I thought I’d share my understanding of the P versus NP problem. I had heard a lot about it but never really got into it, and I think it’s interesting to understand what’s going on there because : 1) Some people know about the problem but don’t know what it’s really about 2) People have no idea what researchers search 3) The answer to this problem could mean a lot of things (not just maths-wise) I’ll try to make it clear for everyone, so let’s go !
First some context : back in the day, when computer science started to develop real fast (i think 20th century), we were quickly confronted to the problem of complexity. Every computer had its own capacity and power and it was really hard to tell whether a given algorithm was fast or slow (because it was run differently on every machine) So people needed tools to measure an algorithm’s efficiency, that was the birth of complexity theory and calculability (note that Turing contributed a lot to these) To keep it simple, the idea of complexity is to count the number of operations depending on the size of the input data (size of matrix for instance) You can also consider spatial complexity that basically tells you how much memory is needed for the algorithm to perform correctly
So now we are on the late side of the 20th century and people start optimizing their algorithms. Given a problem, there may be more than one way to find solutions and you obviously want to minimize complexity. And people start noticing something very intriguing : somehow, a certain class of problems seems to have this property that finding solutions requires very high complexity (exponential) but verifying whether we have a solution or not is rather simple (polynomial complexity)
For instance, say we want to solve some equation f(x)=y given a certain function f (x may be anything). Well it occurs quite often that finding solutions (that is an algorithm that takes y as input and returns x such that f(x)=y) is really hard complexity-wise but verifying whether z is a solution of our equation (that is checking if f(z)=y) is rather easy
And that’s exactly the problem underlying the question P=NP : does this class of problems actually admit algorithms that can find solutions in polynomial time ? (in which case we haven’t been smart enough to find out which) This is what P=NP claims. If P≠NP, then this means that this property is inherent to this class of problems, and that finding solutions requires more than polynomial time…
A reformulation of the P=NP claim is as follows : it is as “easy” (again, think complexity) to find a solution randomly as to search for it. Indeed, if i were to find a potential solution, and I check it and it turns out it was a solution of my problem, if this took me polynomial time, then P=NP implies that there exists an algorithm that could have found it in polynomial time as well.
At this point i may have lost a few readers (which i hope not haha) but don’t leave now, even if you didn’t really understand, just remember this : if P=NP, checking and finding solutions to a problem takes the same time
So what is nice about P=NP ? Well obviously, since it is generally easy to come out with an algorithm that checks solutions in polynomial time, that would imply that clever algorithms exist out there, waiting to be discovered, that could find our solutions in roughly the same time. This is particularly important in optimization problems (typically finding a road network that connects a certain number of cities and minimizing total length)
However, though a world where P=NP would be reassuring, most people believe that P≠NP, for some reasons I won’t explain here (one main argument though is the fact we still haven’t found some of these quick algorithms after all the research lead so far)(but i think the people that say that just arent clever or patient enough hahaha)
But lets take some time to enjoy what’s also nice about a world where P≠NP ! I like that it is a way of saying “Human beings aren’t that smart”. It would, just like discovering that the Earth isnt the center of the universe, remind us of how common we are. We are not that special after all, right ? And at the same time, if P=NP, then it means that all the problems we will ever come up with are pretty easy after all and “computable”. So P≠NP gives a sense of humanity because it tells us we aren’t as simple as a computer simulation. We aren’t particularly clever but we surely are unique, and I like how this problem reminds us of this hahaha
Also there’s a 1 million us dollars bounty on P=NP
I hope you read until the end and enjoyed this post, and id be glad to go into further discussions ! And please tell me if you want more content like that, that would be nice
A/N: Art-fic exchange with @patternedclouds. In return for this pretty af piece, here’s a Pharmercy blanket fic as requested. lol
Summary: Fareeha and Angela chase a target to an abandoned monastery in the Kathmandu countryside. They are forced to stay there overnight due to Fareeha’s injury and heavy snowfall, but there is no heater. Just one sleeping bag.
Borrowed their headcanon for Mercy’s cybernetic spine.
Arms clamped around Pharah’s
middle as she kicked the motorcycle engine up a notch, flying down the empty
dirt road in pursuit of their target. Her senses were sharpened to a fine edge,
adrenaline pumping through her veins; there was nothing on her mind but the
black figure ahead, and his datapad of intel crucial to Overwatch’s war against
A small squad had been
dispatched to Kathmandu on a covert mission to obtain this valuable info,
spending weeks just to track the Talon agent down, only to have their
carefully-laid plans get blown clear into the sky. Literally. Just as they
closed in on the agent’s city hideout, the small rundown house was blown apart
by charges on its inner walls. The blast downed a few civilians unfortunate
enough to be standing within range, and Zenyatta promptly went to their aid while Genji sought to stop the flames engulfing the house from spreading
farther. Pharah barely had time to ponder destroyed gas pipes when Mercy
pointed out their target, climbing onto a bike farther down the street. Naturally,
Pharah sprinted back to her own rented bike as well, pausing just long enough
for Mercy to clamber on behind her, and began the chase. They zipped through
the winding city streets, before leaving concrete behind when they entered the
This week, Royal Caribbean took delivery of its newest cruise ship — Harmony of the Seas. At 1,188 feet long and with a gross tonnage of 226,963, the billion-dollar Harmony of the Seas is the largest cruise ship ever built.
Building Blocks of Personality Type - Extraverted Sensing (Se)
by Leona Haas & Mark Hunziker
Dominant for ESTP
ISTP and ISFP
In this chapter,
we seek to present a picture of the “pure” Extraverted Sensing that
we would see if we could carefully remove it from its natural state where it is
influenced and colored by all the other elements of personality. Though no
process actually exists separated from the rest of the personality, the
portrait that follows reflects core characteristics that are in play whenever Extraverted
Sensing is engaged at a conscious level
Extraverted Sensing most clearly resembles the descriptions
in the following pages when it is in the dominant (first) position. In fact,
these descriptions are based on input from people for whom the process is
dominant (ESTP and ESFP). But even with Extraverted Sensing in the first
position, what you observe will vary noticeably depending on other
factors-particularly whether it is paired up with Introverted Thinking or
Introverted Feeling in the auxiliary (second) position
order to draw a complete picture of the “essence” of Extraverted
Sensing, one must use bits and pieces that cannot individually demonstrate
“pure” Se. Like the splashes of color in an impressionist painting,
however, the bullets in this chapter, when taken all together, reveal a vivid
portrait that will enable you to recognize Extraverted Sensing when you see it.
Knowing what the process would look like if it could be separated from other
influences is the foundation of process watching the practice that will quickly
take you as far as you want to go in understanding personality.
Sensing is an information-gathering process. It focuses on the current
objective, external world to fully experience the details of the environment
through the five senses. Se draws energy and enjoyment directly from people,
objects, and events.
Has an outer focus on acquiring information
through the five senses.
Is the only perception process that is not
influenced by associations from the past, present, or future.
Is aware of and connected to the current
Quickly notices objective facts with all the
Relies heavily on unusually accurate visual
perception: seeing is believing.
Values the object itself, not one’s personal
reaction or relationship to it.
Seeks the full sensory experience of the
environment in the moment.
WHAT’S GOING ON?
Looks at things objectively and sees what is
Gathers pure, unfiltered sensory information
from the external world.
Takes in the current environment as a collection
of discrete bits of detailed information.
Constantly seeks variety and novelty as sensory
experiences change from moment to moment.
Needs the immediate sensation of an external
object, person, or event in order to have an experience. There is no experience
without active involvement in the environment through one or more of the
senses. Appreciates vivid details: colors, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures.
Seeks raw, unsorted, unaltered experiences in order to feel alive. Is energized
by the current experience.
people are using their preferred Extraverted Sensing
Their awareness is entirely focused upon the
here and now.
Virtually everything that can be detected by the
senses gets noticed.
The trigger for perception is the current
The world consists only of what can be perceived
by the five senses right now.
Detailed visual perception is particularly
A level of attention is sustained that would
quickly put others on “data overload.”
They do not want to miss anything.
They value practical, hands-on experiences above
Memories from the past and possibilities for the
future are not very important.
They are acutely aware of what is.
Their perceptions are verifiable.
Everything is a new experience. No two moments
or situations are exactly the same.
Anything that is tangible is interesting.
Immediate sensory experience is what life is all
about. It defines one’s existence.
Life is one continual sensual experience.
They are enjoying life to the fullest, living
The current experience itself has intensity.
THE OUTSIDE, LOOKING IN
we experience people who are engaging their preferred extraverted Sensing, they
Seem to need almost constant external
stimulation or they quickly become bored.
Seem to miss nothing and overlook no detail of
the immediate environment.
Can be prone to repeating mistakes by failing to
anticipate what is going to happen in the future as a consequence of what is
Can be reflective, but the reflections are tied
to the current world.
Often have difficulty doing the steps of an
operation in an orderly sequence. They prefer a random, “take it as it
Possess practical, hands-on skills.
Are very down-to-earth, realistic, and
Speak about objective facts: what is there, no
more and no less.
Talk in very literal terms using concrete,
sensory, and descriptive present-tense language: “I smell, I hear, I see.”
Often show attention by focusing their eyes or
tilting their ears or head toward you.
Sometimes can be seen darting their eyes all
around the room, observing everything.
Listen at first to people telling of their
experiences but do not have a need for, or a high interest in, hearing someone
else’s stories. Want information from others but not in too much detail. They
cannot experience the world through other people’s interpretations. Often
listen with intense, focused attention. Their eyes lock on you, following your
every gesture. They may move closer or lean in. They are focused on taking in
information that they may show no reaction to what you are saying.
Pick up on other people’s body language and
other signals and will often automatically mirror them. Tend to use and need nonverbal
communication, such as a smile, a wink, or a touch.
Appear to accept life as it happens. Seem to
relate easily to people, to enjoy being with people. Appear to accept people for
who they are – to have few illusions about them.
Can be perceived as shallow because of their outward
tendency to “go with the flow.” Are always interacting with the environment.
Tend to be quick to assess data and to size up a
situation. Do not seem to feel a need to conform to what others think is
acceptable, assuming that people simply have their own unique styles. Are
usually active, restless, and adventurous. Sometimes seem like hyperactive
children. The immediate environment is constantly stimulating and distracting
them. Are engaging, fun-loving, and social. Are very spontaneous and react quickly
to changes in their environment. Can blend into almost any culture, environment,
perspectives and approaches of Extraverted Sensing
A “live for today” attitude
Learn quickly from experience
An aptitude for learning new languages,
including the subtle details of intonation and gestures
Negotiate by quickly getting to the core of the
Reliability in observing and reporting objective
A knack for being a “mover and shaker”
when it comes to concrete tasks
Can quickly find practical solutions, to find an
immediate fix for a problem
A willingness to help, to play the role of a
descriptions of what it is like to gather information through one’s preferred Extraverted Sensing
I need to actually experience something in order
to understand it. I need to either look at a bicycle or at a picture of a bike
in order to assemble one. Then I can duplicate what I see. Written instructions
are not very helpful.
I personally hate history. I figure if it’s
already happened, then who cares?
I need to see and experience something before I
believe it. I’m the classic “doubting Thomas.”
In a restaurant, I can be completely attentive
to the conversation and interaction at our table and also know everything
that’s going on in other parts of the room.
I let life happen rather than trying to control
As a child I had to touch everything. I still
do. The textures and colors just
I love to be outside, feeling the sun and the
breeze, hearing the insects and the birds. I love the feel of soil on my hands, planting flowers,
and pulling weeds.
The first thing in the morning, I look outside
to check the weather. Then
I turn on the news to see what’s happening in
the rest of the world.
l never watch a taped game or event. If it has
already happened, what is the sense of watching?
Other adults seem to constantly be telling kids “Don’t touch!” “Don’t
put that in your mouth!” But I can relate to the young child’s fascination
with exploring and experiencing the environment.
I don’t do lists, not even grocery lists. What I
buy is what catches my eye.
I walk up and down the aisles looking for items
that look interesting.
I can be observant at the expense of
If you want to get my attention, tell me a story
with concrete images.
Give me the information I need to do the job, and then let me do it.
I show people that I care about them by what I do. Actions speak louder than
Enjoy it, use it, or put up with it.
What you need to know is right in front of you.
I tell it like I see it.
I value my autonomy and flexibility. If any
rules interfere with that, I’ll usually just ignore them.
I like school, but would enjoy it more if we
could change the daily routine. It’s boring to always know what is coming next.
I got into trouble in school
for talking and moving around
a lot. To this day, I have a hard time sitting still.
My style of organization is my own, for example,
it’s hard for me to use someone else’s filing system.
impulsive, and I have a hard time listening to advice from others.
Everything I do is fun. If it isn’t fun, I probably will not do it.
I don’t worry about the future. I deal with stuff when it happens.
Often I do what I do to get reactions from
others. It makes life more interesting.
I tend to jump into the deep end of the pool without thinking.
I’m like the Energizer Bunny: I keep going and going. Sitting still wears me out. If I sit still for ten minutes, I fall asleep.
When I hit the bed at night, I immediately fall
I am at my best in a crisis. Sometimes if there
is no crisis, I will create one.
I tend to put everything off to the last minute.
I’m in constant motion. I need to move.
When looking at a tree, it is not so much like
seeing the tree as a whole but seeing
every leaf, all the shades of
green, the shapes of the leaves, the texture and
details of the bark.
I usually know the time of day, within a few minutes, without using a watch. I guess I notice environmental cues like shadows or the
angle of the sun.
a career, I find I need to
actually experience it by watching a video, going to a job site, or even trying
it out. A written job description does not interest me or provide the
information I need. It is not tangible enough.
I get a lot of joy and energy from little
things: flowers, clouds, smells. No detail is too small to be a potential
source of excitement and delight.
I can give you directions to all sorts of places
quite easily. I can tell you how many trees you’ll pass and the color of the
roof on the house at the corner.
My closet is organized by color. If something is
not in the right place, color-wise, I have to move it because it is not
pleasing to my eye.
I just could not do the workshop exercise. The colors of the objects we were
working with clashed. It was too distracting.
I have never liked tomatoes. However, every so
often I have to try one. Since
each time it is a new experience, I just might like them that day.
I cannot sit still if something is going on.
Open space schooling was very
difficult for me. I couldn’t tune out the activities that were happening all around. I heard everything
that was going on in the classrooms
next to mine, and they often sounded as if they were doing something more
exciting than we were doing.
I have never needed to return a clothing purchase because of a hole or defect. I
notice it in the store before I buy it.
I rarely need to buy a drink when I go out. I
always know someone soon will. Before the night is over, I’ll know almost
Often, if someone is wearing clothing that clashes,
I find it very distracting and cannot
concentrate on what the person is saying.
Scenes from the world of Extraverted Sensing
If I’m boating with friends, I’ll be the one who
is really enjoying the moment. I will be talking to everyone, feeling the wind, hearing the sea gulls, jumping
in the water to see how it feels.
In a “type-alike” group exercise that involves describing an object, our group is usually the first to
finish or will divert into other activities before any other group. There is
only so much
concrete data in a simple object. When you finish saying how the object looks,
feels, smells, sounds, and tastes, you are done. There is nothing more to
Visiting an art gallery with friends, I realized
that no one else saw the
details in the artwork that I noticed immediately. In a painting of a house,
for example, I saw the tiny key in the door. My friends had not noticed it and
were amazed that I had. On the other hand, I can’t remember what I wore yesterday
and have only a vague recollection of what I did.
I like to smell, touch, taste, or even listen to
produce before buying. To decide whether fruit and vegetables are fresh and
ripe, I tap on watermelons, smell cantaloupes, and taste grapes. I usually prefer
to determine whether milk or food in the refrigerator is fresh by smell rather
than reading the expiration date.
I can go back somewhere after being away for
years and negotiate the streets effortlessly. However, if some key feature has
been changed, I get confused and lost. I navigate by landmarks or objects, never street names.
I visit my daughter every week. One day I drove past her street. I
had to turn around and go back. For ten years, without knowing it, I knew where
to turn because of a mailbox on the comer that was made from an old stove. When
it was removed, I just drove right by her street without realizing it.
In a restaurant, it’s difficult to order from
reading the menu. I often order based upon seeing or smelling food from another
table: “I’ll have what that guy is having.”
After an exercise involving the use of apples,
the virtually identical apples were collected and mixed together. A man with a
preference for Extraverted Sensing was able to instantly pick out not only his
apple but those of the people on either side of him as well.
At a wedding, I could not eat for fear that I
might miss something. I had to be up walking around and talking
to people. I only knew four people when I arrived. By the end of the reception,
I knew almost everyone. I was even invited back to the house with the family, for the opening of the presents.
strengths of Extraverted Sensing
Accurate, objective, and detailed observation of
a wide range of experiences in the current environment
Enjoyment of life
Can see all sides of an issue
An aptitude for hands-on work
Extremely reliable visual perception
A talent for teaching others, by example, to
smell the roses
A knack for bringing excitement and life to any group
Can tap into radio transmissions with frequencies as high as 5 gigahertz and use its large data size to slow and crash wireless network connections. New upgrades can make it compatible with IPv6 addresses.
his number already belongs to an experiment, but the 200’s are technological and scientific so bam.
The internet is great. It lets us know lots of stuff and connect to lots of people and waste lots of time. Modern science is great too, we’ve built machines that let us sequence entire genomes in a single day, capture light from the beginning of the universe, and even measure the wiggles of spacetime itself.
But as a result of all this technological awesomeness, we are now doubling humanity’s total store of saved information–including books, art, images, music, and digital data–every couple of years. We’re saving so much data that in the coming years it’s going to be a serious challenge to even store it all, much less do anything useful with it.
I mean, consider the yottabyte. What the heck are we supposed to do with a yottabyte? That’s a trillion terabytes. On today’s hard drives, you’d need a data center the size of Delaware and Rhode Island to store just one yottabyte, yet in 100 years, we’ll be making and estimated 42 million yottabytes every year
I’ve been thinking about this a lot. In light of the pushback I’ve seen surrounding the #WENEEDDIVERSEBOOKS campaign, in light of the Vice Interview Laydeegate debacle and the description of women as unknowable creatures, in light of an online book magazine creating a poorly sampled research project just to prove another online book magazine wrong, and most definitely in light of a straight male author quitting a conference to prove a point about equality in a way that might actually cause more harm than good, through all of this I’ve been thinking of the human inclination we have NOT TO BE WRONG.
Sometimes we try to so hard to not be wrong that we forget the opposite of wrong isn’t always right. Sometimes, being wrong would cause less harm than all of the gyrations we do to get to some gray area of “right”. And if not right, then as far away from wrong as we can get.
And I don’t get this. I’ve been wondering what I’ve been missing in this whole equation. Is it affluence? Is it sheer male audacity? Or maybe I’m just wrong and maybe I’m seeing shadows where there are none.
Some time between going to bed last night and this morning, it hit me: I was born wrong. I have never really, truly known what it means to be right.
Female? Wrong. Black? Wrooonnnnng. Biracial? So wrong. The first time I kissed a girl and enjoyed it? Welp, that was also wrong.
My life has been one long line of wrong answers. And at some point, I guess I realized that being right was never really going to happen for me. So instead of focusing on being right, I just tried to be good. To be better than I thought I could be and better than others expected me to be.
I get things wrong all of the time. I think I’m just used to it. It’s inevitable when you live in a society where your skin color is a big sign flashing WRONG day in and day out.
But when I do get things wrong, when I say something clueless or insensitive, I apologize. I learn from the mistake. I acknowledge that I was wrong, and then I try to do better.
I think I’m doing better.
The biggest question I get about diversity is how to write outside of one’s own experience without “getting it wrong”. And I always laugh. “You’re going to get it wrong,” I say. “You’re always going to get it wrong, no matter what story you write.”
“Then why should I bother?” some folks will say. And if they don’t say it, then their expression says it for them.
And that’s when I try to explain, to talk about how there is no universal truth, and how it most definitely isn’t straight, white, able-bodied and male. “It doesn’t even matter what you write. Someone, somewhere, is going to tell you it’s wrong. So why wouldn’t you want to at least do a little good on your way to wrong?”
Why wouldn’t you want to do better?
I have to think that this insidious fear of being wrong is why Andrew Smith answered that Vice article so flippantly and then responded a week later by calling his female detractors assholes. I have to think being told he was wrong was why Roger Sutton went and took a faulty sample size of data and tried to make extrapolations of non-logic, not even nonsense, there wasn’t enough coherent thought for that. And I think that fear of being wrong is why Chuck Wendig pulled out of the Midwestern Writers Workshop even though QUILTBAG folks, those directly impacted by the Indiana RFRA, asked him not to, to attend and support marginalized voices within the state.
It must be pretty awesome to always know, just through the blessed happenstance of your existence, that you’re right. Even unconsciously.
[Canada/USA] Iridescent Boy “Double Exposure” 3rd Photobook Group Order
Hi everyone! Iridescent Boy is having their 3rd Photobook project “Double Exposure”. Please show lots of interest! It comes with 2 photobooks; Sense and Reason. Please check out some of the details below:
Photobook: ⇨ SENSE : A4 SIZE / 160-200P / 2012. 04 DEBUT - 2015 Only out of uniform photos. (off the stage data)
⇨ REASON : A4 SIZE / 160-200P / SECTION 1 : 2014. 07 - 2015 all schedule (except THE LOST PLANET data) / SECTION 2 : THE EXO'LUXION TOUR