Couple of neat pathological skulls I just bought recently. Both were found in woods by the people I got them from.
The squirrel skull has a pretty horrifying case of malocclusion. I can’t imagine how painful it had to have been to have your teeth grow up through the bone in the roof of your mouth and up into your sinuses. Rodents must continuously gnaw to wear down their front incisors and this skull shows you what happens if they don’t.
The cat skull looks like it might have had a tumor on its forehead. That entire area of bone has a strange texture to it and then of course there are those gnarly holes! The bone around them has no clean breaks which shows that they were formed while the animal was still alive.
Looking forward to getting these two beauties cleaned up!
Feeling deeply traumatized after watching a documentary about the chimney sweep boys in Victorian England. Boys and girls (usually sold to the upper class by their parents) as young as 3 were made to crawl up the chimneys of their master’s mansions and clean the soot from there.
Their knees and elbows were usually bruised and bloodied after they were done. To toughen them up, the master would usually pour water and salt on their wounds and mercilessly send them up another chimney. Because of this, calluses formed. Sometimes, to make the boys climb faster, the master would light a fire beneath them.
With the “job” came many hazards. It was not unusual for some boys to get stuck in the tight corners of the chimney, sometimes, without the knowledge of the master. These poor souls were left to suffocate from the soot and toxic fumes. Worse, some were BURNT to death when the fire was lit and their screams could be heard for 2 miles away.
Many of these chimney boys didn’t live to adulthood due to the daily breathing in of soot and other toxic chemicals. They also suffered from deformed bones due to their young bodies having to bend out of shape to fit into the chimney.
Never again will I whine about any uncomfortable setbacks in life.
Last animation test before my trial’s up. Testing out animating an infinitely more complex (limb-wise) character.
Conclusion? Conventional bones in Toon Boom still suck. Not as bad as Flash’s, but they’re still shit. The only good bones in TB are curve and shape deformers.
IKs however? They actually work well in specific scenarios. I wouldn’t want them for general animation, but they made posing the legs much more manageable. And oddly enough IKs in Harmony have NOTHING to do with bones like they do in flash.
I’ll have a thorough review video coming soon, and probably am gonna start raising funds to buy Toon Boom myself. Even though I plan to get it, I can’t recommend it for everyone, and I’m not gonna make direct recommendations. I do feel Flash is sometimes sold short.
Started a life-sized drawing of a newborn’s skeleton that is currently
in the Anthropology lab. The baby has been in the collection for many
years. Unfortunately, the left arm had fallen off but this can be
repaired easily. The bones have not yet fused at this stage, and they
are still fairly pliable. When dried, the bones and cartilage will
deform and shrink, the cartilage especially. Water is an important part
of the body, even in the bones. I felt that it was a humbling experience to see the skeleton of this individual, I felt that I should treat it with respect. The human being is a remarkable thing!
yo ive… been on the fence about doing this for a long time cause i hate asking for help but here goes:
I have literally two dollars in my bank account and I’ve been out of work since February. I’m significantly disabled (I have ankylosing, bone deformities, pcos, autism, severe anxiety and depression, and psychosis) and shouldn’t really be working anyways. I’m about to lose car insurance because I can’t afford it, I don’t have health insurance and am out of meds, my last couple of bucks is going to gas and my fiancees check is all going to rent, and we still need to find some way to cover other housing related bills. I’m completely broke and out of options. I’m probably gonna end up with a massive fine if I cant get my taxes filed today bc I didn’t know how to do it until now without TurboTax, which also costs money I dont have
if anyone can help my gay trans disabled ass out with even a couple bucks or like literally anything, I would so super appreciate it and love you forever
my PayPal is firstname.lastname@example.org
if u want I’m pretty good at writing fanfiction and I’m aces at tarot reading and can totally do that in exchange for a few bucks
please signal boost even if u can’t donate I really need some help
The skeleton of a set of conjoined twin harbor seal pups. Their mother was found washed up on a beach with the twins halfway birthed - this is the first documented case of conjoined twins in this species! Such an incredible specimen (at the museum where I volunteer).
You’re not a man.
You’re deformed. Unformed.
Flesh, bone, and bile, and missing all that which takes shape through a mother’s love.
You cannot comprehend what you took from me or why it was good, because there is no goodness in you.
There is no humanity in you, no capacity for compromise, nor instinct toward repair, nor progress.
You are an animal.
Nassau is moving on from you, and so am I.
This perfectly preserved real raccoon skull is stained with a mixture of various teas and adorned with quartz crystals. It does come with lower jaws, but is missing two front teeth. (There are no spaces for teeth to go into those spaces, so I’m not sure if it is a deformity or they fell out in old age and the bone healed.
Rickets and Osteomalacia are two forms of the same disease that result from inadequate calcification of the extracellular bone matrix, usually caused by a vitamin D deficiency. Rickets is a disease of children in which the growing bones became ‘soft’ or rubbery and are easily deformed. Because new bone formed at the epiphyseal plates fails to ossify, bowed legs and deformities of the skull, rib cage and pelvis are common. Osteomalacia is the adult counterpart of rickets, sometimes called adult rickets. New bone formed during remodeling fails to calcify and the person experiences varying degrees of pain and tenderness bones, especially the hip and legs. Bone fractures also result from minor trauma. Prevention and treatment for rickets and osteomalacia consist of the administration of adequate doses of vitamin D.
I was curious if you know much about munchkin cats since from my understanding they're very new. I've seen some people say their anatomy is more like a ferrets so the shorter leg/longer body isn't as bad as dogs. Is that true? Also, considering your name, id go with fox Pokemon
Munchkin cats are relatively new, really too new to know much about them with certainty.
They are most certainly NOT like ferrets though. If you look at a ferret skeleton they actually have fairly long legs, just a low carriage.
We haven’t exactly characterized what the mutation is in Munchkin cats that causes their deformity. It’s not chondrodysplasia like many dog breeds, as the head isn’t affected. There are other types of long bone deformities it may be, based on similarities to human conditions, but which one is the best description remains to be seen.
We do know that the gene responsible is homozygous lethal, meaning that the kittens die in the uterus if they inherit two copies of this gene. That rings alarm bells for me. A foetus doesn’t become non viable just because it has short legs, so what else does this gene affect?
We know lordosis (curved spines) are more of a problem in Munchkin cats, even though breeders deny it.
Health concerns are typically worse with more extreme anatomy. It’s possible that an individual cat who happens to have the Munchkin gene will be okay. My concern is that if breeders forever aim for shorter, longer cats, then we will run into more and more problems, generation by generation and then we will be in exactly the same situation with dachshunds. It is the constant striving for extremeness, and often deliberate inbreeding, that gives us the devastating problems we see in dogs.
Cat breeders do typically have a more open view of stud books, but these problems will still potentially be there.
It’s also a little concerning that Munchins (and their associated special crossbreeds) are based on a single gene. This raises ethical concerns. Also of concern is that all these Munchkins are descended from the same, single cat. It might take twenty years, but unless it’s very carefully managed that willbe a problem.
So not as bad as dogs, still somewhat questionable, but definitely not like ferrets at all.
Perhaps you and @melredcap should talk. You both asked nearly the same question.
How do you differentiate between antemortem and postmodern injuries? For the added twist value 👀
Before we start, lets have some basic definitions.
Antemortem injuries occurs before death, it is usually indicated by signs of
healing. Perimortem injuries are those that occur at or near the time of death,
with no evidence of healing. Postmortem injuries occur after death, also with
no evidence of healing.
Differentiating between the types/timeline of injuries is
mainly studied in the field of forensic anthropology, dealing with skeletal
The healing process of injuries happens almost immediately
after it occurs. Evidence of the healing process on skeletal fractures can show
as early as after 1 week after the injury. Between week 1 and 3, the fracture edges
will remold and rounded, and by week 6 a bony callus will form. Healing rates
will of course depends on facts such as overall health and nutritional status
of the person injured. Anthropologist can use bones to basically figure out
history trauma on the body: history of abuse or accidental trauma, history of
nutrition, indication of poverty etc. Fun fact, antemortem injuries/fractures
can help with confirming identity of an unknown person through presence of
plates/pins (which might have serial numbers recorded in medial charts).
Perimortem trauma is important for reconstructing the events
that occurs near the time of death, while postmortem trauma is important to
determine if the injuries are caused to conceal some information about the
crime (or from opportunistic local wildlife feasting on free food). With perimortem
fractures, the person died before healing take place, but the fracture should
still show signs of the biomechanics of healing starting similar to antemortem
fractures. Peri- and post-mortem trauma is different from antemortem trauma
since there is no sign of healing. Bones are elastic while alive, and gets dry
and brittle after death in a process called plastic deformation. This means that
perimortem bone fractures tends to splinter, while postertem breaks shatter in
a more regular shape.
Moving away from bones and onto bruising. Bruises is a
discolouration of the skin when blood vessels/capillaries are damaged by
trauma, letting seeps/hemorrhage. Since bruises accompanies different types of
wounds, usually associated with blunt trauma, so they can provide information
on their causation and help with the reconstruction of events leading up to
death. Bruises are dated/aged differently depending on where it is on the body.
A deep bruise in the thigh muscle might not appear for a day or two, while a
bruise over a bony prominence and where tissue is loose (ie near the eyes) will
appear and swell very quickly. Postmortem injuries tend to have a yellowish
brown, kind of bloodless appearance, lacking vital reaction due to the absence
of blood flow after death.
Looking at postmortem injuries can be difficult, and trauma
on the body might still appear due to resuscitation efforts or from the way the
body is handled after death. This is what Watson can pull up online, hopefully
there is some useful info here. Happy writing!
Atlanto-Axial Joint - The joint between the 1st and 2nd Cervical Vertebrae
This joint is unique compared to other vertebrae joints, in that there is no disc between the atlas and axis. Instead it is supported and stabilised by ligaments. The main purpose of this joint is to enable the patient to move their head from side to side.
What is a AA subluxation?
AA subluxation is essentially a disruption in the alignment of the Atlas and Axis. This means that the joint becomes unstable and results in excessive movement of the neck.
What problems does this cause?
As a result of this type of subluxation the nerves that form the spinal cord, which runs through the vertebral column can become compressed resulting in neurological deficits and neck pain.
How does it occur?
Trauma to the neck such as forced flexion of the head causing ligament/vertebrae damage can result in this condition. However, it is often congenital and usually arises from an abnormality in the Axis either due to a issue with the supporting ligaments or because the Dens ( a projection of the Axis that fits with the Atlas) is malformed or absent.
How common is this congenital abnormality?
This type of abnormality is most common in toy breeds such as: Yorkshire Terriers, Chihuahua’s, Pomeranians and Pekingese. It usually occurs within the first year of life.
What are the symptoms?
Neck pain - yelping and crying when lifted or touched in the neck/head region
Ridgity of the neck - A reluctance to flex the neck or move, eat and drink
Paraparesis/Paresis - Resulting in the patient being anything from non-ambulatory or ataxic
How is the condition diagnosed?
Radiographs - Lateral, Ventro-dorsal and Oblique views are recommended.
MRI - This will allow assessment of spinal cord damage.
CT - This will allow visualisation of bone deformity in regards to the vertebrae.
What are the treatment options?
Conservative - Often only offered to patients with mild clinical signs. It includes cage rest for 4-6 weeks and often the patients are put in a neck brace for this time to allow fibrous scar tissue to form and stabilise the joint.
Surgical - The main aims of surgery are to relieve compression of the spinal cord and stabilise the joint permanently. If the dens is malformed or damaged, it may have to be removed. The recommended surgical approach is ventrally, as it allows arthrodesis (fusion) of the atlanto-axial joint. A cancellous bone graft is placed in the joint and pins or screws are placed across the joints. A head brace is then put in place and should remain on for 4-6weeks.
Avoid flexion of the neck - this will cause further compression of the spinal cord and may result in severe neurological issues.
Gentle Physiotherapy - Often these patients do not move either due to fear of pain or they are unable to because of the spinal cord compression. Therefore physiotherapy is important to maintain muscle tone and blood flow to the limbs
Feeding Tubes - Dependent of the neurological condition of the patient a feeding tube may be the best course of action to ensure they are maintaining hydration status and meeting their RER.
Supportive Bedding - Patients that have limited movement are prone to bed sores therefore padded supportive bedding is essential. The use of donut bandages around boney joints may be needed.
Prevention of Urine Scalding - Using inco pads to soak up urine and regular baths to get urine off skin will be needed.
Being aware of complications - Further displacement of the dens (as a result of surgical failure or neck flexion) into the spinal canal can lead to diaphram paralysis, respiratory failure and death. Thus monitoring of Res rate and effort is a must.
What is the prognosis?
The prognosis depends on the degree of spinal cord trauma and neurological deficits present before treatment. Mild clinical signs result in a good prognosis whereas prognosis for dogs with paralysis is guarded, although recovery is possible with successful surgery.