In search of memory storage

The hippocampus plays a crucial role in memory formation. However, it is not yet fully understood in what way that brain structure’s individual regions are involved in the formation of memories. Neuroscientists at the Collaborative Research Center 874 at RUB have recreated this process with the aid of computer simulations. Their findings challenge the model of memory forming in the hippocampus established to date. Their results have been published in the journal “PLOS Computational Biology”.

Unique anatomy of the hippocampus

The hippocampus’ importance for memory forming becomes evident once that brain structure is damaged: information no longer arrives in the long-term memory; everything that happened longer than a few minutes ago is forgotten. The hippocampus’ remarkable anatomy, from which it derives its name (hippocampus=seahorse), supports its functional principle. It is made up of several distinct regions: the information first arrive at the so-called “Gyrus dentatus”. From here, the neurons transmit to the “Cornu Ammonus” region CA3, which, in turn, projects to CA1. Neuroscientists assume that the CA3 region is where memories are stored.

Functional model traces the path of memory

Based on that anatomical structure, a functional model of the hippocampus has been developed in the last years and tested with the aid of computer simulations. The hippocampus initially reduces information from the cerebral cortex, turning them into small distinctive memory pieces. The process is called “pattern separation”. The memory pieces are subsequently transmitted to the CA3 region and saved. The CA3 region is assumed to fulfil an auto-associative function. That means it is capable of deriving complete information from a short note. The technical term for this process is “pattern completion”. In the next step, the CA1 region is responsible for transmitting the complete information back to the cerebral cortex, where it is retrieved as a memory.

Hippocampus regions work together not the way we assumed

RUB neuroscientists Torsten Neher, Prof Dr Sen Cheng and Prof Dr Laurenz Wiskott have now calculated on the basis of a number of computer simulations that this model has to be fundamentally reconsidered. Using an artificial neuronal network, based on a rat hippocampus, they have tested in what way the information is processed by the network, where it is stored and how it is retrieved as memory. Their results have demonstrated that the CA1 region is probably more strongly involved in the completion of memory stimuli than has been assumed to date. Thus, memories could be decoded even without the highly dendritic neurons of the CA3 region.

Researchers surprised

Moreover, memories do exist that cannot be separated – most specifically those that help us navigate through a familiar environment. For this purpose, mental maps are generated in the CA3 region which depict distances and relations. In this case, an auto-associative approach, based on information not resembling each other, would inhibit the memory process. “It did surprise us to see that the system works so much more efficiently without pattern completion in CA3. After all, it challenges a model that has been established for more than 20 years,” says Torsten Neher.

Capacities for other tasks

The RUB researchers’ computer model suggests that storage and decoding of information happens for the most part between the cerebral cortex and CA1. This, in turn, opens up CA3 capacities for other important tasks which are now to be studied. This hippocampus region could, for example, be able to project sequences of autobiographic memories.


Ancient Worlds - BBC Two

Episode 5 “The Republic of Virtue”

SPQR “Senatus Populusque Romanus” (Senate and people of Rome)

This phrase was the source of all authority for the actions of the Roman Republic. The date of establishment of the official monogram of the Republic is unknown (but it cannot be dated earlier than the foundation of the Republic). It first appears in inscriptions of the Late Republic and continued in use under the Roman Empire.

The Senate and the Roman people, the two entities mentioned, are sovereign when combined. However, where Populus is sovereign alone, Senatus is not. The Romans believed that all authority came from the people; the Roman people appear very often in law and history. SPQR was a reminder of the new republic after noblemen overthrew the corrupt kings. SPQR made Roman citizens feel as if they had a voice and control in the government but it also  masked all the unresolved tensions between the strong and the weak, the powerful and the powerless.

SPQR was inscribed on Ancient Roman public buildings, on the base of the legion’s eagle standards, money, and public places.

The initials are used as an official emblem of the modern-day municipality of Rome and can still be seen all over the city today.

Rome, Italy

Date someone that you can have sex with and then discuss how chicken noodle is the sup of soups.

ocentropy asked:

Hello! I have a story that takes place in 1992. While this isn't important to the plot, it is essential for world-building (why there are very few cellphones, why there are scrunchies, ect.). I should probably mention the exact date early on so that there is no confusion, but I don't want it to be clumsy (reading of a newspaper date, someone mentioning specific numbers for no reason, ect.). Thoughts?

1. Use historical events to establish the date. 

If it’s set in America, then 1992 was the year of the election in which Bill Clinton defeated George H. W. Bush for the presidency. 

2. Use pop culture.

In 1992, Kurt Cobain married Courtney Love and Nirvana was in the middle of its peak with Nevermind at the top of the charts.

3. Just tell the reader.

If you just include the date at the beginning of the story as a header, the reader will accept it and move on. It’s not clumsy, and it’s pretty accepted as a narrative tool.

anonymous asked:

Do you use Tinder for pots? If so do you use your real name?

I use Tinder to date older, established men but its difficult to find a sd on there in my opinion. I have had success with linking up with some potentials on there recently, but since i have my bf Bill I’ve gotten lazy and don’t really feel like putting in the work to keep up with these men, find out their wealth, swoon them, and all that jazz. Lol

To me, Tinder is like digital freestyling. You have to work towards moving the relationship in the direction of a sugar relationship gradually as to not scare the man off and forever be labeled as a “gold digger”.

But if you insist, this is the criteria that I look for:
Age: 35+
Look for pics of him in a suit, nice car, exotic destinations, and silver hair. ;)
Contact the ones who have actually taken the time to put something in the About Me section and look for proper grammar.

Good luck. Xo

kristsune asked:

Omg, is there any way you could write a sequel to the 101dalmations au? First date? Established relationship? Whichever you prefer,I just know I need more :D

Sure! Went with the first date!


The next day, Arthur was just as anxious for six o'clock as Ham was.

He changed this time - jeans, sneakers and a t-shirt. A clean one. The first one he threw on was filthy and wrinkled. It was his plain shirt that he put on to walk Ham most days. He brushed his hair and did his best to look casual yet, desirable.

Ten to six, Arthur put on Ham’s leash and they went for their walk. They waited at the entrance of the park where he always came in and he swore to himself that if Eames didn’t show up in five minutes, he would go ahead and forget that awkward meeting. Imagine his surprise when he got there and Eames and Woody were already at the gate.

They walked around the park together, Woody and Ham out in front, walking happily as their owners talked. And talked and talked. Arthur couldn’t believe how much he and Eames had in common - music, movies, books, coffee and tea, food, love of dogs. Eames was a designer and he was training to do a triathlon, which is why he was riding the bike with Woody the other day. Arthur told him how he was an editor in a small publishing company and he liked the job and he always walked Ham at the park.

By the time they made two laps around the park, Eames got his cell phone number and they set up another date to have dinner together the following evening.

“If you’d like, you can come by my place. Bring Woody and we’ll have dinner.”

Eames agreed.

The following evening, Arthur got off work a little earlier and went to the grocery store to buy things for dinner, cleaned up and then walked Ham before starting dinner. Eames and Woody showed up at eight on the dot and Arthur let them in, Woody and Ham instantly excited to see each other, sniffing and jumping around each other and Arthur welcomed him in.

“Would you like a glass of wine?”

“Sure. i love your home.”

“Thank you.”

Eames took off his jacket and Arthur sighed a bit at the sight of a tattoo on his collarbone that peeked out. They had a glass of wine and settled down on the couch and talked more, Arthur getting more and  more smitten by the moment…so much so that he completely forgot about dinner. In fact, he didn’t remember it until Woody and Ham began barking at the smoke coming from the stove top and the fire alarm began beeping loudly. Arthur panicked and got up fast, his glass tipping over and shattering, causing more barking. He ran into the kitchen and grabbed a dish towel and wrapping it around his hand as he picked up the frying pan and dunked it in the sink, putting out the small fire that started from their burned chicken. He coughed as the smoke began filling the kitchen, waving his hand back and forth in front of his face and Eames opened a window for him. Arthur blushed, feeling embarrassed that he invited his date over for dinner only to burn it because he got distracted…by his date. Eames laughed a bit and smiled, looking at Arthur as he asked,

“You alright?”


“It’s alright, it happens.”

“Yeah but…”

“Hey, it’s alright. Wanna grab some pizza?”

Arthur sighed, still embarrassed but said,


They cleaned up first, making sure the place was clean of smoke, the burned and ruined food was dumped in the trash and the pieces of glass were picked up, the wine mopped up. It made Arthur feel even worse, having his date clean up after him. As soon as they finished, they put the leashes on their dogs and went for a walk to the near by pizza place. Arthur paid, saying it was the least he could do. Eames just smiled, shaking his head at him as he tore off a piece of his crust, feeding it to Woody.

And that was their first date.

Excuse me but… it’s a real thing???

Is it just me or is it not good dating etiquette for the asker to plan the date?

Look I get it, dates are hard. But you thought I was worth a date so you better be prepared to make the plans too.

Anton Polyakov

Anton Polyakov (b. 1990, Tirsapol) is a freelance photographer, living and working in his birth city. The small town is the capital of Transnistria – the unrecognized Republic, legally part of Moldova but not actually controlled by it. Anton’s date of birth coincides with the date of establishment of the Republic which is located between Moldova and Ukraine and in political terms is considered…

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So, I can’t express excitement in the real world because the fighting community is small and stuff can fall through at any second, but the relatively anonymous world of Tumblr is fair game, so… I may finally get to fight!!!!!! SCREEEE!!!!

My coaches found me a prospective opponent! Finding an opponent is pretty hard because of all the criteria that have to be met, such as weight class and experience and the like.

This is very tenuous. There is no set date on an established fight card or anything, just kind of a general nod in each other’s direction. She could change her mind, or one of us could get hurt and have to pull out. I’ve seen it happen with a lot of the guys I train with. Still and all, even the faint hope of a fight is a huge deal for me. My fingers are crossed so hard right now.

Hey rebels! Another shameless plug! Being the awesome, awesome community lezworld is, we are hosting an event for the benefit of Janet, one of our members battling cervical cancer, entrance fee is 300php, 100 for food and drinks and 200 will be donated to janet. There’ll be music, beerpong and lots of new friends awaiting.

June 20, 9pm @Rehab Gastrobar

Also visit us on and join our community, we’re not a dating site but an established community of lesbians, bisexuals and transmen, find friends, support and even family with us! Hope to see you there! (in the event and the chatroom)


Club Meeting Minutes for 6/17/2015 (Night Star and Raspberry Valley)
  • Reminder of upcoming events
    • Raspberry Valley Pony Parade is this coming Sunday!
  • Announcement made regarding a club we are potentially partnering with.
  • Asked for volunteers for a Club Leader and a Riding Instructor for each server.
    • Valentina Rainlord volunteered as Riding Instructor for Raspberry Valley.
    • Clara Sweetstorm volunteered as Riding Instructor for Night Star.
    • We are still in need of Club Leaders. Freja will begin searching for potential candidates next week.
    • Established that there will be a Leaders Meeting (exclusively for Club Owner, Club Leaders, and Riding Instructors) every Sunday at one PM, EST to discuss the upcoming week.
  • The Pink Love Blouse is now officially our club shirt. The rest of the outfit will be officially revealed soon.
  • Meeting dates for next week established.
    • Night Star: General member’s meeting will be at 6 PM EST on Tuesday, 6/23.
    • Raspberry Valley: General member’s meeting will be at 9 PM EST on Wednesday, 6/24.
    • Both meetings are intended for members but will be held in a public location in the hopes of inviting passers by to join us.
  • Members who attended: Clara Sweetstorm, Valentina Rainlord, and Esther Silverwood.

Upcoming Events:

Raspberry Valley Pony Parade - Sunday, June 21st at 6 PM EST - public. We will be meeting at Pony Point to trot our ponies around in a parade from Moorland to Fort Pinta. Bring your favorite pony (or starter horse, if you’re not a Star Rider) and join us for an evening of prancing pony fun! This event is non-Star Rider friendly.

Night Star Club Meeting - Tuesday, June 23 at 6 PM EST - members only. We will be discussing ideas for future club events and projects. Meet at the Fort Pinta Disco area. Come with any ideas you might have for events you’d like us to host!

Raspberry Valley Club Meeting - Wednesday, June 24 at 9 PM EST - members only. We will be discussing ideas for future club events and projects. Meet at the Fort Pint Disco area. Come with any ideas you might have for events you’d like us to host!

June 12, Superman Day ***** 12 de junho, Dia do Superman

Divulgação Warner

Henry Cavill should have received many messages at all because our favorite Superman has a day to celebrate him exclusively.

June 12 is the official superhero day, who since 1938 lives among us. It was on June 12, 2013 that through a partnership between the DC comics publisher and network Sears stores in the United States, was established this date to honor Superman. Two days later was released the film The Man of Steel, with Cavill playing the lead in theaters.

The week also included the re-launch comic  editions and a new HQ magazine with a monthly circulation called Superman Unchained.

Nothing like a day of recognition for one who has super strength, speed, extra sensory powers of vision and regeneration, which is also very intelligent and knows how to fly!

We hope that the iconic red cape is required for many years to Henry. Congratulations!

Henry Cavill deve estar recebendo muitas mensagens afinal, hoje, nosso Superman favorito comemora o seu dia.

Foi no dia 12 de junho de 2013 que através de uma parceria entre a editora DC comics e a rede de lojas Sears dos Estados Unidos, que foi instituída esta data para homenagear o Superman. Dois dias depois foi lançado o filme O Homem de Aço, com Cavill interpretando o papel principal nos cinemas.

A semana contou também com relançamento de edições em quadrinhos e uma nova revista HQ com tiragem mensal, chamada Superman Unchained.

Nada como um dia de reconhecimento para aquele que tem super força, velocidade, poderes extra sensoriais, de visão e de regeneração, é muito inteligente e sabe voar!

Que a capa emblemática seja requisitada por muitos e muitos anos Henry. Parabéns!

by: Fabiana Franzosi -Crazy for Henry Cavill BR

Verse related: REDGRAVE

 (Spanish: dioses de la muerte) is an ancient elite hunters covenant which establishment dates all the way back to the 14th century. Word has it that this guild originated as a death cult which worshiped the ancient God of the Underworld Mictlantecuhtli. They are a guild devoted to eradicate those who turned into Beasts and/or broke the ‘’supernatural law’’ agreement. Amongst all hunter factions Redgrave’s is said to have the most intense & horrid training regimes which pushes the  body human to its absolute limits and participate in rituals and sacrifices which strengthens them beyond the power of an ordinary hunter. Unlike most guilds or factions one can not join Redgrave traditionally. Potential candidates can be ‘’sired’’ by already existing members by making them consume their blood and die whilst it still being in their system it is then that the candidates arrives at Mictlan (The underworld) and Mictlantecuhtli will decide whether they are worthy to resurrect as a Redgrave or die a nameless death. Upon resurrection they will receive his ‘’grace’’ which bestows several unique abilities but the most wanted of all being; ‘’The ability to hunt man without turning into a beast.’’

Armor The traditional armor those who are part of the Redgrave covenant don is greatly influenced by the very god they worship (reference). It is unknown whether or not these garments have any magical properties however.

Unique Techniques

Blood Lust:   Blood Lust is a technique invented by none other than the notorious Beast Hunter Santana Redgrave herself. By studying both Beasts and Mayan codices she discovered how someone can temporally attain a state close to Beasthood whilst remaining in the realm of sanity and man. This particular technique is highly dangerous since it requires the user to temporally abandon their Humanity in order to reach far greater heights. However, despite the undeniable benefiting factors it remains a double-edged blade. If one loses control while Blood Lust is activated they lose control forever.

Vanishing Art:   Is an ancient teleportation technique which allows the user to briefly turn its body   intangible and disperse into a shadowy mist form at will.The distance crossed and how quickly it can be used in succession depends on the user’s mastery of the technique.


I feel like all of my POT updates have been negative, but I want you all to know that the sugar gawds have been sending some sugar my way *in my Fetty Wap voice*

So there’s this Vegan POT that I have been trying to get in contact with for the past week. We finally got to talk on the phone last night and he’s a pretty cool guy. He stays in the suburbs and my dog’s vet is out there so I am going to see him afterwards. The Vegan POT wanted me to come see him on Sunday at his house *red flag* and I was like uhh I’d rather not and he was like it’s okay my kids are here *side eye*. Like bruh I don’t want to meet your kids I’m tryna meet your wallet! Then he offered me $100 to give him a massage. I’m like nah. I literally worked 9 hours on my feet without a break and I had a paper due Sunday night as well. Luckily I was able to get him to get his life together so we are supposed to meet up tonight. I’m a pescatarian so the fact that he’s a black vegan is mind-blowing. Like this dude has been vegan for 25 years…longer than my lifetime lmao! His idea of companionship is doing active sports like kayaking, biking and jogging so this is definitely interesting.

I joined Established Men yesterday and so far my messages have been dry as fuck, but this cute man slid into my messages! His profile was refreshing because he was just basically talking about how he wants to enjoy someone else’s company. I’m so sick of dudes on all of these websites only talking about how “good” they are at sex, how they have a “high” sex drive or how they know how to “please” a woman. He’s a CFO but his income level is not as high as I’d like it to be. I’m just worried that he won’t be able to afford me, but I’m not going to count him out just yet.

It’s crazy though because I have been getting quite a few messages on SA lately, but I am going home for 3 weeks so I will have to keep these POT entertained until I get back!