david alfaro

‘Las fechas en la Historia de México o el derecho a la cultura’ escultopintura por David Alfaro Siqueiros, La Rectoria, Ciudad Universitaria (UNAM), México DF 1952

Arqs. Mario Pani y Enrique del Moral

Foto. Martin L Vargas

Sculptural mural 'Dates in the history of Mexico or the right to culture’ by David Alfaro Siqueiros, the Rectory Building, UNAM, Mexico City 1952

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José Clemente Orozco (November 23, 1883 – September 7, 1949) was a Mexican painter, who specialized in political murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others. Orozco was the most complex of the Mexican muralists, fond of the theme of human suffering, but less realistic and more fascinated by machines than Rivera. Mostly influenced by Symbolism, he was also a genre painter and lithographer. Between 1922 and 1948, Orozco painted murals in Mexico City, Orizaba, Claremont, California, New York City, Hanover, New Hampshire, Guadalajara, Jalisco, and Jiquilpan, Michoacán. His drawings and paintings are exhibited by the Carrillo Gil Museum in Mexico City, and the Orozco Workshop-Museum in Guadalajara. Orozco was known for being a politically committed artist and promoted the political causes of peasants and workers.

José Clemente Orozco was born in 1883 in Zapotlán el Grande (now Ciudad Guzmán), Jalisco to Rosa de Flores Orozco. He married Margarita Valladares, and had three children. At the age of 21, Orozco lost his left hand while working with gunpowder to make fireworks.


The satirical illustrator José Guadalupe Posada, whose engravings about Mexican culture and politics challenged Mexicans to think differently about post-revolutionary Mexico, worked in full view of the public in shop windows located on the way Orozco went to school. In his autobiography, Orozco confesses, “I would stop [on my way to and from school] and spend a few enchanted minutes in watching [Posada]… This was the push that first set my imagination in motion and impelled me to cover paper with my earliest little figures; this was my awakening to the existence of the art of painting” (Orozco, 1962). He goes on to say that watching Posada’s engraving decorated gave him his introduction to the use of color. After attending school for Agriculture and Architecture, Orozco studied art at the Academy of San Carlos. He worked as an illustrator for Mexico City newspapers and directly as an illustrator for one of the Constitutionalist armies overseen by “First Chief” Venustiano Carranza. When the revolutionary factions split in 1914 after Victoriano Huerta was ousted, Orozco supported Carranza and General Álvaro Obregón against Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.

With Diego Rivera, he was a leader of the artist movement known as Mexican Muralism. An important distinction he had from Rivera was his darker view of the Mexican Revolution. While Rivera was a bold, optimistic figure, touting the glory of the revolution, Orozco was less comfortable with the bloody toll the social movement was taking. Orozco is known as one of the “Big Three” muralists along with Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. All three artists, as well as the painter Rufino Tamayo, experimented with fresco on large walls, and elevated the art of the mural.


Between 1922–1924, Orozco painted the murals: “Maternity”, “Man in Battle Against Nature”, “Christ Destroys His Cross”, “Destruction of the Old Order”, “The Aristocrats”, and “The Trench and the Trinity” at the National Preparatory School. Some of the murals were destroyed by Orozco himself, and later repainted. Others were vandalized by conservative students and practically destroyed. Thus, Orozco had to repaint many of them when he came back to the School in 1926. 1925, he painted the mural “Omniscience” at Mexico City’s House of Tiles. In 1926, he painted a mural at the Industrial School in Orizaba, Veracruz.


Between 1927–1934 Orozco lived in the USA. Even after the fall of the stock market in 1929, his works were still in demand. From March to June 1930, at the invitation of the Pomona College Art Department, he painted what he noted was the “first fresco painted outside the country by a painter of the Contemporary Mexican School.”  The fresco, Prometheus (Prometeo del Pomona College), on the wall of a Pomona College dining hall, was direct and personal at a time when murals were expected to be decorous and decorative, and has been called the first “modern” fresco in the United States.[7] Later that year, he painted murals at the New School for Social Research, New York City, now known as the New School University. One of his most famous murals is The Epic of American Civilization at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, USA. It was painted between 1932 and 1934 and covers almost 300 m² (3200 square feet) in 24 panels. Its parts include: “Migrations”, “Human Sacrifices”, “The Appearance of Quetzalcoatl”, “Corn Culture”, “Anglo-America”, “Hispano-America”, “Science” and “Modern Migration of the Spirit” (another version of “Christ Destroys His Cross”).

After returning to Mexico in 1935, Orozco painted in Guadalajara, Jalisco, the mural “The People and Its Leaders” in the Government Palace, and the frescos for the Hospicio Cabañas, which are considered his masterpiece. In 1940 he painted at the Gabino Ortiz Library in Jiquilpan, Michoacán. Between 1942–1944 Orozco painted for the Hospital de Jesús in Mexico City. Orozco’s 1948 “Juárez Reborn” huge portrait-mural was one of his last works.

In 1947, Orozco illustrated the book The Pearl, by John Steinbeck.

Orozco died in 1949 in Mexico City.

List of Paintrist by Country

The second list Italy to USA

Italy

  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Sandro Botticelli
  • Filippo Lippi
  • Francesco Pesellino
  • Antonello da Messina
  • Giovanni Bellini
  • Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis
  • Andrea Mantegna
  • Piero del Pollaiuolo
  • Ambrosius Benson
  • Raphael
  • Michelangelo
  • Guido Reni
  • Giorgione
  • Titian
  • Vincenzo Campi
  • Bernardino Campi
  • Lavinia Fontana
  • Lucia Anguissola
  • Sofonisba Anguissola
  • Francesco Bassano
  • Leandro Bassano
  • Jacopo Bassano
  • Caravaggio
  • Antonio Marziale Carracci
  • Annibale Carracci
  • Agostino Carracci
  • Lodovico Carracci
  • Giuseppe Arcimboldo
  • Paolo Veronese
  • Tintoretto
  • Domenichino
  • Tiberio Tinelli
  • Orazio Gentileschi
  • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • Francesco Furini
  • Canaletto
  • Bernardo Bellotto
  • Francisco Guardi
  • Giovanni Paolo Panini
  • Luca Carlevarijs
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Giovanni Battista Piranesi
  • Giuseppe Bernardino Bison
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Sylvester Shchedrin
  • Angelica Kauffman
  • Giulio Rosati
  • Galileo Chini
  • Giovanni Boldini
  • Federico Zandomeneghi
  • Giuseppe De Nittis
  • Serafino de Tivoli
  • Telemaco Signorini
  • Giuseppe Abbati
  • Silvestro Lega
  • Giovanni Fattori
  • Odoardo Borrani
  • Vito d’ancona
  • Vincenzo Cabianca
  • Angelo Morbelli
  • Eugene de Blaas
  • Domenico Morelli
  • Giacomo Balla
  • Luigi Russolo
  • Carlo Carrà
  • Umberto Boccioni
  • Gino Severini
  • Fortunato Depero
  • Amedeo Modigliani
  • Gianni Strino

Japan

  • Hiroshige
  • Utagawa Kuniyoshi
  • Katsushika Hokusai

Lithuania

  • Mstislav Dobuzhinsky
  • Isaac Ilyich Levitan

Mexico

  • Dr. Atl
  • Nahui Olin
  • Rufino Tamayo
  • Roberto Montenegro
  • David Alfaro Siqueiros
  • José Clemente Orozco
  • Joaquin Clausell
  • Diego Rivera
  • Frida Kahlo

Netherlands

  • Pieter Aertsen
  • Jan Steen
  • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • Hendrik Goltzius
  • Frans Hals
  • Ferdinand Bol
  • Willem van Mieris
  • Pieter Mulier, the Elder
  • Jacob Ferdinand Voet
  • Levina Teerlinc
  • Catharina van Hemessen
  • Judith Leyster
  • Pieter de Hooch
  • Gerrit Dou
  • Hans Bollongier
  • Jacob van Ruisdael
  • Godfried Schalcken
  • Jan Vermeer
  • Jan van der Vaart
  • Gaspar van Wittel
  • Joachim Wtewael
  • Gabriel Metsu
  • Vincent van Gogh
  • Johan Barthold Jongkind
  • Andreas Schelfhout
  • Wijnand Nuijen
  • Anthonie Waldorp
  • Bartholomeus van Hove
  • Johannes Bosboom
  • Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch
  • Jacob Maris
  • Matthijs Maris
  • Willem Maris
  • Paul Gabriel
  • Jozef Israels
  • Johannes Hubertus Leonardus de Haas
  • Gerard Bilders
  • Anton Mauve
  • Willem Roelofs
  • lawrence alma-tadema
  • Hendrik Willem Mesdag
  • George Hitchcock
  • Floris Arntzenius
  • Isaac Israels
  • George Hendrik Breitner
  • Jan Toorop
  • Heinrich Campendonk
  • Jan Sluyters
  • Kees van Dongen
  • Theo van Doesburg
  • Piet Mondrian
  • Willem de Kooning
  • Toon Hermans

New Zealand

  • John Buckland Wright

Norway

  • Peder Balke
  • Karl Edvard Diriks
  • Edvard Munch
  • Helene Knoop
  • Christian Krohg
  • Oda Krohg Lasson
  • Jonas Lie
  • Eilif Peterssen
  • Harald Oskar Sohlberg
  • Frits Thaulow
  • Erik Werenskiold

Poland

  • Henryk Berlewi
  • Tamara de Lempicka
  • Edward Okun
  • Wojciech Weiss

Portugal

  • José Malhoa
  • Josefa de Óbidos

Romania

  • Mihai Criste

Russia

  • Karl Bryullov
  • Sylvester Shchedrin
  • Ivan Aivazovsky
  • Alexey Tyranov
  • Valentin Serov
  • Ilya Repin
  • Grigoriy Myasoyedov
  • Konstantin Savitsky
  • Vasily Polenov
  • Nikolai Nevrev
  • Vasily Surikov
  • Vladimir Makovsky
  • Alexander Litovchenko
  • Ivan Shishkin
  • Konstantin Makovsky
  • Ivan Kramskoi
  • Alexander Beggrov
  • Nikolai Yaroshenko
  • Mikhail Clodt
  • Isaac Levitan
  • Nikolay Dubovskoy
  • Alexey Bogolyubov
  • Konstantin Korovin
  • Abram Efimovich Arkhipov
  • Sergei Malyutin
  • Vasili Vereshchagin
  • Zinaida Serebriakova
  • Arkhip Kuindzhi
  • Boris Grigoriev
  • Leon Samoilovitch Bakst
  • Konstantin Somov
  • Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois
  • Boris Kustodiev
  • Mstislav Dobuzhinsky
  • Alexander Kiselev
  • Eugene Lanceray
  • Igor Grabar
  • Osip Braz
  • Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin
  • Nicholas Roerich
  • Mikhail Vrubel
  • Yury Annenkov
  • Ilya Mashkov
  • Pyotr Konchalovsky
  • Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva
  • Filipp Malyavin
  • Nikolai Ivanovich Kulbin
  • Dmitry Kardovsky
  • Serge Sudeykin
  • Kazimir Malevich
  • Leonid Pasternak
  • Natalia Goncharova
  • Mikhail Larionov
  • Michael Cheval
  • Marc Chagall
  • Wassily Kadinsky
  • Alexej von Jawlensky
  • Marianne von Werefkin
  • Vladimir Gusev
  • Aleksandr Deyneka
  • Leonid Afremov

Spain

  • El Greco
  • Diego Velazquez
  • Juan del Castillo
  • Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra
  • Francisco de Zurbarán
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
  • Francisco Ribalta
  • Josefa de Óbidos
  • Hyacinthe Rigaud
  • Francisco Goya
  • Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña
  • Luis Ricardo Falero
  • Enrique Simonet
  • Rafael Romero de Barros
  • Julio Romero de Torres
  • Joaquín Sorolla
  • José Villegas Cordero
  • Emilio Sala
  • Jose Jimenez Aranda
  • Daniel Vázquez Díaz
  • Salvador Dali
  • Pablo Picasso
  • Juan Gris
  • Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa

Sweden

  • Knut Ekwall
  • Richard Bergh
  • Oscar Bjorck
  • Eva Fredrika Bonnier
  • Agnes Cleve
  • Nils Kreuger
  • Johan Krouthen
  • Carl Larsson
  • Karl Nordstrom
  • Louis Sparre
  • Erik Tryggelin
  • Anders Zorn

Swiss

  • Angelica Kauffman
  • Felix Vallotton
  • Ferdinand Hodler
  • Francois Barraud
  • Arnold Bocklin
  • Paul Klee
  • Marianne von Werefkin

Ukraine

  • Yana Movchan
  • Yuriy Shevchuk
  • Ilya Repin
  • Nikolai Yaroshenko

UK

  • Hans Holbein the Younger
  • Levina Teerlinc
  • Anthony van Dyck
  • Sir Godfrey Kneller
  • John Riley
  • George Knapton
  • Thomas Hudson
  • Jonathan Richardson
  • Joshua Reynolds
  • Angelica Kauffman
  • William Hodges
  • Benjamin West
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • William Turner
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • John Constable
  • Robert Salmon
  • James Abbott McNeill Whistler
  • Allan Ramsay
  • Alfred Sisley
  • Alfred Munnings
  • Philip Calderon
  • Cyril Power
  • John William Godward
  • John Reinhard Weguelin
  • John William Waterhouse
  • lawrence alma-tadema
  • Thomas Hill
  • William Holman Hunt
  • John Everett Millais
  • Dante Gabriel Rossetti
  • James Collinson
  • John Atkinson Grimshaw
  • Frank Bramley
  • Albert Chevallier Tayler
  • Samuel John Lamorna Birch
  • Henry Scott Tuke
  • Thomas Cooper Gotch
  • Alfred William Finch
  • Stanhope Alexander Forbes
  • Elizabeth Adela Forbes
  • Harold Knight
  • Laura Knight
  • Harold Harvey
  • Harold Gilman
  • Walter Sickert
  • Spencer Gore
  • Lucien Pissarro
  • Wyndham Lewis
  • Walter Bayes
  • James Bolivar Manson
  • Robert Bevan
  • Henry Lamb
  • Charles Ginner
  • Malcolm Drummond
  • Ducan Grant
  • James Dickson Innes
  • Maxwell Gordon Lightfoot
  • William Ratcliffe
  • Ethel Sands
  • Ethel Walker
  • Anna Hope Hudson
  • Marjorie Sherlock
  • John Nash
  • Paul Nash
  • Anthony Gross
  • Frank Brangwyn
  • John Hodgson Lobley
  • Edward Wadsworth
  • William Ayerst Ingram
  • Dod Procter
  • Ernest Procter
  • Percy Robert Craft
  • Edwin Harris
  • Henry Herbert La Thangue
  • Louise Pickard
  • Allan Douglas Davidson
  • George William Joy
  • Henry Meynell Rheam
  • Walter Langley
  • Augustus John
  • Wilfid de Glehn
  • David Hockney
  • Sherree Valentine-Daines
  • Montague Dawson
  • Charles Napier Hemy

USA

  • Emanuel Leutze
  • Gilbert Stuart
  • John Singleton Copley
  • Charles Willson Peale
  • Benjamin West
  • John trumbull
  • William Ranney
  • Robert Salmon
  • Fitz Henry Lane
  • Wiliam Morris Hunt
  • George Inness
  • William Merritt Chase
  • John White Alexander
  • Regis Francois Gignoux
  • Albert Bierstadt
  • Thomas Cole
  • Frederic Edwin Church
  • Asher Brown Durand
  • John Frederick Kensett
  • Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • John William Casilear
  • Samuel Colman
  • Jasper Francis Cropsey
  • Thomas Doughty
  • Robert Duncanson
  • James McDougal Hart
  • William McDougal Hart
  • William Stanley Haseltine
  • Martin Johnson Heade
  • Hermann Ottomar Herzog
  • Thomas Hill
  • Jervis McEntee
  • David Johnson
  • Thomas Moran
  • Robert Walter Weir
  • Thomas Worthington Whittredge
  • Virgilio Tojetti
  • Mary Cassatt
  • James Abbott McNeill Whistler
  • John Singer Sargent
  • Carroll Beckwith
  • Frederic Remington
  • Jonas Lie
  • Thomas Hovenden
  • Thomas Eakins
  • Frederick Carl Frieseke
  • Henry Ward Ranger
  • Childe Hassam
  • Arthur Clifton Goodwin
  • Guy Rose
  • Charles Frederic Ulrich
  • Julian Onderdonk
  • Philip Leslie Hale
  • Soren Emil Carlsen
  • John Henry Twachtman
  • Julian Alden Weir
  • Robert Reid
  • Willard Metcalf
  • Frank Weston Benson
  • Edmund Tarbell
  • Thomas Dewing
  • Joseph DeCamp
  • Thomas Anshutz
  • George Bellows
  • William Glackens
  • Robert Henri
  • George Benjamin Luks
  • Granville Redmond
  • John French Sloan
  • Guy Carleton Wiggins
  • Everett Shinn
  • Reynolds Beal
  • Gifford Beal
  • John Grabach
  • Jerome Myers
  • lyonel feininger
  • Daniel Garber
  • Robert Carpenter Spencer
  • John Fulton Folinsbee
  • Walter Emerson Baum
  • Rae Sloan Bredin
  • George William Sotter
  • Nate Dunn
  • Fern Isabel Coppedge
  • Edward Willis Redfield
  • Walter Elmer Schofield
  • Roy Cleveland Nuse
  • Mary Elizabeth Price
  • William Langson Lathrop
  • Charles Rosen
  • Morgan Colt
  • Colin Campbell Cooper
  • Thomas Alexander Harrison
  • Lovell Birge Harrison
  • Eugene Speicher
  • George Hitchcock
  • Edward Simmons
  • Maurice Prendergast
  • Frank Duveneck
  • Edmund Greacen
  • Charles Courtney Curran
  • Jane Erin Emmet de Glehn
  • Francis Coates Jones
  • Hugh Bolton Jones
  • Horace Wolcott Robbins
  • Robert Wylie
  • Neil Welliver
  • Burgoyne Diller
  • Josef Albers
  • Theresa Bernstein
  • John Fabian Carlson
  • William Wendt
  • Charles Herbert Woodbury
  • John Christen Johansen
  • Ernest Lawson
  • Winslow Homer
  • Frederik Vezin
  • Matthias Alten
  • Paul Landacre
  • Albert Bloch
  • Stuart Davis
  • Mary Agnes Yerkes
  • Leon Kroll
  • Francis Luis Mora
  • Edward Hopper
  • Elaine de Kooning
  • Lee Krasner
  • Arshile Gorky
  • Jackson Pollock
  • Mark Rothko
  • Barnett Newman
  • Roy Lichtenstein
  • Andy Warhol
  • Raphael Soyer
  • Moses Soyer
  • Isaac Soyer
  • David Hockney
  • Guy Pene du Bois
  • Peggy Bacon
  • Albert Ernest “Beanie” Backus
  • Frank Frazetta
  • Andrew Wyeth
  • Malcolm T. Liepke

A Paintrist can belong to more then one country!

This is a list in progress …

Hagamos menos énfasis en los aspectos locales y más énfasis en los aspectos que nos unen, racialmente, históricamente, en relación con nuestros opresores de ayer, desde ayer, del presente. Entonces por ahí vamos caminando muy bien. Tendremos luchas, tendremos muchos combates, incomprensiones, pero por ahí vamos adelante y vamos muy bien, hacia un arte que no sea sordomudo, como yo he dicho muchas veces, sino que hable un lenguaje.
—  David Alfaro Siqueiros