de brogli

World’s Greatest Physicists, Geniuses Meet in 1927

Solvay Conference 1927

First row: Irving Langmuir, Max Planck, Marie Curie, Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Pierre Langevin, Charles Eugene Guye, C. T. R. Wilson, Owen W. Richardson

Second row: Peter Debye, Martin Knudson, W. Lawrence Bragg, Hans Kramer, Paul Dirac, Arthur Compton, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Niels Bohr

Third row: Auguste Piccard, Émile Henriot, Paul Ehrenfest, Edouard Herzen, Théophile de Donder, Erwin Schrodinger, Jules-Emile Vershaffelt, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Ralph Howard Fowler, Leon Brillouin

Absents: Sir W. H. Bragg, H. Delandres et E. Van Aubel

Image credit: Hadi Nur

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2.14.17 | 8:40 PM
Happy Valentine’s Day to you love birbs and single birbs ♡ here’s a cheesy chem pickup line to go with my notes: I like to consider myself pretty stable, but around you I become highly reactive~

I actually have around 10-12 pages done in my ap chem notebook already but I’ll save those for later. I learned about einstein, heisenberg, de broglie, and schrödinger’s theories on waves and electrons today, so far so good.

The Solvay Conference, probably the most intelligent picture ever taken, 1927

The Solvay Conference, founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, was considered a turning point in the world of physics. Located in Brussels, the conferences were devoted to outstanding preeminent open problems in both physics and chemistry. The most famous conference was the October 1927 Fifth Solvay International Conference on Electrons and Photons, where the world’s most notable physicists met to discuss the newly formulated quantum theory. 

Back: Auguste Piccard, Émile Henriot, Paul Ehrenfest, Édouard Herzen, Théophile de Donder, Erwin Schrödinger, Jules-Émile Verschaffelt, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Ralph Fowler, Léon Brillouin.

Middle: Peter Debye, Martin Knudsen, William Lawrence Bragg, Hendrik Anthony Kramers, Paul Dirac, Arthur Compton, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Niels Bohr.

Front: Irving Langmuir, Max Planck, Marie Curie, Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Paul Langevin, Charles-Eugène Guye, Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, Owen Richardson.

Bohmian mechanics is pretty cool so far. Though most of the sources I’ve used so far are either trying to objectively explain (keyword, trying) the theory or are written by people who clearly like the theory. So I’m going to need to investigate some critiques of it in more detail.

I generally like the ideas Bohm proposes, but even better, I like the questions it brings up.

If we have multiple theories that come to the same results, how can we test them to definitively rule one or the other out? (i.e., let’s try to break them a la Einstein)

And if we can’t, what does this tell us about the nature of how we do physics? That we’re just picking a story that happens to work and running with it?

It really shakes up our foundations of quantum mechanics and forces us to grapple with the idea that maybe the first theory that worked isn’t necessarily the one we should trust. It invokes a challenge of clever rigor in our work as theorists.

It’s an interesting challenge. And while I’m certainly not able to reasonably answer those questions at this level, I’m excited I can even ask them!

“Portrait of the Princess de Broglie” (1853) (detail) by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867).

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So I made some quick cards for a friend who had a science project for college. From what I gathered, the game is based off wearwolf except it includes elements from quantum mechanics? So each card is a different scientist representing a different card such as Schrodinger as the wearwolf, Bohr as the Cupid, Einstein as the bodyguard, De Broglie as the little girl, and Born as the joker. There are also three Copenhagen cats that are regular players on the wearwolf’s side and three regular cats. Don’t ask anymore questions because I will not be able to answer o_o

The Solvay Conference, 1927.
17 of the 29 attendees were or became Nobel Prize winners.

Back: Auguste Piccard, Émile Henriot, Paul Ehrenfest, Édouard Herzen, Théophile de Donder, Erwin Schrödinger, JE Verschaffelt, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Ralph Fowler, Léon Brillouin.
Middle: Peter Debye, Martin Knudsen, William Lawrence Bragg, Hendrik Anthony Kramers, Paul Dirac, Arthur Compton, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Niels Bohr.
Front: Irving Langmuir, Max Planck, Marie Curie, Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Paul Langevin, Charles-Eugène Guye, CTR Wilson, Owen Richardson.

List of shibboleth names

by which the privileged judge their inferiors

A

Abbe Suger (French pronunciation: syoo-zheh, British: soo-gehr)

Chinua Achebe (chin-oo-ah ah-chay-bae)

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (chim-ah-man-da nnnn-go-zeh ah-dee-che)

James Agee (a-jee)

Anna Akhmatova (onna ock-mah-taugh-vah)

Louis Althusser (lou-wee al-too-sair)

Jerzy Andrzejewski (yer-zhay ahn-zhay-ev-ski)

Roger Angell (angel)

Jean Anouilh (~ahn’oo-ee)

Diane Arbus (dee-ann)

Hannah Arendt (hahn-ah ahr-ent)

Martha Argerich (mar-tah herr-each)

Eugène Atget (oo-zhenne at-zhey)

Augustine of Hippo (aw-gus-tin)

Autechre (aw-tekk-er)

Richard Ayoade (eye-oh-wah-dee)

B

Angelo Badalamenti (bottle-ah-menti)

Walter Bagehot (badget)

Balliol College (bay-lee-uhl)

Donald/Frederick Barthelme (barth-uhl-me)

Karl Barth (bart)

Roland Barthes (bart)

Tom Beauchamp (beachum)

Walter Benjamin (ben-yameen)

John Berger (berdger)

Bishop Berkeley (barkley)

Hans Bethe (beta)

John Betjeman (betch-uh-mun)

Joseph Beuys (boyz)

Hieronymus Bosch (Flemish pronunciation: heer-rone-nee-mohse boss)

Tadeusz Borowski (tah-de-yoosh borr-off-ski)

Anthony Boucher (rhymes with voucher)

Tycho Brahe (Danish pronunciation: too-ghoh brahhh)

Broad Art Museum (brode)

Hermann Broch (~hair-monn brohhh)

Burgundy Street, New Orleans (burr-gun-dee)

Steve Buscemi (boo-semm-ee)

Bowdoin College (boh-din)

C

Gonville and Caius College (keys)

Menzies Campbell (ming-iss)

Thomas Carew (carey)

Vija Celmins (vee-yah tell-midge)

Michael Chabon (shay-bonn)

Jan Czochralski (yann choh-h’ral-ski)

J.C. Chandor (shann-door)

Dan Chaon (shawn)

Chyron (kai-rawn or kai-run)

Cimabue (chee-ma-boo-ee)

Karel Čapek (kah-rell chap-eck)

Michael Cimino (chee-me-noh)

Emil Cioran (chore-ahn)

Ta-Nehisi Coates (tah-nuh-hah-see)

Alexander/Andrew/Patrick Cockburn (coburn)

Paulo Coelho (~pow-lu kuh-whey.l-you.)1

J.M. Coetzee (koot-see)

Robert Campin (com-pin)

William Cowper (cooper)

Cré na Cille, Máirtín Ó Cadhain book (~kreh neh kill-eh)

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (me-high cheek-sent-me-high)

Countee Cullen (cown-tay)

Marie Skłodowska-Curie (skwoh-doaf-ska)

Alfonso/Jonás/Carlo Cuarón (al-fone-so/ho-nas kwah-roan)

D

Gerard David (Flemish pronunciation: ~hhheer-ahrd dahh-fidd)

The Dalles, Oregon (the dolls)

Guy Debord (ghee du-borrh)

Louis De Broglie (duh broy)

Giorgio De Chirico (Italian pronunciation: ~dee kee-ree-koh)

Richard Dedekind (between day-dah-kin and day-dah-kint)

Wilhelm Dilthey (dill-tai)

Alfred Döblin (deu-bleen)

Don Juan, Byron character (jew-un)

Gerrit/Gerard Dou (dow)

W.E.B. DuBois (duh-boyz)

Andre Dubus (duh-byoose)

E

Chiwetel Ejiofor (choo-we-tell edge-ee-oh-for)

Cary Elwes (ell-wiss)

Paul Erdős (~pal ehr-deush)

John Scotus Eriugena (era-jee-nah)

Leonhard Euler (oiler)

F

Nuruddin Farah (Somali pronunciation: ~nour-oo-deen farr-ah)

Colm Feore (column fury)

Ferdydurke (fair-deh-dure-kuh)

Paul Feyerabend (fire-ah-bent)

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (feesh-tuh)3

Ralph/Ranulph/Sophie/Joseph/Magnus/Martha Fiennes (rayf finezzzzzzzzzzzzz)

Gustave Flaubert (flow-bear)

William Foege (fay-ghee)

Lee Fang (fong)

Michel Foucault (~foo-coh)

Gottlob Frege (got-lobe free-geh)

James Frey (fry)

G

Gallaudet University (gal-uh-debt)

Clifford Geertz (gurtz)

Alberto Giacometti (Swiss pronunciation: yah-coh-mett-ee)2

André Gide (zheed)

Giotto (jhott-oh)

H.R. Giger (ghee-guh)

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (~ger-tuh)

Nikolai Gogol (goggle)

Witold Gombrowicz (vee-told gomm-broh-vitch)

Jan Gossaert (~yann ho-sight) aka ‘Mabuse’ (mah-buu-zuh)

Philip Gourevitch (guh-ray-vitch)

Antonio Gramsci (gromm-she)

Matt Groening (graining)

Alexander Grothendieck (groat-enn-deek)

David Guetta (gay-tah)

H

Vaclav Havel (vott-slav hah-vell)

Michael Haneke (hanukkah)

Margaret H’Doubler (dough-blur)

Seamus Heaney (shay-muss hee-knee)

Aleksandar Hemon (between heh-monn and heh-mown)

Zbigniew Herbert (z’beeg-nyeff herr-behrt)

John Hersey (hearse-ey)

Hesiod (he-see-uhd)

Hermann Hesse (~hair-monn heh-seh)

Guy Hocquenghem (ghee ock-en-g’yem)

homo sacer, Agamben concept (Italian pronunciation: oh-moh satch-air)

Houston Street, Manhattan (house-ton)

Joris-Karl Huysmans (zhour-ris karl weese-moss)4

Bohumil Hrabal (boh-who-meal h’rah-ball)

Alfred Hrdlička (German pronunciation: ~hairt-litch-kah)

I

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (angh)

Eugène Ionesco (Romanian pronunciation: ~yoh-ness-koh)

Luce Irigaray (loose ear-ee-garr-eh)

J

Roman Jakobson (jacob-son)

Jacques, Shakespeare character (jay-kwiss)

Erica Jong (zhong)

Seu Jorge (~sewe zhawzhe)1

Carl Jung (yoong)

K

Frigyes Karinthy (free-gesh car-inn-tee)

Keble College (keeble)

Kelis Rogers (kuh-leece)

Imre Kertész (imm-reh kare-tace)

John Maynard Keynes (kanes)

Omar Khayyam (high-yahm)

Krzysztof Kieślowski (krish-toff keesh-loff-skee)

Q'orianka/Xihuaru Kilcher (core-i-an-ka/see-wahr-oo)

Danilo Kiš (dann-eel-oh keesh)

Paul Klee (powell clay)

Stephen Cole Kleene (cleany)

Phil Klay (kligh)

Karl Ove Knausgård (Norwegian pronunciation: ~kahl oo-veh kuh-nauss-gahd)

Zoltán Kodály (zohwl-tahn koh-die)

Sarah Koenig (kay-nig)

Alexandre Kojève (koh-zhevv)

Tadeusz Konwicki (tah-de-yoosh konn-vitz-ski)

Jerzy Kosiński (yer-zhay koh-shin-ski)

Alexandre Koyré (kwah-ray)

Saul Kripke (crip-key)

Thomas Kuhn (coon)

Milan Kundera (Czech pronunciation: mill-ahn koon-der-uh)

L

Henri Lefebvre (luh-fevv-ruh)

Stanisław Lem (stan-ni-swaf lemm)

Jonathan Lethem (leeth-um)

Jared Leto (let -oh)

Primo Levi (leh-vee)

Marina Lewycka (leh-vitz-kah)

Mario Vargas Llosa (yoh-sah)

Peter Lorre (laura)

Jan Łukasiewicz (yann wu-kah-shey-vitch)

M

Magdalen College, Oxford/Cambridge (mawd-lin)

Mannes College of Music (mannis)

Quentin Matsys/Quinten Matsijs (Flemish pronunciation: kvinn-tin mott-sayse)

Somerset Maugham (mawm)

Kazimir Malevich (may-lay-vich)

Thomas Mann (toe-mahs mahn)

Don Marquis (mar-kwiss)

Olivier Messiaen (oh-leev-yay meh-syonh)

Joel Meyerowitz (my-yer-uh-wits)

Czesław Miłosz (chess-waff me-woahsh)

Joan Miró (zhwamn me-roh)

László Moholy-Nagy (~lass-low moh-holy noidge-eh)

Robert Moog (mogue)

George Mosse (mossy)

Sławomir Mrożek (swah-voh-meer m’roh-zhek)

Ron Mueck (myoo-ick)

Harry Mulisch (mool-ish)

Edvard Munch (ed-vart moonk)

Robert Musil (moo-zeal/moo-seal)

Eadweard Muybridge (edward my-bridge)

N

Nacogdoches, Texas (nack-uh-dough-chis)

Natchitoches, Louisiana (nack-uh-tush)

Otto Neurath (noi-raht)

Bill Nighy (nye)

Anaïs Nin (ah-nayh-ees ninn)

Emmy Noether (neur-tuh)

Cees Nooteboom (sayze note-uh-bome)

Lupita Nyong'o (~nnnnn yong-oh)

O

Obergefell v. Hodges (oh-burr-geh-fell)

Máirtín Ó Cadhain (marr-teen oh kai-un)

Adepero Oduye (add-uh-pair-oh oh-doo-yay)

Jenny Offill (oh-full)

Claes Oldenburg (kloss)

Michael Ondaatje (awn-datch-ee)

The River Ouse (ooze)

David Oyelowo (oh-yell-uh-whoah)

P

Chuck Palahniuk (paul-uh-nik)

Wolfgang Pauli (pow-lee)

Charles Sanders Peirce (purse)

Samuel Pepys (peeps)

Jodi Picoult (pee-coe)

Max Planck (plonk)

Plotinus (ploh-tine-us)

Anthony Powell (po-uhl)

John Cowper Powys (cooper poh-iss)

Principia Mathematica (prin-kipp-ee-yah)

Annie Proulx (proo)

Marcel Proust (proost)

Joseph Pulitzer (puh-litz-ur)

Q

Qatar (cutter/gutter)5

Quinnipiac University (kwinn-uh-pea-ack)

R

Ayn Rand (well-fare recipient)

Sławomir Rawicz (swah-voh-meer rahh-vitch)

Satyajit Ray (Bengali pronunciation: ~shut-uh-jeet rye)

Steve Reich (raish)

Tom Regan (ray-gun)

ricercar (Italian pronunciation: ~reach-ur-car)

Rainer Maria Rilke (rhine-er mahr-ee-a reel-kuh)

Nicolas Roeg (rogue)

Theodore Roethke (ret-key)

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen/Roentgen (vill-helm rhont-gn)

Klaus Roth (roath)

Mary Ruefle (roo-full)

Ed Ruscha (roo-shay)

S

Edward Said (sigh-eed)

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry (sanh-eks-oo-pear-ee)

Luc Sante (sahnt)

Leonardo Sciascia (shah-shah)

Schlumberger (slumber-zhay)

Bruno Schulz (schooltz)

Martin Scorsese (score-sess-ee)

Henry Scrope, Shakespeare character (scroop)

W.G. Sebald (zay-bald)

Chloë Sevigny (sevv-un-ee)

Choire Sicha (corey seeka)

Charles Simić (Serbian pronunciation: simm-itch, but often called simmick)

Victor Sjöström (Swedish pronunciation: veek-torr hhhwhere-strome)

Theda Skocpol (scotch-pole)

Josef Škvorecký (yoh-zeff shkvore-etz-ski)

William Smellie (smiley)

Todd Solondz (suh-lawnz)

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (saul-zhuh-neat-sin)

Léon Spilliaert (Dutch pronunciation: lay-on spilly-art)

Strange, barony (strang)

Edward Steichen (shtike-inn)

William Stukeley (stoo-key)

Wisława Szymborska (vee-swa-va shim-bor-ska)

T

Gay Talese (tuh-leeze)

Chief Justice Roger Taney (tawny)

Nahum Tate (neigh-m)

Tchoupitoulas Street, New Orleans (chop-uh-too-luss)

Wayne Thiebaud (tee-bo)

Uwe Timm (ooh-veh)

Tzvetan Todorov (tsveh-tahn toh-duh-roff)

Colm Tóibín (~column toh-been)

Ernst Troeltsch (trolch)

Edward Tufte (tuff-tee)

Tulane University (too-lane)

Ivan Turgenev (yvonne turr-gain-yevv)

George W. S. Trow (like ’grow’)

V

Michel Houllebecq (he doesn’t care)

Joos van Cleve (yohss fon clay-vuh)

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (meez fonn der roh-uh)

Rogier van der Weyden (~ro-kheer fon dur vay-dun)

Arnoldus Vanderhorst, ultimate namesake of Luther (vandross)

Vincent van Gogh (Dutch pronunciation: ~finch-ant fan hawh)

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (ahn-toe-nee fon lay-when-hook)

Rembrandt van Rijn (remm-brondt fon rain)

Ludvík Vaculík (lood-veek vatz-oo-leek)

Johannes Vermeer (yo-hann-iss furr-meer)

Jones Very (jonas veery)

Vladimir Voinovich (vlah-dee-meer voy-noh-vitch)

Ludwig von Mises (fonn meez-ess)

Georg Henrik von Wright (fon vrikt)

W

Ayelet Waldman (eye-yell-it)

Quvenzhané Wallis (kwuh-ven-zhuh-nay)

Robert Walser (valzer)

Jean-Antoine Watteau (French pronunciation: ~vah-teau)

Evelyn St. John Waugh (eve-linn sin-jun wahh)

Max Weber (veigh-burr)

Simone Weil (zee-moan veigh)

Elie Wiesel (eel-ee vee-zell)

Garry Winogrand (win-uh-grand)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (vitt-genn-shtein)

Pelham Grenville Wodehouse (wood-house)

David Wojnarowicz (voy-nah-roh-vitch)

Hermann Wouk (woke)

Woyzeck, Büchner play (voight-zikk)

Joseph Wright of Derby (right of dahr-bee)

Y

William Butler Yeats (yates)

Yerkes Observatory (yer-keys)

Yoknapatawpha County, Faulkner setting (yolk-nuh-pah-taw-fa)

Z

Robert Zajonc (zai-unts)

Slavoj Žižek (slah-voi zhee-zhek)

Andrzej Żuławski (ahn-drey zhu-wavv-ski)

1 Portuguese has a much more complicated phonetics than English & so these are especially approximate.

2 Because Giacometti was from the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland a kind of second order snobbishness has descended on the pronunciation of his name. Most people who would judge you pronounce it as you would in Italian (jah-coh-mett-ee) but an inner-inner circle insist on correcting even these people with the Swiss-Italian pronunciation listed here.

3 The pronunciation of the -ch as soft instead of hard, unlike every other instance in German, was contrived after the philosopher’s death to avoid a near-homophony with that language’s word for ‘fuck.’

4 The last syllable doesn’t have an English equivalent but rhymes with the French pronunciation of Jean’s.

5 The first letter (qaf/qof/ق) has no equivalent in English or any other Western language and is more glottal than either of the sounds starting these approximations.

More? Better phonetic versions?

Πανελληνιες..

Εσυ,εσυ που διαβαζεις το κειμενο γιατι κανεις διαλλειμα απο το διαβασμα για τις πανελληνιες.Εσυ που χεις μαθει τι ωρα κατουρουσε ο Πλατωνας και τι ωρα κοιμοταν ο Πλωτινος.Εσυ τσακαλε που χεις μαθει 40 διαφορετικα πραγματα για τα κυματα της Φυσικης και για τις συχνοτητες των ηλεκτρομαγνητικων,εσυ που χεις πηξει στο Θ.Μ.Τ. και στο Rolle.Εσυ κοπελια που ξεσκιζεσαι στην χημεια για να μαθεις για τον Bohr,τον De Broglie και τον Rutherford.Εσυ φιλε/φιλη που προγραμματιζεις με κλειστα ματια και λες απεξω το ΑΟΘ για καλημερα.
Για ολους εμας που δινουμε Πανελληνιες και οσους θα δωσουν,υπομονη.Τα ονειρα θελουν προσπαθεια,δουλεια,παθος και ορεξη.Εφτασες ως τα 18 αισιως και περασες απο 40 κυματα,δεν θα λυγισεις τωρα.Τα λεμε το καλοκαιρι σε καποια πλατεια της Αθηνας,σε καποια ταβερνα της Θεσσαλονικης στο λιμανι του Βολου η σε οποιο μερος βρισκεστε.Υπομονη,ορεξη,αγαπη και μπυρες.Καλη μας δυναμη παλικαρια και κοπελιες!

Einstein, Dirac, Pauli, Marie Curie, Bohr, Schrodinger and many more of the scientific greats. All in one epic picture.

The Solvay Conference,1927.

Back row: Auguste Piccard, Émile Henriot, Paul Ehrenfest, Édouard Herzen, Théophile de Donder, Erwin Schrödinger, Jules-Émile Verschaffelt, Wolfgang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg, Ralph Howard Fowler, Léon Brillouin. Middle: Peter Debye, Martin Knudsen, William Lawrence Bragg, Hendrik Anthony Kramers, Paul Dirac, Arthur Compton, Louis de Broglie, Max Born, Niels Bohr. Front: Irving Langmuir, Max Planck, Marie Sklodowska Curie, Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Paul Langevin, Charles-Eugène Guye, Charles Thomson Rees Wilson, Owen Willans Richardson.

wrindwolf  asked:

What are the current quantum mechanics interpretations there are and what are the pros and cons of each one? Note: I might have expressed myself wrongly so to be sure I'll mention two of the interpretations I know of, the Copenhagen interpretation and the Many Worlds interpretation.

Good question! For those of you unaware what these are, these “interpretations” attempt to describe what is happening in quantum mechanics when we can’t directly observe what’s going on. I’ll start with the examples you gave me.

The Copenhagen interpretation is probably the most accepted one, and states that everything exists as a probability wave before being measured. Basically, before you measure a particle, it doesn’t actually have a definite position or momentum, which is pretty weird to think about. When someone observes a probability wave, it ‘collapses’ and looks like a normal particle again. However, this interpretation isn’t very clear as to what an “observation” exactly is.

The many-worlds interpretation is probably the most popular one, and involves the universe constantly ‘splitting’ into different alternate realities every time a quantum measurement is made. This attempts to solve the strange “wave collapse” in the Copenhagen interpretation. However, it doesn’t make as much sense when you think about probability. Basically, why would one ‘branch’ of reality be any more likely to happen than another?

There’s also the De Broglie-Bohm interpretation, which isn’t as well received as the first two. It basically says that particles actually do have definite positions and paths, but they are guided by the wave function. However, this seems fairly redundant, as it would be much simpler to say that the particle and the wave function are the same thing.

There’s a lot more, but these are the main ones. As for me, I prefer the Copenhagen interpretation, as I see it as the most literal interpretation of the math, which is basically all we have to go on. Still, because these can’t really be tested, I can’t put much confidence in any of these. All I know is that quantum mechanics is one of the best models we have to explain what we observe, which is all you can really ask for in a scientific theory.

anonymous asked:

Can you tell me more about de Kalb and his relationship with Lafayette?

Johann de Kalb was a Bavarian-born veteran of the French army during the Seven Years War. He was introduced to the idea of joining the American cause by the Comte de Broglie…the somewhat questionable man who began grooming Lafayette for the same enterprise. Like Lafayette, de Kalb was told by Silas Deane that he would become a major-general in the Continental Army upon arrival in the colonies. Johann immediately started looking for about  officers to join him on his trip to America…and he found one of the most enthusiastic specimens he could’ve hope for. 

Lafayette was already making plans to go to America when introduced to Johann de Kalb. Together, the two began to conspire (–literally daily…these two met up almost every day for an entire month–) a way to get Lafayette a commission in the Continental Army. It was through de Kalb that Lafayette met Silas Deane and with de Kalb’s persuasion that Deane eventually granted Laf the rank of major-general. Johann, however, was under the impression that Lafayette had his family’s complete consent to do so…a fact that Lafayette assured him was the case. It wasn’t. Thinking that he could still get the permission of the French ministers and his father-in-law, Lafayette acted on that assumption and was proven very wrong when he finally attempted to breach the subject with them. As de Kalb went off to locate a ship, Lafayette scrambled to get someone to consent to his leaving. He was ultimately unsuccessful.

De Kalb was all set to sail without Lafayette, but France’s ministry pulled permission at the last minute, wishing to appear neutral to the conflict. This forced the ‘baron’ to return to Paris. The initial party of hopefuls disbanded, but Lafayette and de Kalb were determined to try again. It was decided that Laf would buy a ship to avoid further unnecessary complications and, after a few weeks in London, Johann sent him word that they were ready to get underway. Lafayette raced back to France, made his excuses and wrote his farewell letters, and climbed aboard the ‘Victoire’ (the ‘Victory’) to set sail for America.

There were a few other complications, but eventually the group reached land. De Kalb wrote about the seasickness of the younger men, including Lafayette, in an amused tone in letters to home. Once on land, however, the group finally (and hilariously, but that’s another post) made it to Congress…where they were quickly denied the commissions Silas Deane promised them. After some negotiations and concessions, Lafayette was accepted as a major-general in the army, but the ‘baron’ and the other officers that had arrived with them remained in limbo. The Marquis began pulling some strings, and six days before being wounded at the Battle of Brandywine, Lafayette secured de Kalb’s position as a major-general.

The two had a good relationship and Lafayette greatly admired the ‘baron’. Based on Johann’s tone in his writings, the older man viewed Lafayette as a young man full of ideas bigger than he was and often wrote in a somewhat endearing, somewhat sarcastic way about the young French nobleman. De Kalb was often frustrated by the lack of seniority he received during the American campaign, but he was a brave man and was mourned by the Marquis and countless others when he was killed at Camden, August 19, 1780. His horse had been killed under him and when he stood, Johann was hit with three musket balls. The British then fell upon his position and by the end, eight stab wounds via bayonet finally took him. 

Johann de Kalb had this to say about Lafayette: 

On the whole, I have annoyances to bear, of which you can hardly form a conception. One of them is the mutual jealousy of almost all the French officers, particularly against those of higher rank than the rest. These people think of nothing but their incessant intrigues and backbitings. They hate each other like the bitterest enemies, and endeavor to injure each other wherever an opportunity offers. I have given up their society, and very seldom see them. La Fayette is the sole exception; I always meet him with the same cordiality and the same pleasure. He is an excellent young man, and we are good friends… La Fayette is much liked, he is on the best of terms with Washington.

Εσυ,εσυ που διαβαζεις το κειμενο γιατι κανεις διαλλειμα απο το διαβασμα για τις πανελληνιες.Εσυ που χεις μαθει τι ωρα κατουρουσε ο Πλατωνας και τι ωρα κοιμοταν ο Πλωτινος.Εσυ τσακαλε που χεις μαθει 40 διαφορετικα πραγματα για τα κυματα της Φυσικης και για τις συχνοτητες των ηλεκτρομαγνητικων,εσυ που χεις πηξει στο Θ.Μ.Τ. και στο Rolle.Εσυ κοπελια που ξεσκιζεσαι στην χημεια για να μαθεις για τον Bohr,τον De Broglie και τον Rutherford.Εσυ φιλε/φιλη που προγραμματιζεις με κλειστα ματια και λες απεξω το ΑΟΘ για καλημερα.
Για ολους εμας που δινουμε Πανελληνιες και οσους θα δωσουν,υπομονη.Τα ονειρα θελουν προσπαθεια,δουλεια,παθος και ορεξη.Εφτασες ως τα 18 αισιως και περασες απο 40 κυματα,δεν θα λυγισεις τωρα.Τα λεμε το καλοκαιρι σε καποια πλατεια της Αθηνας,σε καποια ταβερνα της Θεσσαλονικης στο λιμανι του Βολου η σε οποιο μερος βρισκεστε.Υπομονη,ορεξη,αγαπη και μπυρες.Καλη μας δυναμη!