cytological

The statue stands six feet tall and sits near the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in Novosibirsk, Russia. Scientists built this monument to honor lab rats. It’s a symbol of gratitude for their sacrifices to science. (Source)

2

28/03/2017

I’m taking a break from cytology, even if it’s an interesting subject (and I love it!). Probably due to my incoming period, I feel really disappointed about whatever I do and I feel depressed too. When you have to deal with BPD, even a natural event as premestrual syndrome comes with drama and sadness and rage. I know it may sound stereotipical, but that’s the ugly truth. I am probably the only one that loves to be on her period, really! Even if I have to deal with a huge amount of pain and fatigue. But, for real, when I’m on my period I become something in between a pacifist and a saint. Nothing can touch me. And then, eight days later, depression again. Anyway… I was thinking about writing some posts about biological oddities/curiosities, It should be interesting! I’m not the best at organization (my time seems to fly faster than others’) but I will try. Oh, and I’ll post some microscope photos when I’ll start the cytology lab. Bye!

11:14 || Here’s my first post as a studyblr blogger!! This morning I’ve started studying for my last final of the year. I know I’ve procrastinated so bad until the point of staring studying two days before taking the exam, but at least this is a subject I love, so it’s not that bad (I guess).

Fighting the Forces of Evil
  • *In the lab at Barts*
  • Sherlock: *staring intently at the centrifuge spinning*
  • John: *tapping his foot impatiently*
  • Sherlock: *clears his throat*
  • John: *side glances* So Mary says I could never have a superhero alter ego.
  • Sherlock: Why not?
  • John: Thank you, man! I don't know why not.
  • Sherlock: *shrugging* It's always plausible.
  • John: Yeah...
  • Sherlock: Not probable though.
  • John: *dead stare*
  • Sherlock: You aren't unusually strong for your size or any size. You aren't rich. And you aren't incredibly smart.
  • John: Thanks man.
  • Sherlock: You could have a superhero alter ego. No one would know. And no one would probably care... Unless you died trying to save someone. But then it would be more out of pity than-
  • John: *intense glaring* Yeah. No. I got it. Thanks.
  • Sherlock: You're more likely to be my sidekick.
  • John: Really?
  • Sherlock: Oh, yes. I did watch cartoons as a child. Lots of the superheroes had them.
  • John: You're not a superhero, Sherlock.
  • Sherlock: No. *saddened* No I'm not.
  • John: *whining* Can't Molly be your sidekick?
  • Sherlock: No.
  • John: *shrugging* I could be the friend that helps out.
  • Sherlock: No.
  • John:
  • Sherlock: She's part of the other superhero group.
  • John: Much more liked I assume.
  • Sherlock: Oh, yes. Of course. Mary's part of it too.
  • John: *hand on his hip* Oh is she now?
  • Sherlock: Mm. Molly's partner, fighting the forces of evil.
  • John: She's a partner and I'm not?
  • Sherlock: None of us are actually superheroes John.
  • John: *crestfallen* Yeah I know.
  • Sherlock: *takes out samples from the centrifuge*
  • John: You and Molly would be like Mr. Incredible and Elasti-girl.
  • Sherlock: Who?
  • John: Never mind.

Mast cell tumor. In a cat! I so rarely see cats with external masses. Surgical removal was offered to the owner, they may proceed with surgery at a later date. The purple granules throughout the photo contain substances like histamine, which cause swelling, itching, and nausea in large amounts; they can be released simply by squeezing or handling the mass and in large masses could potentially cause anaphylaxis.

Tissue sample from a corpus luteum- the structure that forms on an ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone, a hormone that helps maintain a pregnancy in the female’s body. Corpus luteum (CL) is latin for “Yellow Body” because when sliced into, the structure is yellow. When an animal is not pregnant, prostaglandin hormones cause the CL to regress, allowing the animal to go back into heat. On occasion, the CL will not regress so the animal will act like it is pregnant and not resume an estrus cycle. This is known as a retained, or persistent corpus luteum and can generally be treated with a hormone injection.

The statue stands six feet tall and sits near the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in Novosibirsk, Russia. According to the artist, Andrew Kharevich:

It combines the image of the laboratory mouse and a scientist, because they are related to each other and serve as one case. Mouse is captured in a moment of scientific discovery. If you look into her eyes, you can see that this little mouse has come up with something. But the whole symphony of scientific discovery, joy, “eureka” has not yet begun to sound.

Via BuzzFeed

Respiratory Diseases in Birds

Most common causes of respiratory disease

  1. Aspergillosis
  2. Chlamydia psittaci
  3. Airborne intoxications

Dyspnoea - emergency treatment required!

  • Warm incubator with oxygen flow at 5 L/min, in a dark quiet area
  • Bronchodilators (terbutaline) - 0.01 mg/kg IM
  • Analgesia/sedation/anti-anxiety (butorphanol) - 1-2 mg/kg IM
  • Fluids if needed
  • Then get history and regularly monitor bird from a distance
  • Treat (suspected) disease

Respiratory system can be divided into five sections

  1. Upper airway
  2. Large airway - trachea and mainstem bronchi
  3. Small airway - branches of mainstem bronchi
  4. Parenchyma - lung tissue
  5. Coelom - concurrent problem in coelom compressing respiratory system

Upper airway disease

  • Clinical signs: soft nasal sound, open mouth breathing, nasal discharge (w/ rhinolith), tachypnoea, no dyspnoea, sneezing, periorbital swelling
  • Differentials: Mycoplasma, Mycobacterium, Chlamydia, Aspergillus, Candida, Avipox virus, parasites, toxins, allergins, foreign bodies
  • Diagnosis
    • Flush nares and collect sample from choana for culture and sensitivity, cytology and PCR
    • Endoscopy (through choana) and biopsy
    • Gold standard = CT scan
  • Treatment
    • Treat underlying cause
    • Flush nares
    • Tylosin (if Mycoplasma), antibiotics, antifungals
    • NSAIDs
    • Only change diet once bird is feeling better

Large airway disease

  • Clinical signs: stridor, open mouth breathing, gasping, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, voice choice, lethargy, anorexia
  • Differentials
    • Post-intubation necrosis
    • Aspergilloma (fungal granuloma) - in macaws and owls
    • Foreign bodies - cockatiels aspirate seed husks
    • Mass - goitres (in budgies), neoplasms, oropharyngeal granulomas (Mycobacteria)
  • Diagnosis
    • Clinical signs 
    • Radiography
    • Tracheoscopy and tracheal wash
    • Foreign bodies - shine bright light at apteria (featherless part of neck) to identify FB in trachea
  • Treatment
    • Foreign bodies - stick needle attached to syringe through trachea below FB and expel air to blow FB up
    • Aspergilloma - surgery needed, stabilise with air sac breathing tube beforehand

Small airway disease

  • Clinical signs: soft wheezing sound, severe respiratory distress, open mouth breathing, gasping, abdominal effort
  • Differentials: toxins, allergens, granulomas (Aspergillus, Mycobacteria)
    • Macaw Hypersensitivity - allergy to feather dander of cockatiels
  • Diagnosis
    • History
    • Radiography –> to identify soft tissue infiltrate
    • Coelomic endoscopy via abdominal cavity
    • Blood test
      • If acute: heterophils
      • If chronic: monocytes
      • If Macaw Hypersensitivity: possibly eosinophilia
  • Treatment
    • Bronchodilators (IM or nebulised)
    • Antibiotics, antifungals
    • NSAIDs

Parenchymal disease

  • Clinical signs: no sounds, tachypnoea, severe dyspnoea, poor BCS, lethargy, anorexia
  • Differentials
    • Toxins - teflon, cigarette smoke, etc.
    • Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema –> increased hydrostatic pressure –> ascites
    • Aspiration pneumonia - due to crop feeding
  • Diagnosis:
    • Blood test
    • Radiography
    • Heart pressure monitor - from brachial artery on wing protagium
    • Echocardiography
  • Treatment
    • Oxygen therapy
    • Antibiotics, antifungals
    • NSAIDs
    • If pulmonary oedema: furosemide, 2-4 mg/kg IV

Intracoelomic disease

  • Clinical signs: no sounds, open mouth breathing, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, respiratory distress, distended coelomic cavity, systemically ill (nesting, laying, lethargy, anorexia)
  • Differentials: heart/liver disease, hypoalbuminaemia, peritonitis, neoplasia
  • Diagnosis
    • Radiography, ultrasound, CT scan
    • Coelomocentesis - from midline just below liver/umbilicus
    • Blood test
    • Endoscopy (not if fluid-filled coelomic cavity - fluid will enter air sacs)
  • Treatment
    • Treat underlying cause
    • Drain fluid
6 remarkable Indian women who have enriched science with their pathbreaking studies.

Darshan Ranganathan

Field of work: Organic Chemistry

Darshan Ranganathan is renowned for her research and study of protein folding, supramolecular assemblies, molecular design, and chemical simulation of key biological processes. She has also shed light on synthesis of functional hybrid peptides and synthesis of nanotubes. With her husband she edited Current Highlights in Organic Chemistry. Her life was cut short at 60 by breast cancer.

Janaki Ammal

Field of work: Botany, Cytology, phytobiology, evolution studies, ethnobotany and phytogeography

Edavaleth Kakkat Janaki Ammal was a revolutionary Indian botanist and geneticist who spearheaded the research on chromosome of a wide range of garden plants, vegetables and medicinal plants from the rainforests of Kerala. She later showed interest in the medicinal plants of Himalayas. Through her dedication and hard work she finally succeeded in throwing light on evolution of species and cross –breeding of plants in wild. She was a Founder Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1935 when the institution was set up by C.V. Raman.

Asima Chatterjee

Field of work: Organic chemistry, phytomedicine

Asima Chatterjee is noted for her contribution to the research on Vinca Alkaloids and for the development of anti-epileptic and anti-malarial medicine. Apart from this, she has written many articles and books on medicinal properties of plants found in the Indian sub-continent, in addition to carrying research on the chemistry of plant products and synthetic organic chemistry. Asima Chatterjee is the first woman recipient of Doctorate of Science by an Indian University.

Sulochana Gadgil

Field of work: Oceanography, Meteorology

Born in a country where economy and livelihood  is highly affected by the Monsoon rains, Sulochana Gadgil dedicated her life to study the rainfall that decided the fate of many farmers in large part of India. Instead of depending totally on Monsoon, she came up with strategies in collaboration with the farmers that allowed them to deal with rainfall variability and modeling ecological and evolutionary phenomena.  Her research included – Monsoon dynamics, Ocean dynamics, Ocean-atmosphere coupling and Rainfall variability and its impact on agriculture.

Sunetra Gupta

Field of work: Theoretical Epidemiology, Writer

Sunetra Gupta’s interests are a rare amalgamation of science and literature. Whereas on one hand she works as a Professor of Theoretical Epidemiology in the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford and sits on the European Advisory Board of Princeton University Press, on the other hand she wins Sahitya Akademi Award for her novel. Her research and study of the evolution of diversity in pathogens, with particular reference to the infectious disease agents that are responsible for malaria, influenza and bacterial meningitis are noteworthy. Widely popular as one of the greatest Indian female scientists of all time, she uses simple mathematical models to generate new hypotheses regarding the processes that determine the population structure of these pathogens.

Maharani Chakravorty

Field of work: Genetic engineering, Molecular biology

Maharani Chakravorty is a pioneer in the field of science. She did her PhD on microbial protein synthesis from Bose Institute, Kolkata, her post-doctoral training in enzyme chemistry in the laboratory of B.L Horecker at the New York University School of medicine and ‘bacterial genetics and virology’ at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island in U.S.A. One of her most recognized contribution is establishment of the membrane complex of Salmonella typhimurium of having a sedimentation constant of 1000S, which is the site of not only DNA synthesis but also of RNA synthesis. After being recognized for her work in USA, she returned to India to continue her research and work in her motherland. She organized the first laboratory course on recombinant DNA techniques in Asia and Far East in 1981.

10:47 || Good morning guys! Today is my last day of study before summer! Can’t wait to be free!! Today it’s retouching time. I’ve been practising some tests and questions earlier in the morning and now I’m gonna read everything again, so I don’t forget about the little things. I’m so excited about holidays!!