defense forts


Staigue Stone Fort, County Kerry, Ireland

Staique Stone Fort is located three miles west of Sneem, on the Iveragh peninsula. The fort is thought to have been built during the late Iron Age around 300 to 400 AD.  It is at the head of a valley opening south to the sea and is surrounded by a ditch. The fort’s walls are up to 18 ft (5.5 m) high in places, 13 ft (4 m) thick at the bottom and 90 ft (27.4 m) in diameter. One of the most interesting things about the fort is that there are ten flights of steps, built in an X shape, along the circular internal wall giving access to the top of the rampart. Staigue represents a considerable feat in engineering since it was built without the use of mortar.

There is evidence that copper was excavated in the surrounding area and it appears that the fort may have been a place of worship, an observatory and a place of defense.


Navan Fort, County Armagh, Northern Ireland

Navan Fort is an historical royal fortress and the stronghold of the kings of Ulster from around 700 BC. The Fort was the center of King Conchobor mac Nessa and his Red Branch Knights. It is surrounded by a bank with a ditch inside, suggesting that it was a ceremonial, rather than defensive site. The Fort was eventually abandoned, which probably was a result of the creation of St. Patrick’s church two miles away. But in 1005, the Irish king Brian Boru camped there, and in 1387, Niall O’Neill chose Navan Fort as the location for a house.

It is said that the great Irish mythical hero Cuchulainn spent much of his youth in Navan Fort before single-handedly facing the army of the mythical Queen Maeve.

One mile west of Navan Fort lies another myth site, the mysterious King’s Stables which is thought to have played a role in water rituals in the area.


The M42 Duster Appreciation Post

During the course of the Korean War, the U.S. Army decided to phase out all vehicles based on the M24 Chaffee chassis, such as the M19 Gun Motor Carriage 40 mm Anti-Aircraft, in favor of designs that utilized the chassis of the M41. Since the 40 mm guns were still seen as an effective anti-aircraft weapon, the turret of the M19 was simply mounted to the M41 chassis with few changes except a partial redesign to accommodate the larger turret ring of the M41 and designated as the M42.

Production of the M42 began in early 1952 at GM’s Cleveland Tank Plant. It entered service in 1953 and replaced a variety of different anti-aircraft systems in armored divisions. In 1956, the M42 received a new engine and other upgrades along with other M41 based vehicles, becoming the M42A1. Production was halted in Dec. 1959 with 3,700 examples made during its production run.

Sometime in the late 50s, the U.S. Army reached the conclusion that anti-aircraft guns were no longer viable in the jet age and began fielding a self-propelled version of the HAWK SAM instead. Accordingly, the M42 was retired from front line service and passed to the National Guard with the last M42s leaving the regular Army by 1963, except for the 4th Bn, 517th Air Defense Artillery Regiment in the Panama Canal Zone, which operated two batteries of M42s into the 1970s.

The HAWK missile system performed poorly in low altitude defense. To ensure some low altitude anti-aircraft capability for the ever increasing amount of forces fielded in Vietnam, the Army began recalling M42A1s back into active service and organizing them into air defense artillery (ADA) battalions. Starting in the fall of 1966, the U.S. Army deployed three battalions of Dusters to the Republic of Vietnam, each battalion consisting of a headquarters battery and four Duster batteries, and each augmented by one attached Quad-50 battery and an artillery searchlight battery.

Despite a few early air kills, the air threat posed by North Vietnam never materialized and ADA crews found themselves increasingly involved in ground support missions. Most often the M42 was on point security, convoy escort or perimeter defense. The “Duster” (as it was called by U.S. troops in Vietnam) was soon found to excel in ground support. The 40 mm guns proved to be effective against massed infantry attacks.

Most of the Duster crew members had their AIT training in the 1st. Advanced Individual Training Brigade (Air Defense) at Fort Bliss, Texas. Some of the Duster NCOs had received training at the Non Commissioned Offices Candidate School which was also held at Fort Bliss, Texas.

The 1st Battalion, 44th Artillery was the first ADA battalion to arrive in Vietnam on November 1966. A self-propelled M42A1 Duster unit the 1st of the 44th supported the Marines at places like Con Thien and Khe Sanh Combat Base as well as Army divisions in South Vietnam’s rugged I Corps region. The battalion was assigned to First Field Force Vietnam (IFFV) and was located at Đông Hà. In 1968 it was attached to the 108th Artillery Group (Field Artillery). Attached to the 1/44th was G Battery 65th Air Defense Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and G Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights. The 1/44th served alongside the 3rd Marine Division along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) in I Corps thru December 1971.

The second Duster battalion to arrive in Vietnam was the 5th Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery. Activated in June 1966 it arrived in Vietnam in November 1966 and was diverted to III Corps, Second Field Force (IIFFV) and set up around Bien Hoa Air Base. Attached units were D Batter y71st Air Defense Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and I Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights. The “Second First” served the southern Saigon region through mid 1971. D-71st Quads remained active through March 1972.

The third Duster battalion to arrive was the 4th Battalion, 60th Air Defense Artillery. Activated in June 1966 it arrived in Vietnam in June 1967 and set up operations in the Central Highlands, based out of An Khê (1967-70) and later Tuy Hoa (1970-71). Attached units were E Battery 41st Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and B Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights (which were already in country since October 1965). Members of these units not only covered the entire Central Highlands, but assets also supported firebases and operations along the DMZ to the north and Saigon to the south.

Each Duster Battalion had four line batteries (A,B,C,D) and a headquarters battery. Each battery had two platoons (1st, 2nd) which contained four sections each containing a pair of M42A1 Dusters. At full deployment there were roughly 200 M42 Dusters under command throughout the entire war. The Duster and Quads largely operated in pairs at firebases, strong points and in support of engineers building roads and transportation groups protecting convoys. At night they protected the firebases from attack and were often the first targets of enemy sappers, rockets and mortars. Searchlight jeeps operated singularly but often in support of a Duster or Quad section at a firebase.

Between the three Duster battalions and the attached Quad-50 and Searchlight batteries over 200 fatalities were recorded.

The three M42A1 equipped ADA units (1/44th, 4/60th & 5/2d) deactivated and left Vietnam in late December 1971. Most if not all of the in-country Dusters were turned over to ARVN forces. Most of the training Dusters at Ft.Bliss were returned to various National Guard units. The U.S. Army maintained multiple National Guard M42 battalions as a corps level ADA asset. 2nd Battalion/263 ADA headquartered in Anderson SC was the last unit to operate the M42 when the system was retired in 1988.

Fort Defense The Second is the best, just look at the cast

Fast Dude,

Rocket Man

Ridley Scott’s Alien

Bomber Man

The Bear

Texas Man

The Doctor

Steve Irwin’s son

and of course, everyone’s favorite:

French Fry

museumfangirl  asked:

Bellarke, huddling for warmth/snowed in, either canonverse or modern AU-whatever you feel like. Thank you! I love your writing.

Bellamy kind of likes working Christmas Eve, which he knows is weird. His boss always tells his that he doesn’t have to work, vaguely guilty, like he didn’t agree to it. Even when she’s around, he and Octavia don’t ever do family stuff until dinner time, so it’s not like he has family obligations he’s missing out on, and he’s usually the only one on the train and in the office, which is awesome. He blasts loud obnoxious music and gets a ton done without any of his coworkers bothering him.

Okay, so when he puts it like that, he sounds like the protagonist of a movie about someone learning a holiday lesson from a bunch of ghosts, but seriously, he’s just introverted. He’s not making anyone else suffer with his antisocial tendencies. He’s just living his life. He’s not hurting anybody.

He’s finished with most of his paperwork by early afternoon, and he’s just diving into listening to Lemonade while he cleans and organizes his desk, when he hears someone say, “Hello?”

Irrationally, he looks down to check his outfit, even though he knows, completely and for certain, without a doubt, that he is wearing his normal clothes and looks completely presentable. It’s not like listening to Beyoncé is a crime. As far as he’s concerned, not listening to Beyoncé is the real crime.

Still, he turns off the music and sticks his head out into the hallway, where he sees Clarke Griffin shaking out her coat and getting off her hat. Her cheeks are chapped and red, and her hair is curling and damp from the snow.

She looks pretty, because of course she looks pretty. She always looks pretty. One of his big personal regrets is the way he screwed it up with her, making a shitty first impression and doubling down on it instead of making amends. They’re no longer actively antagonizing each other like they used to, but he thinks they could have been friends.

Maybe even something more. But–they’re friendly. That’s a good place to start.

“Bellamy?” Clarke asks. “What are you doing here?”

“Working. What are you doing here?”

“Have you looked out the window? Or checked any kind of social media?”

Keep reading


LEGO Pirates Sets 2015

  • Shipwreck Defense (70409)
  • Soldiers Outpost (70410)
  • Soldiers Fort (70412)
  • The Brick Bounty (70413)

LEGO Pirates are an all-time favourite of many older fans. So it is really cool how much these sets look like modernised versions of the classic pirate theme from the late 80s and early 90s. Something for old and new LEGO fans alike. I can’t wait to put the new Brickbeard next to my original one.
The new headscarfs didn’t really seem necessary to me, though.


September 13th 1814: Defense of Fort McHenry

On this day in 1814, the United States army forces at Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland successfully defended the city from the British during the War of 1812. British warships bombarded the fort for over 24 hours, but the American defense held fast and by the morning of September 14th the British were forced to retreat due to lack of ammunition.  The event, particularly the sight of an American flag being raised over the fort at dawn in celebration of victory, inspired Francis Scott Key to write a poem called ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’. Key was a witness to the battle because he was aboard a British ship having been trying to negotiate the release of an American prisoner. The poem was eventually set to the tune of a well-known 18th century British song and the anthem soon became a popular patriotic American song, and was commonly used by the armed forces. On March 3rd 1931, at the urging of many patriotic organisations, a congressional resolution was signed by President Hoover which affirmed ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’ as America’s official national anthem.

200 years ago today

June 3, 1916 - Verdun: Defense of Fort Vaux

Pictured - Machine-gun trained on the door, a German squad watches the bombardment of Fort Vaux.

Next to Fort Douaumont at Verdun was the smaller Fort Vaux, which alongside its stronger neighbor formed the linchpin of the first line of defenses of the city. In February, after the capture of Douaumont, the Germans had claimed, incorrectly, that Fort Vaux had fallen to them too, a boast that brought some ridicule down on the Crown Prince.  Subsequent efforts to right the claim and take the fort had been forced back with heavy casualties, but in June, Falkenhayn ordered that the fort’s capture finally be completed.

Douaumont, the strongest fortress guarding Verdun, fell almost without a fight in February.  Vaux did not look like much of an obstacle with that in mind. It was much smaller than Douaumont, or its other neighbor Fort Moulainville.  It had no massive, retractable gun turrets, mounting only one 75mm howitzer turret, which had been shattered by a German satchel charge in February, and a few machine-gun pillboxes.

On June 1, a colossal German bombardment began on the fort, at one point firing shells at the rate of 2,000 an hour.  Inside the fort had a complement of 600 men, crowded together in a fort designed for only 250.  Many were wounded, or stragglers and strays from other units, stretcher-bearers, signalers, who had gotten lost and hid in the fort.  Four carrier pigeons and a signalman’s pet cocker-spaniel rounded out the complement. 

Major Sylvain-Eugene Raynal, a tough 49-year old colonial soldier from Bordeaux, commanded the motley garrison.  He had only been appointed on May 24, his first impression upon arriving in the crowded, squalid structure was of soldiers crammed together, “in such numbers that it is extremely difficult to move, and I took a very long time to reach my command post…  If an attack materialized all the occupants would be captured before they could defend themselves.”

Raynal watched helplessly as German attacks routed the French infantry positions ahead of the fort.  He could see massive crowds of German infantry - if only his 75mm gun worked!  Vaux’s machine-gunners, nevertheless, tore holes into the ranks of baffled German soldiers from over a mile away, compounding Falkenhayn’s desire to take the position. 

The garrison endured the bombardment for 48 hours, when it stopped suddenly before dawn on June 2.  Two German battalions moved forward, swarming Fort Vaux’s superstructure.  Unlike Douaumont, Vaux’s machine-gun bunkers were crewed and prepared, and spat rounds into the oncoming German soldiers.  German pioneers tried unsuccessfully to knock them out with bundles of grenades, until they heard the sound of a machine-gun jam and muffled French curses from the gunners.  They leaped up and slammed grenades into the loophole, ending the resistance of the brave French machine-gun crew.

German soldiers started to enter the fort via a caved-in part of the wall, when suddenly Major Raynal’s second-in-command, Captain Tabourot, blocked the entrance with his body, fighting single-handed against the entire German onslaught with his pistol and hand-grenades.  He kept the Germans off for some time until -  his abdomen ripped open by a stick-grenade explosion - he crawled back inside to die.

By the end of the day, the Germans had entered the fort and captured a number of the galleries.  Rather than surrender, however, the French soldiers moved underground, clambering down into the lower levels of the fort, where they prepared to continue fighting on.  A grim battle began in pitch-dark, narrow corridors with hand-grenades, flame-throwers and machine-guns.