decreased consumption

twinflamesforever  asked:

Oh, oh, could you do Cath and Levi for the relationship meme? <3


  • Drinks all of the coffee: Levi works at Starbucks. Cath hangs out there sometimes, and Levi’s always bringing drinks home to her. They both drink a lot of coffee. (Once Levi graduates and doesn’t work there anymore, his coffee consumption decreases slightly…but only slightly.)
  • Brings up adopting a pet: Levi. If he had his way, they’d have pet alpacas and cats and dogs and rabbits and chinchillas and hamsters and…Levi just really likes cute animals, okay? Cath is amused, and fine with having a cat and a dog.  
  • Kills the bugs: Levi. He grew up on a ranch, he’s not bothered about killing bugs at all, and Cath would rather not.
  • Cooks the meals: Both of them. They tend to cook together a lot, actually. Whoever’s home first will start dinner, and the other one will act as sous chef. On weekends, they take turns making breakfast.
  • Starts getting into holidays way before they should: Levi. His full name is Levi Enthusiasm Stewart. (Okay, it’s probably not, but you catch my drift.)
  • Initiates the couple selfies: Levi, at first. Cath doesn’t like the way she looks in photos, but Levi tells her she’s cute and gorgeous and hot and adorable and beautiful and eventually, she kind of starts to believe him–especially when she sees herself in photos with Levi. She looks happy, and it’s a good look on her.
  • Forgets the birthdays and anniversaries: They both remember them. Levi drags Cath on a lot of fun, weird dates; Cath writes M-rated autobiographical RPF for Levi. She’s nearly too embarrassed to give it to him the first time, but he’s absolutely delighted, and persuades her to read it to him, and they end up…well. She starts planning the next story almost immediately.
  • Always ends up with too much junk food after grocery shopping: They both have their weaknesses when it comes to junk food.
  • Nicknames the other: One of Levi’s hobbies is coming up with ever more ridiculous schmoopy nicknames for Cath. She rolls her eyes at most of them, and tries really hard not to laugh, because that only encourages him. But she doesn’t mind at all when he calls her ‘sweetheart’ or ‘baby’ or various other endearments, because he means them so sincerely.

Send me a ship (romantic or platonic or family) and I’ll tell you who…

I think it’s funny how SO many people claim that socialists are horrible and that socialism doesn’t work bc when my country is ruled by a socialist party education gets better, unemployment decreases, the economy gets better, immigration increases, women and the lgbtq community have their rights assured (i.e. abortion, planned parenthood, equality in jobs and school, gender neutral wcs, gay marriage is legal) and infrastructures get improved whilst when right wingers rule this country we basically go down this rabbit hole where unemployment increases deeply and anyone not male and not straight ( or unless ur a conservative woman) gets discriminated and marginalised and the suicide rates increase drastically
Just saying
Socialism IS flawed but I’d take it any day against extreme right wing policy
(Just to add the socialists decriminalised drugs back in the late nighties/early ‘00s and the drug consumption decreased immensely too)


The Chemical Thrower is the fifth ranged weapon acquired in the game. It is a custom assembly of household and commercial parts. It fires a straight, continuous stream of chemical substance as ammo is consumed. Its main weaknesses are a slow reload time, ineffectiveness at long range, and a very high rate of ammo consumption. However, the effective range can be increased and ammo consumption rate decreased with upgrades at a Power to the People station, making the Chemical Thrower a highly efficient weapon. The Chemical Thrower has high ammo cartridge and reserve capacities, but ammo is somewhat rare throughout the game, particularly Electric Gel.

An FDA-approved Alzheimer’s Drug Could Help Smokers Quit

Despite several safe drug therapies available to help smokers quit, three-quarters report relapsing within six months of a quit attempt. University of Pennsylvania researchers Rebecca Ashare and Heath Schmidt saw potential for a permanent cessation solution in a class of FDA-approved medications used to improve cognitive impairments from Alzheimer’s disease.

In a study consisting of a rat trial and a human trial, Ashare and Schmidt studied the effects of two acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, or AChEIs, called galantamine and donepezil on overall nicotine intake. The rat component showed that pretreating the rodents with an AChEI decreased their nicotine consumption. Consistent with these effects, clinical trial participants taking the AChEI, not the placebo, smoked 2.3 fewer cigarettes daily, a 12 percent decrease, and noted feeling less satisfied with the cigarettes they did smoke.

“We’re very interested in screening potential efficacy of anti-addiction medications in our models,” said Schmidt, a professor in Penn’s School of Nursing and Perelman School of Medicine. “For this study, we looked at potential smoking-cessation medications.”

The research itself took a translational approach, what Ashare, a professor in Penn Medicine’s psychiatry department, calls bi-directional. In other words, the preclinical data informed the clinical study and vice versa.

At Penn’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, work on smoking cessation has been ongoing since 2001. Specifically, research from Caryn Lerman, CIRNA’s director and the Mary W. Calkins Professor in Psychiatry, concluded that people who quit smoking often report a decrease in what’s commonly called their executive functions.

“They feel fuzzy. They’re forgetful,” Ashare said. “Those deficits are related to their ability to quit smoking. It was this clinical aspect of smoking cessation we thought would be useful to take further.”

That’s when they turned to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

In the brain, the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine is important to cognitive functions like learning and short-term memory. When nicotine enters the body, it binds to the same receptors in the brain that acetylcholine binds to, resulting in smoking’s rewarding and reinforcement effects. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors increase acetylcholine levels in the brain and, in effect, substitute nicotine’s effects.

Schmidt had successfully employed such a model with other addictive substances like cocaine. He divided a group of rats into galantamine and donepezil cohorts. To mirror voluntary drug taking in humans, the rats self-administered nicotine using a lever pushed at will. Once nicotine-taking stabilized, the rats were pretreated with one of the two AChEIs.

For both drugs, “we were able to show a reduction in total nicotine self-administered,” Schmidt said; however, there was a caveat.

“We know from the literature that upward of 30 percent of patients will report nausea and vomiting [when taking these drugs], and this will limit their compliance,” he said. “We had seen that these drugs reduced nicotine self-administration, but we wanted to make sure it wasn’t because the rats were sick.”

Unlike humans who can verbally report when they don’t feel well and whose bodies react to nausea, rats lack the reflex to vomit. In previous research, Matthew Hayes, who has appointments in Penn Medicine and Penn Nursing, had shown that in rats kaolin clay consumption coats the stomach like an antacid and quells any ill effects. Collaborating with Hayes, Schmidt offered the animals kaolin clay, then compared how much they ate normally and with the addition of the AChEIs.

“At the doses shown to reduce nicotine self-administration, the AChEIs did not make our animals sick,” Schmidt said. The findings sparked the CIRNA clinical trial, which has to date studied 33 smokers ages 18 to 60.

People who were interested in quitting smoking signed on for 23 days. For the first two weeks, they continued to smoke but also took either galantamine or a placebo. Before the trial began, researchers assessed the smokers’ cognitive function to get a baseline. Participants followed the regimen for two weeks and then were asked to not smoke for one full day. Two more assessments took place: after the two weeks on the cigarette-drug combination and again after that initial smoke-free day. Finally, the researchers asked the study subjects to do their best to not smoke for seven straight days, a time during which the participants still took either galantamine or a placebo.

“That week-long period is a proxy for longer-term cessation. The ability to quit smoking the first week after you make a quit attempt is highly predictive of long-term success,” Ashare said.

She’s still actively recruiting for the trial, with an aim of 80 people total. Once the trial reaches that number, she’ll dig into overall quit data. What she’s learned so far — that smokers who used the FDA-approved galantamine smoked fewer cigarettes per day and enjoyed them less — is promising, particularly given that those who don’t smoke during that first crucial week are 32 times more likely to quit smoking permanently.

“Our goal in investigating these different repurposed medications is not to replace the medications that are already available,” she said. “We know that they’re effective. Our goal is to target different populations of smokers who may be more likely to experience these cognitive deficits.”

There’s no data to suggest that a clinician treating a smoker should prescribe one of these AChEIs now. But Ashare and Schmidt are forging a path, and, if it leads where they think it might, it could provide smokers yet another option to help them quit.

Ashare and Schmidt published their work in the Nature journal Translational Psychiatry.