behavior or learn from them
  • Being consistently irresponsible and repeatedly failing to fulfill work or financial obligations

Adults with antisocial personality disorder typically show symptoms of conduct disorder before the age of 15. 

Treatment:

Cognitive therapy — first developed to help patients with depression — has recently been applied to ASP.

Medication:

No medications are routinely used or specifically approved for ASP treatment. Several drugs, however, have been shown to reduce aggression, a common problem for many antisocials.The best-documented medication is lithium carbonate, which has been found to reduce anger, threatening behavior and combativeness among prisoners. More recently, the drug was shown to reduce behaviors such as bullying, fighting and temper outbursts in aggressive children.Phenytoin (Dilantin), an anticonvulsant, has also been shown to reduce impulsive aggression in prison settings.Other drugs have been used to treat aggression primarily in brain-injured or mentally retarded patients. These include carbamazepine, valproate, propranolol, buspirone and trazodone.  Antipsychotic medications also have been studied in similar populations. They may deter aggression, but potentially induce irreversible side effects. Tranquilizers from the benzodiazepine class should not be used to treat people with ASP because they are potentially addictive and may lead to loss of behavioral control.

••Avoidant (anxious) personality disorder•• 

Typically, a person with this diagnosis fears being judged negatively by others, leading to feelings of discomfort in group or social settings. You may come across as being socially withdrawn, a ‘loner’. Fear and anxiety may mean that you have difficulty in holding down a job, as well as experiencing difficulties in relationships. This can be very painful for you as you can feel lonely and isolated, while at the same time, fearful of those relationships and situations that might make you feel more included and engaged with a community or circle of family or friends.

You are likely to:

  • avoid work or social activities that mean you must be with others 
  •  expect disapproval and criticism and be very sensitive to it 
  • worry constantly about being ‘found out’ and rejected 
  • worry about being ridiculed or shamed by others 
  • avoid relationships, friendships and intimacy because you fear rejection
  • feel lonely and isolated, and inferior to others 
  • be reluctant to try new activities in case you embarrass yourself.

People with avoidant personality disorder experience long-standing feelings of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. These feelings of inadequacy leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of inadequacy and inhibition, the person with avoidant personality disorder will seek to avoid work, school and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others. 

Treatment:

Treatment of avoidant personality disorder typically involves psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. 

Medication:

Anti-anxiety agents and antidepressants should be prescribed for avoidant PD only when another psychiatric problem co-occurs (e.g., anxiety or depression). 

••Borderline personality disorder (BPD)•• 

This is the most commonly diagnosed personality disorder. The term borderline originally referred to symptoms being on the borderline between psychosis and neurosis. Typically, with a diagnosis of BPD, you are likely to have a poor self-image and unstable personal relationships, which are likely to result from mood swings that may involve angry outbursts, which tend to drive people away. Conversely, you may find it difficult to break away from damaging relationships as you are frightened of being alone. Others may find it difficult to relate to you, as your response tends to be unpredictable, or people may be afraid of your anger. While seeking contact and support with others, you may also be quite rejecting of this, which makes it hard for people to engage with, or relate to you. While in some ways inviting rejection, you also find it hard to be rejected and may act impulsively in reaction to this, sometimes threatening, or carrying out self-destructive behaviour such as selfharm or suicide attempts. Life can be very difficult and painful, both for you, and for those who care about you. You may have feelings of emptiness and fear abandonment by friends or partners.      

A person with this disorder will also often exhibit impulsive behaviors and have a majority of the following symptoms:

  • Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
  • A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationshipscharacterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation
  • Identity disturbance, such as a significant and persistent unstable self-image or sense of self
  • Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e.g., spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating)
  • Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior
  • Emotional instability due to significant reactivity of mood (e.g., intense episodic dysphoria, irritability, or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days)
  • Chronic feelings of emptiness
  • Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e.g., frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights)
  • Transient, stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms

Treatment:

Types of psychotherapy used to treat BPD include:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT can help people with BPD identify and change core beliefs and/or behaviors that underlie inaccurate perceptions of themselves and others and problems interacting with others. CBT may help reduce a range of mood and anxiety symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): This type of therapy utilizes the concept of mindfulness, or being aware of and attentive to the current situation and moods. DBT also teaches skills to control intense emotions, reduce self-destructive behaviors, and improve relationships. DBT differs from CBT in that it integrates traditional CBT elements with mindfulness, acceptance, and techniques to improve a person’s ability to tolerate stress and control his or her emotions. DBT recognizes the dialectical tension between the need for acceptance and the need for change.
  • Schema-Focused Therapy: This type of therapy combines elements of CBT with other forms of psychotherapy that focus on reframing schemas, or the ways people view themselves. This approach is based on the idea that BPD stems from a dysfunctional self-image—possibly brought on by negative childhood experiences—that affects how people react to their environment, interact with others, and cope with problems or stress.
  • Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a type of group therapy that aims to educate family members, significant others, and health care professionals about BPD and gives them guidance on how to interact consistently with the person with the disorder using the STEPPS approach and terminology. STEPPS is designed to supplement other treatments the patient may be receiving, such as medication or individual psychotherapy.

Medication:

There are no known medications that can treat BPD as a whole. A mental health professional may recommend medications to treat specific symptoms, such as mood swings, depression, or other disorders that may occur with BPD.  
••Dependent personality disorder (DPD)•• 

With this diagnosis you are likely to take a passive position with regard to your own life, allowing others to assume responsibility for many areas of your life. You are likely to lack selfconfidence, assuming that the needs of others take precedence to yours. You may find it very hard to even recognise that you have rights and needs. This can leave you in a very vulnerable position as you are reliant on others looking out for your needs and not abusing the position you take within relationships. Other people are more likely to identify this vulnerability as they recgonise your passivity and submissiveness .
People with this disorder do not trust their own ability to make decisions and feel that others have better ideas. They may be devastated by separation and loss, and they may go to great lengths, even suffering abuse, to stay in a relationship. Other symptoms include:

  • Difficulty making decisions without reassurance from others
  • Extreme passivity
  • Problems expressing disagreements with others
  • Avoiding personal responsibility
  • Avoiding being alone
  • Devastation or helplessness when relationships end
  • Unable to meet ordinary demands of life
  • Preoccupied with fears of being abandoned
  • Easily hurt by criticism or disapproval
  • Willingness to tolerate mistreatment and abuse from others

Complications of this disorder may include depression, alcohol and drug abuse, and susceptibility to physical, emotional and sexual abuse.

Treatment:

Psychotherapy is the preferred form of treatment for people with dependent personality disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy focuses on patterns of thinking that are maladaptive, the beliefs that underlie such thinking and resolving symptoms or traits that are characteristic of the disorder, such as the inability to make important life decisions or the inability to initiate relationships. Improvements are usually seen only with long-term therapy or treatment.

Medication:

Certain types of drugs such as antidepressants, sedatives and tranquilizers are often prescribed for patients with dependent personality disorder to treat co-occurring conditions.

••Histrionic personality disorder (HPD)•• 

This disorder is characterised by extreme or over-dramatic behaviour, with a need to be the centre of attention. If you have this diagnosis, you may form relationships quickly, but be demanding and attention-seeking. You may also flirt or behave provocatively in order to ensure you attract or retain the attention of others. To others you may appear to be self-centred, with shallow emotions. While you crave attention, this may also be difficult as you may feel you have to entertain others, be the life and soul of the party and that you are dependent on the approval of other people.

You are likely to: 

  • feel very uncomfortable if you are not the centre of attention
  • feel much more at ease as the ‘life and soul of the party’
  • feel that you have to entertain people
  • flirt or behave provocatively to ensure that you remain the centre of attention
  • get a reputation for being dramatic and overemotional
  • feel dependent on the approval of others
  • be easily influenced by others

Treatment:

Treatment can be difficult if you have HPD. Like many people with HPD, you might think you don’t need treatment, or you might find the routine of a treatment program to be unappealing. However, therapy — and sometimes medications — can help you cope with HPD. Psychotherapy is the most common and effective treatment choice for HPD. This kind of therapy involves talking to a therapist about your feelings and experiences. Such talks can help you and your therapist determine the reasoning behind your actions and behaviors. Your therapist may be able to help you learn how to relate with people in a positive manner, instead of continually trying to get attention from them.

Medication:

If the patient experiences depression or anxiety as a part of their HPD, their primary care provider might put them on antidepressants or antianxiety medication.

••Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)••

People with Narcissistic Personality Disorder have significant problems with their sense of self-worth stemming from a powerful sense of entitlement. This leads them to believe they deserve special treatment, and to assume they have special powers, are uniquely talented, or that they are especially brilliant or attractive. Their sense of entitlement can lead them to act in ways that fundamentally disregard and disrespect the worth of those around them.

You are likely to: 

  • believe that there are special reasons that make you different, better or more deserving than others
  • have fragile self-esteem, so that you rely on others to recognise your worth and your needs
  • feel upset if others ignore you and don’t give you what you feel you deserve
  • resent other people’s successes
  • put your own needs above other people’s, and demand they do too
  • be seen as selfish and ‘above yourself’
  • take advantage of other people. 

Treatment:

Narcissistic personality disorder treatment is centered around talk therapy, also called psychotherapy. Psychotherapy can help you:

  • Learn to relate better with others so your relationships are more intimate, enjoyable and rewarding
  • Understand the causes of your emotions and what drives you to compete, to distrust others, and perhaps to despise yourself and others

Medication:

There are no medications specifically used to treat narcissistic personality disorder. However, if you have symptoms of depression, anxiety or other conditions, medications such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety drugs may be helpful. 

••Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)•• 

A person with this disorder tends to have difficulties in expressing warm or tender emotions to others. They are frequently perfectionists, things must be done in their own way. They often lack clarity in seeing other perspectives or ways of doing things, and their rigid attention to detail may prevent them from completing tasks. OCPD is separate from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), which describes a form of behaviour rather than a type of personality.   

You are likely to:

  • need to keep everything in order and under control
  • set unrealistically high standards for yourself and others
  • think yours is the best way of making things happen
  • worry when you or others might make mistakes
  • expect catastrophes if things aren’t perfect
  • be reluctant to spend money on yourself or others
  • have a tendency to hang on to items with no obvious value. 

Treatment:

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common type of mental health counseling. During CBT, you meet with a mental health professional on a structured schedule. These regular sessions involve working with your counselor to talk through any anxiety, stress, or depression. A mental health counselor may encourage you to put less emphasis on work and more emphasis on recreation, family, and other interpersonal relationships. Relaxation training involves specific breathing and relaxation techniques that can help decrease your sense of stress and urgency. These symptoms are common in OCPD. Examples of recommended relaxation practices include yoga, tai chi, and Pilates.

Medication:

Usually, a SSRI type medication is prescribed to decrease inflexible and detail-oriented thinking. 

••Paranoid personality disorder (PPD)•• 

People with this diagnosis are often emotionally detached and suspicious of other people and their motives. They may hold longstanding grudges, and believe that other people are not trustworthy, are deceiving, threatening, or making plans against them.

  • People with this disorder assume that others are out to harm them, take advantage of them, or humiliate them in some way.
  • They put a lot of effort into protecting themselves and keeping their distance from others.
  • They are known to preemptively attack others whom they feel threatened by.
  • They tend to hold grudges, are litigious, and display pathological jealously.
  • Distorted thinking is evident. Their perception of the environment includes reading malevolent intentions into genuinely harmless, innocuous comments or behavior, and dwelling on past slights.
  • Their emotional life tends to be dominated by distrust and hostility.
  • For these reasons, they do not confide in others and do not allow themselves to develop close relationships.

Treatment:

talk therapy or psychotherapy are helpful. These methods will:

  • help the individual learn how to cope with the disorder
  • learn how to communicate with others in social situations
  • help reduce feelings of paranoia

Medication:

Medications may include:

  • antidepressants
  • benzodiazepines
  • antipsychotics

Combining medication with talk therapy or psychotherapy can be very successful.

••Schizoid personality disorder•• 

People diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder tend to have difficulties in expressing emotions, particularly around warmth or tenderness. They often feel shy in company, but may come across as aloof or remote, and have difficulty in developing or maintaining social relationships.

  • They almost always chose solitary activities, and seem to take little pleasure in life.
  • These “loners” often prefer mechanical or abstract activities that involve little human interaction and appear indifferent to both criticism and praise.
  • Emotionally, they seem aloof, detached, and cold.
  • They may be oblivious to social nuance and social cues causing them to appear socially inept and superficial.
  • Their restricted emotional range and failure to reciprocate gestures or facial expressions (such a smiles or nods of agreement) cause them to appear rather dull, bland, or inattentive.

The Schizoid Personality Disorder appears to be rather rare.

Treatment:

Cognitive behavioral therapy is designed to change behavior. It can be successful in treating this condition because you will learn how to act in social situations. This may reduce anxiety and reluctance to pursue social relationships. Group therapy is another option and can help you practice your social skills. This will help you become more comfortable in social situations.

Medication:

Medication is generally not used unless other treatment methods are not working. Bupropion may be used to increase feelings of pleasure. Antipsychotic medications can be used to treat feelings of indifference. These medications can also help encourage social interactions.

••Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD)•• 

A person with this disorder typically has problems around developing interpersonal relationships. The condition is characterised by thought disorders and paranoia. To others they may appear odd or eccentric; they may dress or behave inappropriately, for example talking to themselves in public.

  • Unlike the Schizoid Personality Disorder, they also experience perceptual and cognitive distortions and/or eccentric behavior.
  • People with Schizotypal Personality Disorder have odd beliefs, for instance, they may believe they can read other people’s thoughts, or that that their own thoughts have been stolen from their heads.
  • Schizotypal Personality Disorder tends to be found more frequently in families where someone has been diagnosed with Schizophrenia; a severe mental disorder with the defining feature of psychosis (the loss of reality testing). There is some indication that these two distinct disorders share genetic commonalities
  • These perceptual abnormalities may include noticing flashes of light no one else can see, or seeing objects or shadows in the corner of their eyes and then realizing that nothing is there.
  • These odd or superstitious beliefs and fantasies are inconsistent with cultural norms.

Treatment:

Several types of therapy can help treat STPD. Psychotherapy, or talk therapy, can help you learn how to form relationships. You can get this type of therapy along with social skills training to help you feel more comfortable in social situations.

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help you address some of the behaviors associated with your condition. Your therapist can help you learn how to act in social situations and respond to social cues. They can also help you learn to recognize unusual or harmful thoughts and change them.

Family therapy may be helpful, especially if you live with others. It can help you strengthen your relationships with family members. It may also help you to feel more supported by your family.

Medication:

No medications are designed to treat STPD specifically. However, some people with this condition benefit from taking antipsychotic or antidepressant drugs if they’re experiencing symptoms that their doctor thinks be improved with these medications. 

No to the quiet, no to the calm;
I am noise – rancorous, riotous,
the beckoning of the storm, the storm
imbibed. I am not silenced by spectacle,
I am not deterred by passive aggression;
I am bespoke cacophony – tailored
from the finer wavelengths of thunder,
the cracking of bones and the soliloquy
of doors slammed by gales of infuriated
indignation. Do not sit there and listen;
sit the fuck up and shake in your boots
because I am unforgiving; I am not humble
in my honour and in my passion,
and when I wield my scythe, I yield
to nothing amidst a dance of destruction.
I will no longer allow my rough edges
to be shaved and sandpapered to civility.
I will clank about in that damn box of a cliché
until you grind your teeth in despair:
I will always have something to say,
I will always say it without hesitation,
You won’t just sit there and listen,
You will feel my wrath swell in your womb.

OFFICIAL CRIER'S NOTICE

High Command has announced that the verdict for Commander Percival Dewdancer has been reached. The verdict of NOT GUILTY has been passed, and Lieutenant Commander Aegwyn Lehigh proudly relinquished Command back to the Commander at 0315 in the morning of June 18th.

Command has been placed at Code Yellow, and will be held there throughout the week to deter any acts of aggression following the verdict.

Light Bless, and For the Alliance.

THE STORMWIND CITY GUARD
1ST REG., 9TH BATT., 8TH CO.

edwardsnowden-suggestion  asked:

who takes on the roll of child protective services in an anarchist society, if anyone?

Man oh man this one was longer than I thought it would be.

So, I partially answered this one in a past exchange with @runningrepublican. Stefan Molyneaux also tackles it starting on page 130 of Practical Anarchy. I think both are sufficient, but let’s see if I can make it better. First, my original response (or the relevant, non-flavor bits):

First, violently abusing your child is a NAP violation. Possibly the most grievous of NAP violations. So right off the bat, any individual in an anarchist society would have the right (though not the obligation) to interfere, even with violence, if they were reasonably sure that such abuse was occurring.

Now, going by Murray Rothbard’s view (which seems iffy to me though it’s possible but not likely that I may have some emotional bias clouding my logic), “neglect” isn’t a NAP violation unless you take the stance that the child somehow entered into a voluntary contract with their parents wherein they would receive food, shelter, care, etc. and in turn provide […] care for the parents when they get old? For the purpose of moving the discussion along in a constructive manner, we will assume that this is indeed the case and that Rothbard was wrong.

[…]

Next, I could answer your question of “but who would take care of ‘The Children’?” in two ways. I’ll get the condescending one out of the way first:

Why, good people like you and me, of course. People who claim they care oh so much about the poor, defenseless children. Each individual would carry the burden, if the welfare of the children is so valuable to them that they would condemn humanity to live under a coercive state just for the mere promise that they will be protected, of intervening in cases of child abuse. Just as you or I (and I imagine many others) would intervene if we saw a mugging or a robbery or some dude beating his wife, it would be on the individual (or, in the worst case scenario, the lynch mob) to put their money where their mouth is.

The other, more practical answer, would be that, as a condition of taking on the services of many a DRO, or maybe health insurance company, you would stipulate that in the event that you had children, you would not beat them. Just one solution off the top of my head.

So, let’s take this first in a world without DRO Let us imagine that we live in a suburban neighborhood, and down the street, there is a house. In this house, we are reasonably sure that there is a young boy, aged 11, who is regularly physically assaulted, undernourished, and overall incontrovertibly abused to an extent that there is consensus that his rights have been violated, to the point that he spends most of his days locked in a closet under the stairs by the people who were supposed to protect him, and that all alternative guardians are deceased, incarcerated, incompetent, or otherwise disabled.

We will call this boy Harry.

So. The first, most obvious option is, as I said before, for good men to simply remove the child from the hostile environment. Kick the door down on the kid’s birthday, bend the owner’s shotgun with your bare hands, and (with the kid’s consent) remove him from the house. If you lacked all discretion or were sufficiently enraged at the sight of the boy’s forehead scar, you might find it in you to, in defense of this child, kill every adult in the house responsible for said abuse.

You can see, how this presents several issues, especially as we add more complexity here. The question of who would take care of our young boy-who-lived in the absence of his “guardians” first and foremost. Well, Hagrid, you rescued him. You could do it. Raise him on your own and send him to wizard school. OK. Not possible.

The second option would be to send him to a private foster care facility or orphanage. These would be funded either through private charity or by those who had some economic interest in a lack of street urchins and juvenile delinquents in their community. This example still takes place in the modern west and not a Charles Dickens acid trip, though I suppose that there is a chance that, as a condition of living in these facilities, children could be made to work to pay for room and board (though they would of course be free to leave and find alternative employment and living if all else failed, otherwise this is simply prison for abused children and a repeat of the original issue). We can safely assume that such an option would be immensely distasteful to all of us, so it would once again fall on private charity to provide for these children so that it does not come to that, if alternative guardians could not be found.

Now at the end of this you are no doubt thinking “Now wait just a minute, this sounds like an awful lot of hassle, and I may care about this children, but if I’m being honest, I don’t want to go through all that trouble and undertake all of that risk. Why can’t we just have an organization that can kidnap children from their families with little to no evidence, and put them in foster homes that are incentivized to take in as many children as possible with little regard for the quality of their care?

I would say of course that that is a very strange way to put things, Albus, but luckily it need not be so, particularly when we have DROs.

Stefan Molyneaux, if it was not obvious, abhors violence in all its forms. This sometimes leads to him bending over backwards to find non-violent solutions even to violent problems, to the point of impracticality, but the fact that he was able to find such solutions in the end means that slightly less obtuse solutions could be derived from them.

So, for example, Stefan suggests that in a free society, parents would be held responsible for any of the violent behavior exhibited by their offspring, and this would deter parents from raising aggressive children. It would be a bad idea to be a drunkard who beats his son, he reasons, if you must pay the cost when your son takes out his rage on another child and, say, smashes their teeth. Therefore parents will be inclined to drunkenly beat their children less.

I will leave it to you to see the glaring flaw in that plan.

But it does stand to reason that DROs could simply impose additional costs to insure and protect children of parents who engaged in “risk behaviors” that would increase the chances of that child becoming a problem later. At a certain point, looking for a DRO that doesn’t impose such costs becomes like looking for a health insurance company that doesn’t penalize smoking.

If these price adjustments fail, there are more active measures. A DRO could offer incentives to attend some form of counseling or take parenting classes.

If the child continues to exhibit antisocial behavior (and short of regularly monitoring the inside of people’s homes, that is the only way to tell if a child is being abused), DRO may decide, having exhausted all other options, to simply offer to take custody of the child and have the parents pay some form of child support so that the child can continue to go to school and not need to go to some sort of Dickensian workhouse.

The parents may decide, being sufficiently insulted at this point, may just decide to go to a different DRO that will “mind its own fucking business”, but while another DRO may be incentivized to offer their services for slightly cheaper than the previous one, the new DRO will find out, one way or another, even if the previous DRO has to straight up tell them, that this family is engaged in child abuse and presents a significant financial risk.

“Ah,” you might say, “but what if they simply choose to go without DRO protection at all?”

To which I would raise an eyebrow, scoff, and say “then I wish them luck.” I would also note that the Dursleys are now at this point going through an awful lot of trouble to safely abuse their child, which should set some alarm bells ringing for others in the community to solve this the old-fashioned way.

I am of the belief that at the end of the day, even the most abusive of parents love their children deep down, and would try not to let things get to this point, in defiance of all reason and financial incentive. And those parents that truly do detest their children to this extent would be happy to be rid of them, unless they hate this child so much that they are committed to abusing them no matter the cost. My father is a school psychologist in the city, and I would have to ask him if he has ever encountered such a thing, because I am hard pressed to imagine it, but i suppose the evil of humans is not limited by my own imagination.

Also, consider that there may be something wrong with the culture in which you live. Living in America, I could not even begin to think of a free market solution to, say, the culturally sanctioned rape of young boys in Afghanistan. Likewise in our own culture, I could not for sure tell you how the free market would solve the problem of, say, parents ostracizing or verbally abusing their children for coming out as gay, or other forms of abuse that have no visible negative results for anyone else, or forms of abuse that manifest in the form of emotional instability or resentment in adulthood long after it is their parent’s problem, but I would also ask what Child Protective Services has done for these children today. We are on tumblr after all, it’s not hard to find someone who can answer that with “fuck-all”.

And as Stefan says:

For instance, most parents prefer to have their children educated – even parents who abuse their children.  Most  schools  would  doubtless  prefer DRO  coverage  for  their  students,  because “unprotected” children would be more risky to have around. Thus, in order to get their children educated, parents have to have a DRO contract that protects them. If you are a bad parent, it will be almost impossible to avoid the significant costs imposed upon you.

Furthermore, I would prefer that my DRO refuse to insure parents without also insuring their children, because I care deeply about the health and well-being of children.

I am sure that I am not alone in this desire. 

The fact that you and so many others ask me this question can tell you that he isn’t.