department store history

On this day in 1960, 34 brave students from Virginia Union University staged a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter in Thalhimer’s Department Store (which stood at Broad and 6th Street), after a campus visit from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. All thirty-four were subsequently arrested, in the first mass arrest of the civil rights movement of 1960, and became known across the country as the Richmond 34.

The 34 challenged their convictions and took their case all the way to the national Supreme Court, where the conviction was overturned in a legal victory for civil rights nationwide.

The names of the Richmond 34 are: Elizabeth Patricia Johnson, Joanna Hinton, Gloria C. Collins, Patricia A. Washington, Barbara A. Thornton, Lois B. White, Thalma Y. Hickman, Celia E. Jones, Carolyn Ann Horne, Marise L. Ellison, Virginia G. Simms, Frank George Pinkston, Charles Melvin Sherrod, Albert Van Graves Jr., Ford Tucker Johnson Jr., Leroy M. Bray Jr., Wendell T. Foster Jr., Anderson J. Franklin, Ronald B. Smith, Larry Pridgen, Woodrow B. Grant, Joseph E. Ellison, Gordon Coleman, Milton Johnson, Donald Vincent-Goode, Robert B. Dalton, Samuel F. Shaw, Randolph A. Tobias, Clarence A. Jones, Richard C. Jackson, George Wendall Harris Jr., John J. McCall, Leotis L. Pryor, and Raymond B. Randolph Jr.

Le Bon Marché, Paris 1875. 

Le Bon Marché (“the good market”, or “the good deal” in French) is a department store in Paris. It is the first ever modern department store founded in 1852 by Aristide Boucicaut.

A novelty shop called Au Bon Marché had been founded in Paris in 1838 to sell lace, ribbons, sheets, mattresses, buttons, umbrellas and other assorted goods. It originally had four departments, twelve employees, and a floor space of three hundred square meters. The entrepreneur Aristide Boucicaut became a partner in 1852, and changed the marketing plan, instituting fixed prices and guarantees that allowed exchanges and refunds, advertising, and a much wider variety of merchandise. The annual income of the store increased from 500,000 francs in 1852 to five million in 1860. In 1869 he built much larger building at 24 rue de Sevres on the Left Bank, and enlarged the store again in 1872, with help from the engineering firm of Gustave Eiffel, creator of the Eiffel Tower.

The income rose from twenty million francs in 1870 to 72 million at the time of the Boucicaut’s death in 1877. The floor space had increased from three hundred square meters in 1838 to fifty thousand, and the number of employees had increased from twelve in 1838 to 1788 in 1879. Boucicaut was famous for his marketing innovations; a reading room for husbands while their wives shopped; extensive newspaper advertising; entertainment for children; and six million catalogs sent out to customers. By 1880 half the employees were women; unmarried women employees lived in dormitories on the upper floors.

The architecture of the store was very innovative for its time; the 1869 store was constructed by the architect Louis-Auguste Boileau. Alexandre Laplanche ornamented Boileau’s ironwork technology. Louis-Charles Boileau, his son, continued the store in the 1870s, consulting the firm of Gustave Eiffel for parts of its structure. 

BROOKLYN NINE-NINE SENTENCE STARTERS. (2/?). feel free to alter as necessary!

  • “You know any scalpers?”
  • “How are you still here?”
  • “Is that what you think?”
  • “We catch bad guys and look good doing it.”
  • “No, don’t let me interrupt. You were describing what kind of person I’m gonna be. I’d like you to finish.”
  • “You need to listen to him.”
  • “The next time I see you, I’d like you to be wearing a neck-tie.”
  • “Stay down.”
  • “Tell me about your squad.”
  • “I had an informant on the inside.”
  • “Would you do the honors?”
  • “I’m not becoming like them.”
  • “Great to see you.”
  • “First of all, when you do that, you know that turns me on, and that’s unfair in the work environment.”
  • “Why do you refuse to take my orders seriously?”
  • “I’m your new commanding officer.”
  • “There was an ‘incident’ in a department store.”
  • “You know my history. You know how important this is to me.”
  • “The hell is going on around here?”
  • “A dude broke in, smoked weed, and bolted.”
  • “Hey! Welcome to the murder.”
  • “I need your help.”
  • “Did you see this man before?”
  • “She’s got a type. Which is really anyone but you.”
  • “Dismissed.”
  • “Hey, that’s mine. You took it from my desk.”
  • “Careful, that stuff’s pretty hot.”
  • “Wanna go?”
  • “Does anyone get a little bit of a gay vibe?”

On a 1920s tour of the furniture department at Wanamaker’s department store in Philadelphia, you would have come across three separate rooms: one for grand pianos, one for upright pianos… and one for phonographs. Vintage surround sound!

Photos from the John Wanamaker collection [2188], Historical Society of Pennsylvania, circa 1920.

Hochschild Kohn department store
Howard Street and Lexington Street, Baltimore, Maryland
circa 1915
Hughes Company
8x10 inch glass negative of print
Baltimore City Life Museum Collection
Maryland Historical Society

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