david m. rubenstein

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生日快乐 🎂 Happy 19th Birthday 🐼 Mei Xiang 👏👏👏 by MyFoto:)
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David M. Rubenstein Family Giant Panda Habitat, Smithsonian’s National Zoological Park, Washington, DC Mei Xiang was born on July 22, 1998 at China’s Wolong National Nature Reserve.

Magna Carta

Eight hundred years ago on June 15, 1215, in a field at Runnymede, King John of England affixed his seal to Magna Carta. Confronted by 40 rebellious barons, he consented to their demands in order to avert civil war. 

Magna Carta was written by a group of 13th-century barons to protect their rights and property against a tyrannical king. It is concerned with many practical matters and specific grievances relevant to the feudal system under which they lived. The interests of the common man were hardly apparent in the minds of the men who brokered the agreement.  It also failed to resolve the conflict between King John and his barons, and was reissued several times after his death.  But principles expressed in Magna Carta resonate to this day.

During the American Revolution, Magna Carta served to inspire and justify action in liberty’s defense. The colonists believed they were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen, rights guaranteed in Magna Carta. They embedded those rights into the laws of their states and later into the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

The document, written on parchment in 1297 with iron gall ink, is one of four surviving 1297 versions of Magna Carta in the world today and is on display at the National Archives, courtesy of philanthropist David M. Rubenstein.  

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The Emancipation Proclamation will be on display for just three days this month: February 15, 16, and 17.

Due to its fragile condition, it can only be displayed for a limited time each year. The document will be on display in the new David M. Rubenstein Gallery in the National Archives Building in Washington, DC.

You can read the transcription, or download “The Meaning and Making of Emancipation,” a free eBook created by the National Archives for your iPad, iPhone, Nook, or other electronic device.

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Letter from Margaret Austin Stone of the National Committee to Defeat the Un-Equal Rights Amendment and to Promote Equal Opportunities, to Representative Hatton Sumners, 5/21/1945

Records of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789 - 2015

Circulated by the “National Committee to Defeat the Un-Equal Rights Amendment,” this brochure charged that the ERA was “vague and legally unsound,” “unnecessary,” and “dangerous.”  

First introduced in 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment would finally pass both houses of Congress in 1972, but ultimately fell 3 states short of ratification by the 1982 deadline.  This brochure and other records from the proposed ERA are featured in the the Records of Rights exhibit in the David M. Rubenstein Gallery at the National Archives in Washington, DC. 

Read more at Prologue: Failure of the Equal Rights Amendment: The Feminist Fight of the 1970s 

The four surviving original copies of the 1215 Magna Carta have been brought together for the first time in London. Can’t get to London?

You can still see Magna Carta at the National Archives in Washington, DC.

On June 15, 1215, in a field at Runnymede, King John affixed his seal to Magna Carta. Confronted by 40 rebellious barons, he had consented to their demands in order to avert civil war.

The interests of the common man were hardly apparent in the minds of the men who brokered the agreement. But there are two principles expressed in Magna Carta that resonate to this day:

“No freeman shall be taken, imprisoned, disseised, outlawed, banished, or in any way destroyed, nor will We proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.”

Although Magna Carta failed to resolve the conflict between King John and his barons, it was reissued several times after his death.
The document on display at the entrance of the David M. Rubenstein Gallery at the National Archives is one of four surviving originals of the 1297 Magna Carta.

During the American Revolution, Magna Carta served to inspire and justify action in liberty’s defense. The colonists believed they were entitled to the same rights as Englishmen, rights guaranteed in Magna Carta. They embedded those rights into the laws of their states and later into the Constitution and Bill of Rights.

The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution (“no person shall … be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”) is a direct descendent of Magna Carta’s guarantee of proceedings according to the “law of the land.”

Magna Carta courtesy of David M. Rubenstein.

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Bei Bei by Smithsonian’s National Zoo
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Caption: Bei Bei inside the David M. Rubenstein Family Giant Panda Habitat in April 2016. Photo: Skip Brown/Smithsonian’s National Zoo.

The warning of the right to remain silent must be accompanied by the explanation that anything said can and will be used against the individual in court. This warning is needed in order to make him aware not only of the privilege, but also of the consequences of forgoing it.
— 

Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona, 06/13/1966

File Unit: Appellate Jurisdiction Case File Miranda v. Arizona, 1965 - 1966Series: Appellate Jurisdiction Case Files, 1792 - 2010Record Group 267: Records of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1772 - 2007

In 1963, Ernesto Miranda was arrested in Arizona and charged with kidnapping, robbery, and rape. When questioned by police, Miranda confessed. He was tried and convicted based on his confession. Miranda appealed his conviction to the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled in 1966 that statements made by the accused may not be admitted in court without procedural safeguards. Page 31 from the decision describes two of those safeguards—the accused’s right to remain silent and to have an attorney present during questioning. Selected pages are shown.  (via DocsTeach)

Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona, 06/13/1966, p.1.

Opinion of the Court by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the Case of Miranda v. Arizona, 06/13/1966, p. 31


The Supreme Court’s 1966 order reversing the Arizona Supreme Court’s decision to uphold Ernesto Miranda’s conviction is now featured at  the Records of Rights exhibit in the David M. Rubenstein Gallery at the National Archives in Washington, DC through June 15, 2016.

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Bei Bei at Smithsonian National Zoo by MyAngel 27
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Photo by National Zoo: Bei Bei Becomes More Independent This panda update was written by keeper Marty Dearie. As of December 7, Bei Bei weighed about 16 pounds (7.32 kg). Even though he’s grown exponentially over the last few months, he still won’t be eating bamboo for a while. However, he has started to mouth it, which is typical of a cub his age. Bei Bei’s teeth are continuing to come in, but we’re not sure if he experiences teething the way human babies do. When we hand-raised our sloth bear cub Remi, we noticed that she experienced discomfort when her teeth were coming in. Since keepers do not have constant, direct contact with Bei Bei, it is hard to definitively tell if he is experiencing something similar. During the day when keepers are present, we’ve noticed that Mei Xiang spends most of the day separate from Bei Bei. This is natural and a good indication of his increasing independence. Keepers will begin training Bei Bei soon with simple behaviors that will aid in basic husbandry, specifically name recognition and touching a target. The David M. Rubenstein Family Giant Panda Habitat has been closed to the public since Aug. 20 to provide quiet, and will remain closed until Bei Bei’s public debut on January 16. Prior to the debut, you can see Bei Bei on the panda cam, sponsored by the Ford Motor Company Fund. Don’t forget to follow @smithsonianzoo on Instagram for more photos and videos with the hashtag #PandaStory!