democratic republic of vietnam

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Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained aerial bombardment campaign conducted by the US 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), US Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.

The four objectives of the operation (which evolved over time) were to boost the sagging morale of the Saigon regime in the Republic of Vietnam, to persuade North Vietnam to cease its support for the communist insurgency in South Vietnam without actually taking any ground forces into communist North Vietnam, to destroy North Vietnam’s transportation system, industrial base, and air defenses, and to halt the flow of men and material into South Vietnam. Attainment of these objectives was made difficult by both the restraints imposed upon the U.S and its allies by Cold War exigencies and by the military aid and assistance received by North Vietnam from its communist allies, the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China (PRC).

The operation became the most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War period; indeed, it was the most difficult such campaign fought by the U.S. Air Force since the aerial bombardment of Germany during World War II. Supported by communist allies, North Vietnam fielded a potent mixture of sophisticated air-to-air and ground-to-air weapons that created one of the most effective air defenses ever faced by American military aviators.

I think the North Vietnamese played us better than we know. They just totally out-psyched us. We lost the war because of will, not military power. For example, I think initially they probably didn’t recognize what they were on to. I think they initially looked at Tet in ‘68 as a disaster, but our reaction in the United States was so overwhelming - I mean, it toppled the President - that all of a sudden it became clear to them they they could make the Americans beat themselves.
—  Bruce Lawlor, CIA case officer 1971-73, an excerpt from his passage in Everything We Had by Al Santoli

Today in history: September 2, 1969 - Hồ Chí Minh dies. 

Hồ Chí Minh was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War. 

He led the independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-led Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. 

After the Vietnamese drove the U.S. out of Vietnam and united Vietnam as a socialist country, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City.

Via Freedom Road Socialist Organization (Fight Back!)