Anne Boleyn, Queen consort of England, was charged with acts of
treason and adultery and was executed on 19 may,1536.Why did England’s King Henry VIII, who risked his reputation
and kingdom in order to marry her, have his beloved wife and queen charged with acts of
treason and adultery, which swiftly led to her execution in May of 1536? According to Hester Chapman, an English historical biographer, the world in which
Anne Boleyn lived was like that of a “…snake‐pit, of which nearly all the occupants were venomous…” In her 1974 book,The Challenge of Anne Boleyn, Chapman describes a sinister
milieu without regard for the truth or kindness, and in which Anne herself was one of the major
players.According to Chapman,Thomas Cromwell, concerned with the succession since
Henry had no legitimate male heir by Anne, devised a plan to bring about “…Anne’s
destruction.” Chapman asserts that Cromwell, knowing that if Anne was charged with “high
treason,” there would be no escape.Chapman explains that during this time, those
unfortunate enough to be charged with high treason were not allowed to have someone
represent them, not allowed to interrogate any “witnesses”, nor allowed to see the proof of the
alleged crime.The jurors themselves were not allowed to inquire about the validity of the
supposed facts, or they themselves could be imprisoned. A guilty verdict was absolute.Through “bribery and threats,” as well as information freely given from her many enemies,Cromwell obtained the required evidence that he needed to make a damning case against
Anne.Chapman asserts that Mark Smeaton, the court musician, only declared guilt because he
was promised he would later be set free if he admitted to “carnal knowledge” with Anne.When Henry was told of the matter and shown the evidence, Chapman asserts that Henry was
aghast, but believed the charges.Chapman concluded in her epilogue that, while Anne was
innocent, there should be no “question of blame.”The King, Chapman claims, was bound by
law to endorse her “death‐warrant.”
most historians share common themes or focus on the key players, Retha M. Warnicke, asserts in her 1989 book,The Rise and Fall of
Anne Boleyn: Family Politics at the Court of Henry VIII, that the primary reason for the fall of
Anne Boleyn was that Anne gave birth to a deformed fetus in January of 1536.
According to Warnicke, most
Europeans during this time believed in demons and witches, and that “…witches gave birth to
deformed children…and committed incest.In conclusion,this was all a bad timing for Anne Boleyn,surrounded by such lies ,it only took her step by step closer to the grave.
Everything Wrong with Philippa Gregory's The Other Boleyn Girl
It’s no secret that most Anne Boleyn fans (and, for that matter, Tudor history fans) have serious issues with Philippa Gregory and her historical fiction novels. The biggest reason for this being that Gregory is almost single-handedly responsible for perpetuating and reinforcing Anne Boleyn’s image as a scheming “bad girl” into the twenty-first century. This image is nothing new - it began with Anne’s own contemporaries (most notably the imperial ambassador, Eustace Chapuys.) This image is problematic, however, because it is based mostly on concocted fictions. So, rather than bashing Gregory’s historical and literary ineptitude (and trust me, I’d love to), I’ll just stick to providing a list of major problems with one of her more famous novels, The Other Boleyn Girl.
There is no evidence that Anne Boleyn stole Henry VIII from her sister, Mary Boleyn. The king’s affair with Mary ended long before he began to pursue Anne.
There is no evidence that Anne had sex with her brother, George Boleyn, in order to conceive a child. Although Anne and George were found guilty of incest in 1536, the evidence used at their trial has been almost universally discounted as faulty and invented.
It is unlikely that Mary’s two children - Catherine and Henry Carey - were the king’s offspring. Henry was born after the affair is believed to have ended. Also, it is likely that - had the children been his - the king would have recognized them publicly. At the time, Henry VIII was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. Any proof that he could conceive a child with another woman would have been further damning evidence against his marriage to the queen. The king did not, however, recognize Mary’s children, as he had with Bessie Blount’s son, Henry Fitzroy.
There is no evidence that George Boleyn and Jane Parker had an unhappy marriage, or that he was homosexual.
Mary Boleyn was not the innocent, virginal sister. We have no evidence of Anne’s supposed sexual escapades in France, but there were rumors that Mary may have had an affair with Francis I.
There is no evidence that Anne gave birth to a deformed fetus. Although historian Retha Warnicke argues that this is true, the only source that states this is Nicolas Sander, who was not even alive in 1536. No contemporary source reported that the baby was deformed - despite many reasons for doing so. Ambassador Chapuys, who was very observant of everything to do with the king’s “concubine,” didn’t state that Anne’s miscarriage was abnormal. Most of all, Thomas Cromwell and the king (who, months later, were building a case against Anne), did not mention it. Considering sixteenth-century belief on pregnancy (in which the mother was usually blamed for problems with conception), this bit of evidence would have helped seal Anne’s fate.
There is no evidence of any rivalry between the Boleyn sisters. There is also no evidence of a planned conspiracy by the Boleyn family to make either of the sisters the king’s mistress.
There is no evidence (and it is extremely unlikely) that Henry VIII raped Anne Boleyn.
Mary Boleyn did not raise Princess Elizabeth after Anne’s death.
Henry and Anne’s marriage did not turn sour after she gave birth to a girl in 1533. There are many reports that the two were affectionate and still very much in love throughout most of their marriage.
Anne was not exiled to France after attempting to marry Henry Percy. She served at the French court from a young age, and only met Percy after returning to England in the 1520s.
SAN SALVADOR (Reuters) - El Salvador’s ban on abortion is driving hundreds of girls who become pregnant after being raped to commit suicide every year because they see no other option, a government official said.
Teenage pregnancy is one of the leading causes of suicide in the Central American country of 6 million people. Three out of eight maternal deaths in El Salvador are the result of suicide among pregnant girls under 19, latest government figures show.
Many of these girls have not only suffered sexual abuse at the hands of relatives, stepfathers or gang members, but they are also often silenced and prevented from seeking help by the stigma surrounding rape.
On top of that, they face the unwelcome prospect of giving birth to an unwanted baby due to El Salvador’s total ban on abortion even in cases of rape, incest, a deformed fetus or when the women’s life is in danger, campaigners say.
When abortion isn’t available, women die. And the reason is simple: women don’t abort because they feel like it (or because, as conservatives would have you believe, pregnancy is merely “inconvenient”), women abort because they feel they have no choice. Combine this reality with a ban on abortions and women will either turn to unsafe methods to abort or just skip that and go straight to suicide.
And it’s here that the “pro-life” math fails completely. The woman is most definitely alive. If, for the sake of argument, we accept that a fetus is a lifeform as well, then abortion takes one life. Suicide or sepsis takes two. If you shut down an abortion clinic, you aren’t saving any lives – you’re just doubling the risk.
As some of you may know, I am definitely pro choice - because no one should be forced to go trough 9 fucking months of pregnancy, suffer a painful delivery and possibly have to raise an unwanted child.
Unfortunately, I live in Poland, where abortion is only allowed if it’s a threat to the pregnant person’s live or health, there is a huge possibility of the fetus being deformed and disabled, or the pregnancy is a result of a prohibited act (such as rape). And even in those cases, the doctor can refuse to give you abortion. All they need to say is that their conscience doesn’t let them do this (seriosuly, it’s called “klauzula sumienia” which google translates to “clause of conscience”). Now, until not so long ago if they refused you an abortion, they needed to direct you to another doctor, but they don’t need to anymore! In other words, if the pregnancy is dangerous to you, you may die just because the doctor’s against abortion.Or carry a dead baby in you for months. Or give birth to your rapist’s child.
You may be thinking “at least it’s legal in some cases”. Well, not for long. Our government wants to ban it for good. You’re 13, have been raped and your child wouldn’t be able to function? Who cares. You have to give birth to them. Oh and the morning-after pills? You can’t just buy them like that anymore. You need a prescription, which is probably also gonna be hard to get form now on.
I’m pissed. And I’m scared. And hell, I’m not the only one. What’s next, they’re gonna ban condoms? Are women gonna be punished for misscaring pregnancies? Will masturation be illegal?