dacia

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Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, Hunedoara, Romania.

The largest, and capital city of Roman Dacia, this city was founded by Terentius Scaurianus about 108-110, during the reign of Roman emperor Hadrian.

Situated less than 50km away from the former capital of the Dacians, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa was built on a strategic point  between where the battle of the Dacian troops and Roman legions took place. This site is on the ground of what was a camp of the Fifth Macedonian Legion, and was settled by veterans of the Dacian wars.

Later destroyed by the Goths, this large cosmopolitan centre remains in ruins today. The site features temples, gladiator schools, a large forum, and an amphitheater.

While researching I also found these virtual reconstructions of what features of this site would have once looked like:

Photos taken by Codrinb.

The Dacian Falx

  • Tribute post: December 1st, 1918 – Transylvania unites with Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia (March 27) and Bukovina (November 28), thus concluding the Great Romanian Union.

Falx is a Latin word originally meaning sickle, Latin: Falx Dacica,but was later used to mean any of a number of tools that had a curved blade that was sharp on the inside edge such as a scythe.

Falx was also used to mean a weapon, particularly that of the Thracians and Dacians, and later a siege hook used by the Romans themselves. In Latin texts the weapon was described as an ensis falcatus (whence falcata) by Ovid in Metamorphose or falx supina by Juvenal in Satiriae.

The Dacian falx came in two sizes: one-handed and two-handed. The shorter variant was called sica (sickle) in the Dacian language (Valerius Maximus, III,2.12) with a blade length that varied but usually around 16 inches (41 cm) long with a handle 1/3 longer than the blade.

The two-handed falx was more of a pole-arm. It consisted of a 3 feet (0.91 m) long wooden shaft with a long curved iron blade of nearly-equal length attached to the end. Archaeological evidence indicates that the one-handed falx was also used two-handed.

The blade was sharpened only on the inside, and was reputed to be devastatingly effective. However, it left its user vulnerable because, being a two-handed weapon, the warrior could not also make use of a shield.

At the time of the Dacian wars researchers have estimated that only ten percent of Spanish and Gallic warriors had access to swords, usually the nobility. By contrast Dacia (today’s Romania) had rich resources of iron and were prolific metal workers. It is clear that a large percentage of Dacians owned swords, greatly reducing Rome’s military advantage.

The weapon is very similar with the Egyptian Khopesh and like its “exotic” brother, its blade is slightly curved, sharp, able to deliver slashes as a saber and was also designed for hooking an opponents shield or disarming them.

The Dacian Falx was also used as a weapon by the Tracian tribes (who also use a similar two handed weapon called rhomphaia but much less drastically curved) and later on was used by the Romans as an siege hook.

Source: Romanian Arms & Armour History books | Wikipedia

How Things Have Changed...Justification for War, Then and Now

Now: Russian President Vladimir Putin, 2014 

“We must take military action against Ukraine to protect ethnic Russians from violence.”

Then: US President George W. Bush, 2003

“Saddam Hussein has weapons of mass destruction and supports terrorism.”

Then: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1941

“We must defend democracy from fascism.”

Then: Roman Emperor Trajan, 101AD

“Dacia has a lot of gold!  I’m talking about a crap load of gold, enough gold to make every Roman filthy rich!  Let’s conquer Dacia and take all of their gold!

Ulmetum, Romania

Ulmetum (Latin: forest of elms) was a military camp in the ancient Roman province of Moesia. It was settled under Trajan in the 2nd century AD with an ethnically mixed population of Bessi, Romans and Greeks.

The great advantage of the settlement was given its strategic position , being at the crossroads of three trade routes crossing the whole of Moesia Inferior . For this reason, the Empire decided to add a fort in the 4th century.

The city was neglected at times, becoming a nest of criminal activity. According to the Roman historian Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260/265 – 339/340), barbarians terrorized the region, robbing anyone that passed the crossroads. Huns eventually sacked Ulmetum in the late 5th century.

Justinian sent a significant military force c. 527-565 to restore peace in the area but by then the Roman Empire was in financial trouble and could not maintain their outposts as well as they used to. Maurice (r. 582 to 602) attempted to rebuild the city but it was sacked soon after by Slavs.

The site is located at the the eastern edge of the village of Pantelimon in Constanta County, Romania.

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Escenas de las Guerras Dacias, cuyo resultado fue la anexión de la Dacia al Imperio Romano por parte de Trajano.

Los dacios utilizaban un arma de hoja larga y curva llamada falx, muy temida por las graves heridas que causaba y que podía penetrar con facilidad la lorica segmentata romana. Como respuesta, y durante la misma campaña, los romanos debieron cambiar y mejorar su armadura, especialmente incorporando protección adicional al brazo derecho (que era el brazo descubierto), así como al casco y reemplazando la segmentata por lorica hamata o lorica squamata, mucho más útiles contra el golpe de la falx.

Finally getting this #CFL3 done for @scottgillenunvarnished Today and put some miles on it. There’s no feeling like putting the first few miles on a bike. Nervous and excited and observant of the adjustments that need to be made. Add in the factor that the bike didn’t exist before. Only flat sheet metal and tubing enters the shop door and a handcrafted motorcycle exited. I’m pretty lucky in life to experience that feeling so many times, and it keeps getting better as the bikes and quality are beyond anything in the world. Man I am so lucky to do what I do and work with the team of talented Knuckleheads that I love #jessejames @60andpregnant #Luke @m.a.chavez @fejsez @silvakustoms #JJjr @butterflyangelcj #Dacia #LosAlex (at TX Hill Country)

Blidaru (Costeşti-Blidaru) is an ancient Dacian fortress near Costeşti village in Hunedoara County, Romania.This is one of six forts built in murus dacicus style in the Orastie Mountains.The other five forts include Sarmizegetusa, Piatra Roşie, Costeşti, Căpâlna and Băniţa.

The fortress, situated on the Blidaru hill, at an altitude of 703m, includes two unified rooms and with six strong observation towers. They were created in the 1st centuries BC and AD as protection against Roman conquest.

A lot of scientists, linguists, archaeologists, historians etc. are considering that 8,500 years ago, Romania was the heart of the old European civilization. The new archaeological discoveries from Tartaria, (Romania), showed up written plates older than the Sumerian ones. More and more researches and studies converged to the conclusion that the Europeans are originated in a single place, the lower Danube basin. Down there, at Schela Cladova in Romania have been discovered proves of the first European agricultural activities which appear to be even older than 10,000 years.