In early-twentieth-century urban Peru, few cultural traditions remained that were considered Afro-Peruvian. Race was perceived as changeable, whiteness was equated with social mobility, and, as Raúl Romero explains (1994), Peruvians of African descent typically were not viewed as a separate ethnic group because they identified culturally, along with the descendants of Europeans, as criollos, a term that originally described the children of Africans born into slavery and later included European descendants born in Peru. After independence, the word criollo came to describe a set of cultural practices that were believed to be of European origin, including música criolla, or Creole music. At Lima’s jaranas (multi-day, invitation-only social gatherings involving the communal affirmation of shared criollo culture through food, drink, humor, music, and dance), ethnically diverse criollos performed música criolla, especially the marinera, on the guitar, cajón (box drum), and other instruments. Those who did not play an instrument sang, danced, or performed the special rhythmic handclap patterns unique to each musical genre, affirming the participatory character of creating and maintaining a shared culture. Although the performers were of mixed ethnic backgrounds, by the middle of the century this music was considered to be of strictly European origin (Romero 1994).
Before the Afro-Peruvian revival, many blacks in Peru identified with criollo culture, yet they were denied the social benefits afforded white criollos. In the 1960s, while African independence movements and the U.S. civil rights movement sought to overturn colonialism and racism, respectively, in Peru, music and dance were the first successful arenas for the politics of black resistance. Whereas for some critics, staged music and dance might seem an unlikely format for collective protest, the first step for Afro-descendants in the isolated black Pacific was to make themselves visible as a group by organizing around a newly embraced collective, ethnic, and diasporic identity before they could unite in a political struggle for civil rights. In the Afro-Peruvian revival, black Peruvians began by mounting staged performances that reinscribed forgotten and ignored black culture in Peruvian official history, starting with times of slavery (plantation settings, slave dances, and so on). The leaders of the Afro-Peruvian revival reconstructed lost black Peruvian music and dances for theatrical performances and recordings, musically promoting racial difference to challenge the prevailing ideology of criollo unity without racial equality.
Many Peruvian musicians date the beginning of the revival to 1956, when Peruvian scholar José Durand (a white criollo) founded the Pancho Fierro company, which presented the first major staged performance of reconstructed Afro-Peruvian music and dance at Lima’s Municipal Theater. Several black Peruvians who participated in Durand’s company formed their own groups in the 1960s, including the charismatic siblings Nicomedes and Victoria Santa Cruz. Perú Negro, the only group from the revival still existing in the twenty-first century, was founded in 1969 by former protégés of Victoria Santa Cruz…
Like her brother, Victoria Santa Cruz looked toward the black Atlantic to forge a transnational diasporic identity for black Peruvians, transplanting musical instruments and cultural expressions in revival productions. But Victoria Santa Cruz’s most celebrated legacy in Peru is her idiosyncratic deployment of “ancestral memory” as the cornerstone of a choreographic technique that enabled her to “return” to Africa by looking deep within her own body for the residue of organic ancestral rhythms…
Explaining what she means by “ancestral memory,” Victoria Santa Cruz writes: “What is ancestry? Is it a memory? And if so, what is it trying to make us remember? … The popular and cultural manifestations, rooted in Africa, which I inherited and later accepted as ancestral vocation, created a certain disposition toward rhythm, which over the years has turned itself into a new technique, ‘the discovery and development of rhythmic sense’ … I reached my climax … when I went deep into that magical world that bears the name of rhythm” (Santa Cruz 1978, 18). Elsewhere, she said: “Having discovered, first ancestrally and later through study and practice, that every gesture, word, and movement is a consequence of a state of being, and that this state of being is tied to connections and disconnections of fixed centers or plexus … allowed me to rediscover profound messages in dance and traditional music that could be recovered and communicated. … The black man knows through ancestry, even when he is not conscious of it, that what is outwardly elaborated has its origin or foundation in the interior of those who generate it” (V. Santa Cruz 1988, 85).
Heidi Carolyn Feldman,
“Strategies of the Black Pacific: Music and Diasporic Identity in Peru,”
Comparative Perspectives on Afro-Latin America (2012)
what she means:
but why do people hate Ginevra Molly Weasley? What did she do to them to make them hate her? She's fiery, passionate, strong willed, and so much more. She's not this two dimensional character that the movies just sop happened to make her out to be. She has a similar sense of humor to Fred and George and she's amazing at Quidditch. Harry describes her as the setting sun because she is? She was possessed by Lord Voldemort at age 11 and still blossomed into a beautiful and strong woman; Ginny didn't let Voldemort define her. She knows when to be nice and when to hex someone into next week. Not only did she grow into a determined woman, she learned from her past. She was so so shy around Harry but then she learned to be herself and that didn't come out of nowhere, that started happening in Goblet of Fire. Harry noticed her more and more as the series went on and then he fell in love with her for who she was. Ginny didn't love Harry because he was the Boy Who Live, Ginny loved Harry because they were similar in so many aspect, because she understood his struggle and he learned to understand hers. Why do people hate Ginny?
When it comes to describing a new setting, many great writers have hearkened it to “painting a picture,” and this is great advice. You want to inspire imagination and give the reader the cues to visualize the world you’re creating accurately. What you don’t want to do is take this advice too literally and over describe your setting in a reader-ready draft.
Bear in mind as you read these tips that these encourage succinct, economical writing. Obviously, everyone’s style is different, and some writers will include more description than others. These are simply suggestions for those who feel they’re overdoing it.
Tip #1: Avoid Overdoing It by Overdoing It
To control how much you describe your setting, you have to know it really well. So in your first draft or in a separate document/notebook, give into your instincts to over describe your setting. Write as much as you can about it. Make a map, or a floor plan, or use design simulators to visualize the space.
One reason we tend to over describe our characters’ surroundings is because we want to be clear of it ourselves. By doing this ahead of time, outside of your draft, you can go into your actual story with a clean slate, and it’s easier to only include setting details that are absolutely necessary.
Tip #2: Put On Your Character’s Shoes
Define the characters that will be present in the scene that introduces your setting for the first time. Regardless of point of view, think about what aspects of the setting these characters actually see. Imagine your are standing where your character is standing. Do they see what’s on the other side of the mountain? Do they see how messy the kitchen is when they’re in the garage? Do they see their office when they’re sitting in traffic? More than likely, no. So resist the urge to describe a setting the character can’t currently see.
There are exceptions, particularly if you’re using setting to foreshadow or present dramatic irony, but as a general rule, try to limit the settings you’re describing to the space your character is currently occupying. This doesn’t allow for exposition, so let’s move on to…
Tip #3: Start Small and Build
When it comes to complex settings like fictional countries, planets, or even complicated political structures, well-placed exposition is key. Help your reader out by feeding them details small enough for them to swallow. Before explaining Panem as a whole, Suzanne Collins worked on establishing District 12.
What you’re doing is giving your reader some time to make themselves at home. When you move to a new city, it’s common to start by navigating the areas surrounding your new home, especially areas that you will frequent often, and then branching out to the rest of the city. We remember things easiest when we build on existing knowledge. A reader will understand the governmental structure of your country easiest if they already have a city they’re familiar with to factor into that structure.
The scale of this will vary depending on your story. Sometimes you can cover small to large within a few pages and other times, you need a few chapters. Allow yourself some flexibility, but do your best to start small with your setting and add to it as a reader begins to get comfortable.
Tip #4: Be Economical
When a sentence will work, don’t use a paragraph. Use comparisons and character judgements to help with the description. “Her apartment looked just as he imagined an artist’s studio would look: small, dimly lit, and overflowing with unfinished paintings.” That sentence creates an image in your mind without describing the color of the walls, the number of windows, the state of the furniture, or where the kitchen is (and how the kitchen is maintained - save that description for when they eat or make food).
Even if you disagree with that description of an artist’s apartment, you can add your own adjectives to paint a different picture. “Her apartment looked just as he imagined an artist’s studio would look: open, industrial, and lit by waves of sunlight through every large window.” Same comparison, different picture. Using an artist’s studio in your description takes advantage of a reader’s existing knowledge and it helps you paint the picture with less words.
Tip #5: Don’t Waste a Reader’s Time
A setting is only as great as the action that occurs within it. Don’t spend time describing a setting that doesn’t house a scene where something important will eventually happen. This could be a huge, epic fight scene or a turning point for a character relationship. If you’re taking time to describe it, and a reader is taking time to read it, it better be significant.
For example, if you’ve got a character who is about to leave town on some great adventure, don’t spend an exorbitant amount of time describing her living space at the beginning of the novel. A character’s home can reveal a lot about their personality, but setting is not the only way to show character. Give the reader any details they need to understand the scene and then move on.
Martin all but chokes awake, the smoke slowly filling his little attic room through the gap where the door doesn’t quite meet its frame. For a dizzying second, he doesn’t even register the sound that’s awoken him: but then it surfaces again, the high-pitched wail of the fire alarm, screaming move, and fast.
He crosses the room, and opens the door for just an instant before hurriedly slamming it again. The bottom half of the rickety wooden staircase that leads up to the attic is already in flames, blocking his escape route completely.
i would like to make a complete list of all the things that are wrong with my workplace (i’ve worked at bed bath and beyond for about 3 years now), because im mentally prepping myself to quit. i’ve made a resume and i’ve applied to other places and honestly i cannot believe all the bullshit ive had to put up with so far so here goes:
I need a minute to yell about a fic writer whose work I absolutely LOVE. @rhysiana produces some of the most amazing and moving pieces of writing I have literally ever read (and since I am a Nursey/Dex blog, this will focus on her fics for that ship). As you guys probably know, one of my favorite fics ever is her huntsman piece, which is absolutely perfect in all ways and I read all the time, and time and time again. The writing flows so beautifully and all of the characters are so well described, the scenery she sets is absolutely gorgeous, and the plot is just oh my god amazing and stunning and wonderful (it follows a folklore tale, the Ballad of Tam Lin, but does such a wonderful job of using the Check, Please! Characters). Literally every time I read this fic it’s like the first time, I will never get tired of reading it. SHE ALSO just updated another fic, Sprezzatura, which kinda resonated a bit with my own experiences (read my earlier post) re private school and protecting oneself. This fic explores Nursey’s character quite beautifully. My favorite line of the first chapter is “In his mind, he touched the glass.” UGH. Such amazing writing. I absolutely love this fic.
Besides the Bard and the Huntsman, my all-time favorite 100% MVP GOAT wonderful beautiful tear-inducing gorgeous aaaaaa fic/series is the “Petals and Thorns” series. Ho. Ly. Shit. The first fic, “The Punk and the Florist,” is the fic that tossed me down the NurseyDex hole, and added a cushion at the bottom of my fall with its sequel “Isla Negra.” It’s an AU fic where Dex is a punk artist and Nursey is a florist and the author just molds absolutely beautiful characters who interact so wonderfully and they’re so relatable. The writing is just fantastic. I have no way to express just how much I love this series. GO READ IT. You deserve it.
And then there’s the wonderful Samwell Faculty AU series, in which Nursey and Dex a) adopt a daughter (aaaaa) and b) said daughter throws a fit. The characters are so well written and so true to themselves. Then there’s the cuticle care fic in which Dex shows an affinity for making sure your hands are healthy and takes care of Nursey, and the zombie fic which made me laugh soooo many times, and her collection of mini-fics which describe Nursey and Dex’s evolving friendship/relationship and is just so awesome to read.
So I think it’s pretty clear how much I love this author’s work. The writing is so wonderful, all of the characters just come alive and are written so well, and they stay true to themselves and most of all they’re really real, the interactions aren’t forced, nothing is too cliche, everything is just perfect. Her way of describing settings is just amazing and brings you directly into the situations. The plots are so wonderfully constructed, always original and they make you look at the characters in ways I’ve never read before. I am so blessed to have entered this fandom and support this ship and we have such wonderful authors and artists to provide happy feels and angst and fics and headcanons and illustrations and everything for us. Go follow her blog, @rhysiana!!! Read her stories (all her Check! Please fics can be found here!!! You all deserve good things, and she gives them to us.
tonight at rationality reading group the giant’s other gf and her fiance will probably be in attendance (I’ve met the gf a couple of times, haven’t met the fiance)
while I’ve heard people refer to this / other connected sets of romantically involved people as a ‘polycule’, I am firmly of the belief that greater specificity in language & punning is desirable, and will be using the word ‘polymer’ to describe this set of people inc. me, to more accurately reflect the chained structure
The air inside had become heavy with sweet scents of perfumes and alcohol, weighed down by the warmth of hundreds of bodies all moving, chatting, laughing, dancing… and though Elektra thrived in such environment since a very young age, she needed some fresh air and the freshness of the night welcomed her. The bare skin of her arms prickling as she leaned against the railing of the balcony, she breathed in the familiar scent of fog and ozone, and reached into her clutch to pull out a pack of her Nat Sherman’s when she heard someone else come out to the balcony, a soft sound of material brushing against the door frame which would’ve gone unnoticed by anyone else. She turned around slightly and regarded the newcomer with a slight smirk on her red lips, her zippo and one cigarette still in her hand, “The party’s turning out to be a bit too much?”, she inquired casually, and gestured to the person to come forward, “You’re welcome to join me if you’d like, it’s really nice out here. Unless you wanted to be alone, in which case I promise I’ll be quiet.”, her voice was slightly playful, and she nodded towards the case that was laid on the stone railing, “You smoke?”
one chilly normandy morning, zaeed massani combed his hair in the mirror - and as he gazed upon himself naked, he thought it was time to describe himself.
he set the comb down and leaned in close and smoldered with his eyebrows, and he tilted his chin up with his fingertips and took inventory of his features one by one. a tall, dignified forehead. high, sculptural cheekbones. full, dark eyelashes, framing one smoky quartz and one white glass eye, though he preferred to think it was icy, and that it could stare into people’s souls. he flexed his chin and admired the cleft, mm, yes, he thought, manly, that’s nice, and he pulled another silent-film face to admire his strong-but-delicate nose.
but when he moved to the other side of his face, he cringed. ugh, the scar. like someone had carved a wedge out of his cheek. it seemed like every year it got worse. women always claimed it made him look rugged, but he knew better. it made him look old. his hairline was not what it had been, either, and it was gray now, not chestnut brown. an asari stripper had told him if he dyed it, he might have more luck in love, and every time he remembered her saying it, he pouted his full, sensuous mouth. chapped, but full and sensuous. some days that was all he had.
enough about his face. time to get to his body, he thought, so he took a step back and ogled himself from the neck down. a good, strong neck, and nice, round shoulders, and watermelon-crushing thighs - but mainly his pecs, nicely separated. he could flex each one by itself. he was devilishly proud of those pecs, though he knew arrogance turned women off. they worked well with his trim waist and hips. maybe he didn’t just have his mouth after all. maybe, he decided, that wasn’t too shabby for a man who’d just turned the corner of fifty years old. fifty-year-old face, thirty-year-old hips. yes, he could work with that.
and at last, as he heard someone yelling outside the bathroom door, he turned aside and popped his firm rear out like the tail on a duck. well, he felt it was firm, anyway, though perhaps a little too round, like the speedo models he saw licking their lips at him on the covers of lady fornax. that’s just the hand life dealt you, he thought, as he strolled away from the mirror. the toughest merc in the galaxy, and only the third best arse.
B A D L A N D S
(noun.) A brutally honest peace of artwork crafted by Ashley Frangipane, to describe her life, mind set, and past experiences that created the specimen she is today. In other words the album that will fuck you up.
I love your genderfluid Yuri! You capture him and Otabek so well, and your characterizations are spot on. I also love the way you can describe setting in an active way that's really alluring to read. I have lots of trouble reading long descriptions but yours I have no problems with! Will you write more about genderfluid Yuri in the future?
Someday I wouldn’t mind exploring this again. HBB has been on my mind a lot lately because a lot of awesome anons are sending me asks and there were some amazing aesthetic boards:
Until then, consider the following: Yuri is the type of person who keeps everything in his purse: tissues, snacks, hand sanitizer, quarters, bandaids, gum, a bus schedule that never gets crumpled, condoms & lube, a dry pair of socks, etc.
One day he’s just not feeling it and dresses in more masculine clothes. He leaves the bag at home. Otabek is so freaking lost without Yuri offering him everything he needs.
Hi! I like your art and you really gave me a lot of hope when some people in the yoi fandom started getting sorta nasty :( But that's not what this is about! I know this is probably odd but I really like the colour of your blog, like the blue? I love it! Plus, I was wondering, what is a submission? Like, I'm not planning on submitting something but could you describe how you set it up? I'm not very tech savvy so if it's simple I'm sorry. Also I'm sorry for this ask being all over the place.
hmmm how i set it up??? well in edit appearance you could see submissions there right after ask and just click on the blue thingy so you could let people submit posts. then add tags if you want the submissions to be organized i guess like video, photo, audio, link etc.
oh my gosh i’m sorry if this isn’t what you needed to know or if this didn’t help you i’m not really that tech savvy either ;; ;;