My dad says Zoo's are becoming politically incorrect. I've seen both arguments but I wanna hear your opinion on it: do you think Zoo's are a good idea?
Well, let’s see if I can keep this response short.
First, I’m guessing that by ‘politically correct’ you mean ‘ethically sound.’ So, is keeping animals in zoos an ethical thing to do? As with many things, there is no easy or even single answer to that question.
Without a doubt, there are bad zoos- private or roadside zoos, zoos that keep their animals in abhorrent conditions, zoos that allow visitors to engage in unsafe things like cub-petting schemes. It is obvious that these types of zoos are unethical and exploitative.
(Hint: something like this is never a good sign.)
On the other hand, what constitutes a ‘good’ zoo? In the best captive conditions currently available, is it okay to keep an animal locked up? Some say no, no matter what; some say what we have now isn’t good enough. Others say yes- the best zoos are able to provide their captives with good lives.
This of course brings us to just what a ‘good’ life is. Those who say that animals should never ever be placed in captivity usually value a sense of freedom above all else. Even in perfect captive conditions, an animal will not be free, wild, or ‘natural.’
However, we must acknowledge that ‘freedom’ is a concept created and defined by humans. A human locked in a prison knows the difference between captivity and freedom, and is able to conceptualize that certain ‘rights’ that they have are being violated. But for animals, this may be too complex to perceive. How far back do you have to move a fence before a kudu decides that he is wild again? The idea that animals sense when they are ‘free’ versus ‘not free’ is, to me, not realistic.
Animals do, however, benefit from the ability to be free to make choices, such as what they eat, where they will go, who they will interact with, and so on. Undeniably, captivity presents animals with fewer choices of these kinds than they would have in the wild. The best zoos are now implementing programs to accommodate these choices, particularly with highly intelligent animals such as elephants and apes.
One such example: the “O Line” at the Smithsonian National Zoo allows orangutans to choose one of two buildings to stay in during the day. Other animals, such as the otters, can choose whether or not to be on exhibit via spaces in their enclosure that are sheltered from the public. Scatter feeding and foraging enrichment is yet another way that zoos allow animals to choose what food they want to eat.
Still, despite these improvements, there will always be limitations of choice in captive environments compared to wild ones by the very definition of ‘captivity.’ Furthermore, while many strides have been taken to update enclosures with choices in mind, the fact remains that the implementation of behavioral science in zoos lags behind the research due to the costs, and often due to the stress of the animals themselves when trying to adjust to new schedules and norms (even if they are theoretically better ones).
A forty-year old captive elephant will have lived through decades of zoo reform, and we can’t erase those negative experiences from her mind.
One danger of comparing captive animals to their wild counterparts is assuming that captive environments should mirror the wild ones as closely as possible. But what the wild even is is not well-defined. ‘Wild’ deer roam my suburban neighborhood: should that habitat be replicated in their zoo enclosure? Wild environments include predators, diseases, and natural disasters: is it better that those be implemented in zoos as well?
In actuality, an animal born in captivity likely has no sense of what its natural environment should look like. Certainly it has natural instincts and inclinations- a tiger likes to urine-mark vertical objects and a gibbon likes to climb- but neither of them specifically needs a tree to do this with- a post or rope swing would also work. The ‘naturalistic’ look of many zoo enclosures is actually for the benefit of the visitors, not the animals. In fact, a lush, well-planted habitat could still be an abysmal one for an animal if all of its needs aren’t being met.
This brings us to one of the most important aspects of zoos: the visitors. Theoretically, one of the major purposes of good zoos is to educate and inspire the public about animals, particularly in regards to their conservation. But do zoos actually do this?
The answer is yes… to a small extent. People given surveys upon entering and leaving a zoo exhibit generally do know slightly more about the animals than they used to, but this depends a lot on how educated they were to begin with. While many visitors express an increased desire to engage in conservation efforts after leaving a zoo, not many of them have actually followed up on it when surveyed again a few weeks later. Still, most zoo visitors seem to leave the zoo with several positive if perhaps short-term effects: interest in conservation, appreciation for animals, and the desire to learn more. If a visitor experiences a “connection” with an animal during their visit, these effects are greatly increased.
However, certain types of animal “connections” and interactions can also produce a negative effect on zoo visitors. This reflects what I said earlier about the naturalistic design of habitats being more for the visitors than the animals. Individuals who view animals performing non-natural behaviors (such as a chimpanzee wearing clothes and acting ‘human,’ or a tiger coming up to be petted) are less likely to express an increased interest in their conservation, and even less likely to donate money towards it. Generally, our own perception of freedom and wildness matters much more than the individual animal’s.
The fact of the matter is that, worldwide, zoos spend about $350 million dollars on wildlife conservation each year. That is a tremendous amount of money, and it comes from visitors and donations. What amount of discomfort on the part of captive animals is worth that money being devoted to their wild counterparts? It’s hard to say.
This is a very, VERY general overview of some of the ethical issues surrounding zoos; to go over it all, I’d need to write a book. But hopefully, it got you thinking a little bit about what your own opinion on all this is. (I didn’t explicitly state mine on purpose, though it’s probably fairly clear.)
Made some edits to this Tracer illustration I painted last year! Got a big print and will hang up above my workstation :3 You can also watch the time-lapse on my yt: OW // m i l a d r a w s (it’s without recent edits, but still comprehensive~)
It’s time for a big biiig party at Mahi’s home! *hardcore party with at least 50 people cuz everybody likes him* keeping it simple, he has to bake the cake and organize the entire party, otherwise other dudes will make it more complicated than expected >:D ! “ Oy Mahiru !! let’s celebrate 24h ! how about a slumber party too…!! with all 50+ guests ? :D ” “ I M P O S S I B L E… !! ” “ NYA - M U K I A E N E E E E E ” his life will never be boring =w=)b ahahha ~~
so today we gotta appreciate the existence of the ultimate housewaifu and protag-kun Mahiiii ~ ! He’s done so much for his friends and other people without even knowing them, he truly is a human to admire v.v)! bow to MahiMahi, the one who saves the world with SiMpLeNeSs ~ and his cooking skills are 11/10 8D ! even Gordon Ramsay has to deal with it höhöhöhöhöhöhö
nevertheless enjoy some….. cooking Mamaaaaaaa \( *w*)/ ! less than 6h ago it still was a white sheet of paper, *hardcoredrawingforhours* so sry that it’s not sth special this year, but still, hope you like it :D !
1 Braided Hair - Speech, Neneh Cherry 2 Lost Together - Blue Rodeo 3 Signs - Drake 4 Palms - Robert Plant 5 Dirty Paws - Of Monsters and Men 6 Comme des enfants - Cœur De Pirate 7 Me, Myself & I - Chalk Circle 8 Rant & Roar - Great Big Sea 9 After the Gold Rush - k.d. lang 10 Now We Are Free - Hans Zimmer, Lisa Gerrard, Leona Lewis,G. Greenaway 11 There’s Nothing Holdin’ Me Back - Shawn Mendes 12 Into Me - Chantal Kreviazuk 13 Matchbox - Adam Cohen 14 Paper Bag - Fiona Apple 15 Misguided Angel - Cowboy Junkies 16 Crabbuckit - K-OS 17 Peyote Healing - Robbie Robertson 18 Everybody Hurts - R.E.M. 19 Confessions - Quake Matthews, Neon Dreams 20 Romeo And Juliet - Dire Straits
hey it is okay if you don't like what you're creating right now. you are far from alone in that headspace. but it's a sucky headspace, so i'm sending you (1) a Great Big Hug (2) my 100% guarantee that i will like the thing hard enough for at least 3 people, and (3) the reassurance that taking a break is a-okay, because that can be nice to hear sometimes. (or, if you need a different kind of break, writing prompt: minion learns to ice skate.) you're a good person & i like you. *shoulder pat*
Thank you so much for this; it really helped me. /hugs back tightly
I’m trying to get out of the terrible sucky headspace g r a d u a l l y t r y i n g
(and thank you for the break prompt; I’ve actually finished a ficlet for it; I will post it momentarily! I hope you enjoy it.)
8. Been Cheated On:
M: not sure but at the same time im pretty sure R: twice, a few years back.
9. Lost Someone Special:
M: unfortunately R: mhm, in 2012.
10. Been Depressed:
M: still dealing with my demons R: it comes and goes
11. Gotten Drunk And Thrown Up:
M: never R: thankfully the last time it was that bad was a year ago.
List 3 Favourite Colours (12-14):
M: grey, maroon, and black R: mint-green, black, + white
In The Last Year Have You:
15. Made New Friends:
M: yes! our lovely L.P. anon and many more! R: i definitely have! all thanks to kpop lol.
16. Fallen Out Of Love:
M: nope R: no
17. Laughed Until You Cried:
M: yes! lol R: oh most definitely! just happened yesterday; my best friend and i ended up on the floor in the middle of a payless shoe store laughing our asses off ‘til we cried.
18. Found Out Someone Was Talking About You:
M: nope R: i dont remember?
19. Met Someone Who Changed You:
M: not really tbh R: in a way, yes.
20. Found Out Who Your Friends Are:
M: yep R: mhm
21.Kissed Someone On Your Facebook List:
M: lmao cx i dont even use fb anymore R: nope
22. How Many Of Your Facebook Friends Do You Know IRL:
M: one R: all of them lol.
23. Do You Have Any Pets: M: yes! 2 dogs, 2 cats, and a hamster! R: two pups <3
24. Do You Want To Change Your Name:
M: definitely..i would just shorten it to Moni lol R: i used to. but now it’s growing on me.
25: What Did You Do For Your Last Birthday:
M: uh…tbh i dont remember, I have terrible memory R: spent it in washington with my fam.
26: What Time Did You Wake Up:
M: 7:44 am R: 6:00am rip
27: What Were You Doing Last Night:
M: sleeping…i went to bed at 7 pm R: hangin’ with my best friend
28. Name Something You Can’t Wait For:
M: Paramore’s concert! R: my high school best friend’s wedding + going back to work (i miss my kiddos) + the paramore concert!
29. When Was The Last Time You Saw Your Mum:
M: shit…i think october 2014?..long story R: last night
30. What Are You Listening To Right Now:
M: EXO-M’s “MAMA”!! R: 4-ever x NB Ridaz ;; <3 (i’m feelin’ hella nostalgic today)
31. Have You Ever Talked To A Person Named Tom:
M: nope R: thomas ? yes lol he didn’t like being called tom.
32. Something That Gets On Your Nerves:
M: lies R: those drivers that pull out into your lane and insist on driving 20 miles under the speed of traffic, like bruh pls stop that.
33. Most Visited Website:
M: tumblr and youtube R: ^^^ same, same.
34-36 were missing!
37. Hair Colour:
M: brown-black R: dark brown
38. Long Or Short Hair:
M: long R: long-ish
39. Do You Have A Crush On Someone:
M: not atm R: nahh.
40. What Do You Like About Yourself:
M: my intelligence..maybe my legs if we’re talking about physical R: my music taste, lmao and that’s it.
M: none R: zero.
42. Blood Type:
M: no idea tbh lol R: i should know, but i don’t know.
M: moni..my dad calls me moosh R: ronnie, rons, ronron, bibi, i have a lot.
44. Relationship Status:
M: single asf (but happy) R: single
M: gemini R: gemini
M: she/ her R: she/her
47. Favourite TV Show:
M: hm…gotta go with Leverage and Psych at a tie R: psych – the #1 show of all time.
M: none R: none, yet!
49. Right Or Left Handed:
M: right-handed R: right
M: none R: none
M: R: already asked, lol. but y’know what??.these surveys remind of the good ‘ol myspace days where we would do these and post them to our bulletin, anyone know what i’m talkin’ about?? nostalgia is hittin’ hard.
M: does dance count? probably not but oh well R: i used to play volleyball + hockey (not in a legit team but a bunch of us played for years in school together)
M: just came back from one! R: currently, i want to go back to hawaii
54. Pair Of Trainers:
M: uh…dont know what those are R: i got converse..
M: i ate a bunch of hot cheetos earlier? R: pizzaaaa
M: i’m drinking water atm..i dont drink alcohol lol R: water
57. I’m About To:
M: probably pee if im being honest..sorry for the tmi XD R: hug my dog rn bc she is lookin hella cute i need to hug her, brb.
58. Waiting For:
M: nothing lol R: my best friend to come pick me up
M: atm?…cuddles R: to dye my hair
61. Get Married:
M: i hope to one day R: some day
M: i hope to be a translator R: a children’s counselor
Which Is Better:
63. Hugs Or Kisses:
M: hugs..but really..why not both? R: hugsssss
64. Lips Or Eyes: M: eyes R: lips
65. Shorter Or Taller:
M: taller cuz im short asf R: taller
66. Older Or Younger:
M: older R: older
67. Nice Arms Or Nice Stomach:
M: arms! R: it doesn’t really matter, lol, i’ll choose arms tho
68. Hookup Or Relationship:
M: relationship R: relationship
69. Troublemaker Or Hesitant:
M: hesitant R: hesitant, with some impulsive tendencies
Have You Ever:
70. Kissed A Stranger:
M: nope R: nah
71. Drank Hard Liquor:
M: yep R: oh yes
72. Lost Glasses Or Contacts:
M: oh yea R: yep yep
73. Turned Someone Down:
M: yep R: yeah
74. Sex On The First Date:
M: nope..never been on a date R: nah
75. Broken Someone’s Heart:
M:…..yes R: yup
76. Had Your Own Heart Broken:
M: oh yea R: yup
77. Been Arrested:
M: nerp R: no
78. Cried When Someone Died:
M: definitely R: of course
79. Fallen For A Friend:
M: ??? R: nope
Do You Believe In:
M: sometimes..depends on what im doing R: i believe that i can find some hella good music to listen to
M: yes R: yep
82. Love At First Sight:
M: no R: i’m always on the fence on this; so, yes + no
83. Santa Claus:
M: lol no R: bruh of course.
84. Kiss On The First Date:
M: sure if it feels right R: it depends
M: yes R: yep
86. Current Best Friends Name:
M: Veronica :D R: kaitlynn; moni, elle, carina
87. Eye Colour:
M: brown R: poop brown
88. Favourite Movie:
M: V for Vendetta R: currently, kill bill!
kain: “I have been seated next to the utaite “Sou” on the bus, but I have currently captured a wonderful photograph of his sleeping face. 1 copy will be 5000 yen. Please give me your regards”
Chomaiyo: “I’ll buy it”
kain: “I’ll give you it (for free) you know?”
Chomaiyo: “Kain-kun’s sleeping face too please”
kain: “With a whiny voice, Sou-kun pleaded to me: ‘Onii-chan buy this for me??’ So I ended up buying Hokkaido limited edition galana? & cheesecake for him!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!”
kain: “Rather than (complimenting) my kindness, (compliment) Sou-kun’s slyness. Seeing how I am being buried under columns of tweets talking about how ‘easy’ I am, I am going mad with rage and headbanging.”
Sou: “(That’s) C o m p l e t e l y F a b r i c a t e d”
kain: “I didn’t fabricate anything… I’m about to get sou angry”
Kain: “On the left (Suneo (from Doraemon)) is the one that Sou drew. On the right is mine. Can you guess what I drew? Hahah”
♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
Big Brother kain & Baby Sou Two Big Babies Soukain Who Refused to Sleep Until 3+ AM
Sou & kain have just finished their Sapporo concert of the XYZ tour with everyone else!! Earlier today, the two had a super long & adorable twitcast together with plenty of harmonizing, games, & fooling around (⁎⚈᷀᷁▿⚈᷀᷁⁎) It was insanely fun to listen to, so hopefully they can twitcast together again soon!
L: How many times do you usually revise your fic/chapter before posting?
it depends on the story really. And how big it is. if it’s a drabble/small ficlet, I’ll read it over once. And no Beta’s.
If it’s a chapter for a fun story, probably 2 or 3 times. And i might send it to a Beta
If it’s a chapter for a story I’m particularly worried about themes or other things, I’ll check it over AS i’m writing it, i’ll review previous chapters again and again before starting the next ones, i’ll do a print and EDIT, and then I’ll send it to a Beta….
R: Are there any writers (fanfic or otherwise) you consider an influence?
An INFLUENCE? Mmm…I don’t really know. Maybe Unforth because she taught me a lot when she Beta’d for me?
INSPIRATION on the other hand, there’s a lot.
NOt even touching the faniction, we’ve got: Misty Lacky, L.M.Montgomery, Lois McMaster Bujold, Orson Scott Card, Janet Kagan, Patricia C. Wrede, Wendy Pini, Drew Hayes and so many more that have written books - even if it was just ONE BOOK that has sat there in my memory and everytime I think of it, I think, “I need to write my story.”
And there have certainly been a number of Fic Writers I’ve met here on Tumblr who - not only do their stories inspire me, but THEY inspire me, they encourage me, they’ve welcomed me - and truly it is an awesome thing!
Apparently, Pining. Especially mutual. And First Kisses. Is that a trope? I dunno. But I do a lot of those. And I might be working toward an ABO thing. Oh, do wing kink fics also count as tropes or just as kinks? I”M DEFINITELY down for those
1.paint it, black - ciara 2. go - meg myers 3.rib cage - spelles 4. warpath - ingrid michaelson 5. fire in my bones - fleurie 6. big guns - ruelle 7. born to be wild (epic trailer version) - j2, blu holliday 8. get some - lykke li 9. human - of monsters and men 10. becomes the color - emily wells 11. deep end - ruelle
Whenever somebody mentions your name to Luke; his eyes instantly light up, his mouth forms into a big toothy grin as his dimples appear on his cheeks.
I R W I N
When fans mention you to Ashton; he gets a very bubbly feeling. A broad smile appears on his face, by looking at his green eyes; you can tell that he loves you so much.
C L I F F O R D
Whenever the boys tease Michael about being whipped, he can’t help but smile. His eyes squint a little from smiling too much, especially whilst during tour - his eyes are full of love and longing for you to be with him.
H O O D
Whenever an interviewer mentions you in an interview, Calum always has a smile on his face. He finds himself laughing lightly due to reminiscing crazy things the both of you have done together. You make him genuinely happy.
I’ve been meaning to do one of these for a while now – and I’ve finally gotten around to it! So here’s to the people who make my time on tumblr especially enjoyable, and without whom I know I wouldn’t be as satisfied with my own blog as I am now. Thank you all so much, guys! [Bolded blogs are the ones I find particularly awesome for one reason or another] :D