cultural pursuits

anonymous asked:

Been seeing some Fallon Fox things recently and it gives me this thought. If you think Fallon has no biological advantage like upper arm structure or bone density ect, are you for the complete elimination of gender divided sports leagues? (Now I think about it I can say the fallout of it would be interesting.)

No.  Your logic doesn’t really follow here.  The biggest thing that provides advantages in athletic competition is the presence or absence of testosterone, which increases hematocrit (red blood cell count, and thus oxygen carrying capacity and waste elimination) as well as increases in muscle mass.  In the absence of testosterone Fallon doesn’t have an advantage.  The NCAA and the IOCC back this up.  I think your ‘ask’ here is predicated on the assumption that a trans woman maintains some sort of athletic advantage from having been shaped by testosterone, but science shows that once the testosterone is gone, the advantages are gone.  When athletes and bodybuilders use huge amounts of steroids, they get bigger and more muscular than is possible without it, and when they stop taking it they lose all of that unnaturally large muscle mass.  Without the presence of the excess testosterone the body can’t keep that advantageous musculature.  Same with a trans woman who undergoes HRT–once her hormones have shifted to the cisgender female range, her physiology does as well, and those ranges are averages.  Arguments that trans women have denser bones than cisgender women have been debunked (and I believe the same bone density argument was used in the past to prevent black women from competing with white women in athletics as well).  Claims that trans women have longer bones, different muscle insertions, and different leverage are similarly silly as those attributes have a wide range of variety across all human beings regardless of gender and the differences in male and female skeletons are so minute that determining sex (birth or assigned sex in this case) on the shape, size, density, and appearance of a skeleton is not an exact science.  Many skeletons known to archaeology are assumed to belong to people of one sex or another until dna testing reveals them to be of others.  A recent example in the news were some of the “maidens” from the excavations at Pompeii.

Anecdotally, I am myself am still a very strong and fairly athletic woman (physically), but I believe that has more to do with quirks of my genetics and upbringing than my birth assigned sex.  When I started HRT I lost thirty pounds of lean muscle.  My endurance has decreased.  My strength has decreased.  I might be strong, but I can’t deadlift the back end of a car anymore.  I was a natural athlete as a child and I had a childhood that involved what is now not a socially acceptable level of hard labor, and even after transitioning I was a blacksmith for a year and a half, and I attribute my relatively high levels of strength and athleticism to a lifetime of being a runner, laborer, weight lifter, and special forces soldier.  I’m trying to get back into more athletic shape and I will say now that pre-transition working out was easier and I had far less difficulty in shedding body fat.  I’ve also always had relatively wide hips and narrow shoulders (in terms of skeletal structure), though my heavy musculature pre-transition concealed that fact.

I do support men and women competing directly in most athletic competitions to be honest, but at the absolute highest levels of sports that depend on muscular strength and endurance men and folks with levels of testosterone in the standard cisgender male range (or above) tend to have an advantage.  

That being said, I think women’s athletics still have a lot of room to improve and find greater heights of performance than can be achieved due largely to social factors.  I think men are encouraged to pursue athletics and sport and physically vigorous activity from birth and women are actively discouraged from these pursuits.  Even when women are encouraged in athletics, their culturally perceived femininity is seen as more important than their pursuit of athletics.  Without the enormous amount of money, science, technology, and active cultural pursuit of female athletic performance potential that we see in men’s athletics, I think it’s going to be a while before women (as an overarching group) actually maximize their athletic potential at the absolute pinnacle of sports because there is so much cultural pushback against it (example:  the recent elimination of women’s bodybuilding from the Arnold classic and the Olympia) .  I think we have a long time to go before we can definitively say what the peak of female performance is and whether or not sports should be segregated by gender in the long run, but for now I would say gender segregation should remain in place. 

(Although the presence of weight classes in combat sports does seem to mitigate some of the advantage issues–an episode of ‘fight science’ a few years ago showed Lucia Rijker–a female championship boxer weighing 140 pounds at 5′6″ tall, punched harder than Moe Ganyu–a male olympic boxer of identical height and weight.  Additionally, she punched as hard as the 6′ tall, 203 pound mixed martial artist Houston Alexander who was known for his knockout power).

At any rate, I’m not an expert, but I would suggest you look at the IOCC’s guidance and studies on gender, performance, and trans inclusion.


Hogwarts Houses as Flowers 

(@hogwartsschoolnet 20 Years of Harry Potter Celebration - Ravenclaw Member Content) 

Hufflepuff: Roses signify both beauty but also a willingness to protect themselves if threatened, and yellow signifies sympathy and friendship. Yellow Roses mean to forgive and forget.

Gryffindor: The gladiolus is a flower named for the proud and strong Roman gladiator. The Red Gladiolus is seen to symbolise passion, strength and moral integrity.

Slytherin: Often associated with royalty, the regal Iris carried many different meanings to different colours. The Green Iris does not actually exist, but green flowers symbolise resilience and renewal.

Ravenclaw: In Chinese culture, orchids signify scholarly pursuit and dark regal blue shades often meant wisdom. Blue Orchids are representative of the learning process, intrigue and mystery.


“A beautiful Japanese-American girl who enjoyed the same cultural pursuits as Ray but who displayed a much, calmer, both-feet-on-the-ground approach to life, Dorothy was studying medicine. The same age as Ray, Dorothy had a much older head on her shoulders. She could stay up all night rapping with Ray about the finer points of Kurosawa’s Rashomon and still make a 9am class on cardiovascular disease. She was also Ray’s first big love affair. […] Dorothy was more than just a scintillating lover and friend. She became his muse. The one he would always try to impress, to make happy, to gain the ultimate approval from.” - Mick Wall.

“She could look into you and through you. No games, no lies. She was in her moment of time. In the suchness, as Zen master and author D. T. Suzuki would say. And she was cute as hell.” - Ray Manzarek.

anonymous asked:

is it possible you could do some kanamaru headcanons? i dont even care what kind, just whatever you think of. i love them

  • Kanan and Hanamaru are the most physically affectionate members of Aqours, so their relationship is filled with hugs and cuddling. They hold hands a lot both in public and when it’s just the two of them. Hanamaru’s hands are soft and incredibly nice to the touch, but Kanan’s are much warmer. Hanamaru loves this, since she’s the type to get cold easily.
  • They’re both such grandmas and it’s both amusing and painful to watch. They literally don’t know anything about pop culture. Kanan bought Trivial Pursuit a while back for the two of them and yeah… that was a very, very slow night. (they learned a lot that day.)
  • Hanamaru likes to sleep on Kanan. At first it was resting her head on her shoulder, but considering their height difference, that got hard, fast. It evolved into Kanan letting herself be used as a lap pillow – or a pillow in general, to be honest. She doesn’t mind, though. She thinks it’s cute.
  • Kanan is a very grumpy drunk. Hanamaru expected her to be clingy or more of a chatterbox, but she just… lays there. On the floor. Usually mumbling under her breath. Hanamaru has no idea what to do. She usually just tries her best to drag Kanan up to bed (it’s a struggle) and tuck her in (it’s also a struggle). To her relief, Kanan usually passes out right away.
  • Kanan has a six pack, and Hanamaru’s unabashedly fascinated by it. She likes to touch it a lot, so much so that she begins waking up early to join Kanan on her morning jogs. It’s hard and exhausting even though Kanan always makes sure to stay at her pace, but that six pack is Hanamaru’s driving motivation. Kanan doesn’t quite understand why, but she’s happy about it. She loves exercising in the morning, and she has no complaints with her beautiful girlfriend hopping along.
  • Because of Kanan’s obsession with it, Hanamaru gets into astronomy. They’re lucky enough to live in a town with a low level of pollution, so the night sky in Uchiura is positively stunning. They like to sit outside and stargaze together quietly. Kanan likes to talk about the constellations, while Hanamaru listens with great interest. They end up pooling their money to buy a new telescope, too, which is proudly set on display in their room.

Amsterdam–based photography duo Freudenthal/Verhagen have spent over two decades perfecting their singular, jaw-dropping approach to photography. Carmen Freudenthal & Elle Verhagen (1965 & 1962) met right after graduating from the Gerrit Rietveld Academy where Carmen studied photography and Elle studied fashion design. There was an immediate recognition of a mutual taste in image making and what fashion imagery should look like, which formed the basis of their fruitful practice. Carmen & Elle’s ongoing collaboration began in 1989, in the very first issue of I-D magazine. Since then, the duo relentlessly continues to search for ways to expand the definition of fashion photography, crossing lines between fashion and art, in their pursuit for cultural relevancy.


USA Cycling gets a cognitive advantage.

Since their last trip to the podium this spring, American cyclists in the Women’s Team Pursuit have been taking precious seconds off their times by training with an IBM Cloud cognitive solution.

Each team member’s anaerobic muscle capacity and wattage output is tracked in real time through sensors, along with cyclist sequencing and track locations. The program then analyzes the data to help them make game-changing pacing and switching decisions, and provides feedback to the riders’ eyewear. It’s been one small part of USA Cycling’s performance improvement in 2016 – congrats Sarah, Chloe, Ruth, Kelly and Jennifer!

See more about the USA Cycling team →

Why we need Disney movies for boys.

I understand that, with the large feminist boom in today’s culture these Disney movies teaching young girls important lessons is a crucial to the upcoming generations. And the ‘princess’ cliche is undergoing good change with Merida in Brave and Ana and Elsa in Frozen. However, what do the young boys have to watch anymore? Yes Avengers paraphernalia is lining the boys’ toys isles in stores, and every boy wants to be an Iron Man or a Captain America. But with PG-13 ratings it’s still not for everybody. 

As a boy my all time favorite movies were as followed: Flipper, Tarzan, Atlantis, and Davy Crocket, Atlantis being my all-time favorite.

When watching the 2 Disney produced movies as an adult it’s easy to see the important lessons these movies teach. Tarzan couldn’t relate to his father, and had troubles fitting in with a family that is not his own. Tarzan is taught the importance of family, biological or not. And most importantly to me I found the lesson on being a man subtly portrayed in his battle with Clayton. Tarzan has the opportunity to use Clayton’s gun against him, Clayton even taunts. “Come on! Be a man! Shoot me!” and Tarzan replies, “I’m not a man like you”. Tarzan is anxious to learn about all aspects of the world. Literature, astrology, culture, and art.

He isn’t a cold blooded killer but he uses his strength to kill a threat to his family: the jaguar. Aren’t these qualities we need to be encouraging in our young men?

Atlantis is a terribly underrated masterpiece by Disney. Perhaps I related most to this movie because I was much like Milo, the movies antagonist. Milo is simply a dork. A scrawny, unappreciated, dork working in the Smithsonian where none of the scholars there except his seemingly bogus facts to find Atlantis.

But this movie is monumental in expressing following your dreams, the pursuit of knowledge, and the acceptance of knowledge. The main antagonist, Rourke, is willing to not only take the living form of energy, Kida, and sell her to the highest bidder topsoil, but not caring that taking that energy will kill an entire civilization behind him. Milo, who is by no means a physical match for Rourke risks his life to save this culture he has spent his whole life tracking down. If that isn’t inspiration to the bookworms and creative boys to fight for their dreams, I don’t know what is.

Besides the fact that these movies were not only pioneers for the new technology used in 2D animation, it would be refreshing to see more gender neutral or more boy oriented movies blow up like Frozen did.

 Plus, this isn’t undermining the female costars in any means. Jane is an intelligent, artistic, and strong character to fall in love with Tarzan, Kida is a warrior princess who falls in love with Milo because of his passion and respect for her culture and his pursuit of knowledge.

And these women help our leading men. Jane is Tarzan’s teacher and Kida is as well. These men are dependent on their counterpart to help them be the man they become in the end.

We also can’t neglect the ever wonderful Lion King as teaching tool for what a real 'king’ is as well as fitting in and falling in love. 

We are so quick to give our girls a multitude of Disney movies to teach them to be strong women that we overlook teaching our sons to be the right kind of man. Aren’t we arguing in this feminist debate that we shouldn’t have to teach girls how not to get in bad situations but to teach our sons how to grow up respecting women? Yes the omission of objectifying advertisements is very important, but equally important is giving our sons the right role models to be. When womanizing bachelors are so prevalent in a young man’s life how can he learn to be anything else? If we are to teach men how to treat women we need to give them good examples to learn from.

And that’s why boy oriented Disney movies can help with the feminist movement of today.

Harry Potter characters as signs (because i didnt like the one i saw even if some were alright, sorry)
  • Aries: Harry Potter (You are the adventurous and impatient one. You love staying active and you are known to be courageous, which can cause you to be ruthless and sometimes even selfish.)
  • Taurus: Neville Longbottom (You are the practical one, the stable and the trustworthy. Dedicated to both relationships and work alike while being awfully generous and caring. Lazy and a bit stubborn perhaps but you get around.)
  • Gemini: Draco Malfoy (You are tactful, diplomatic, witty, possess a sharp intellect and known to be a social being. You seem to always move between different opinions and your mood constantly changes. You love turning topics into ones about yourself.)
  • Cancer: Sirius Black (You are known to be unpredictable, tempramental and insecure. You fear rejection by your loved ones and can get easily hurt. Though you can be quite a pessimist you also possess a highly imaginative mind and is known to be loyal.)
  • Leo: Fleur Delacour/Weasley (You are the majestic one, filled with love for your own known beauty and charm. You love compliments even if you can be picky about whom gives them to you. You can be arrogant, but also tender and caring for the ones you truly love.)
  • Virgo: Hermione Granger (You are the methodical one, the analytical perfectionist. You can be ruthless about your ways of reaching your goals, but that's a price worth paying for a work well done. You will always do what you feel is right, even when no one else supports you.)
  • Libra: Albus Dumbledore (Balanced and diplomatic, you just happens to be charming by nature and people follow you wherever you tend to go. Your temprament is cool and calm, sometimes misunderstood to be cunning. Can be selfish when needed.)
  • Scorpio: Tom Riddle/Lord Voldemort (Known to be mysterious individuals with strong will power who happens to know how to turn the tables around. You tend to question most and can come off as possessive, but your charm often helps you out of trouble.)
  • Sagittarius: Fred and George Weasley (Frank, courageous and generous, you are one of a kind. Most of you are prone to remain in your own worlds, deeply involved in culture, intellectual and creative pursuits, travel and even self-praise. You love freedom, and tend to be self-dependent and are extremely confident.)
  • Capricorn: Minerva McGonagall (You are the most determined of the entire Zodiac. The most prominent qualities of the Goats, as they are called, are that they are ambitious, conservative, determined, practical and helpful. You make a good team leader and organiser, because of your single-minded focus on your work, sense of responsibility and sincerity. You are perceived by people around you to be a workaholic, unemotional and detached.)
  • Aquarius: Luna Lovegood (You are a progressive and modern lot. Broad-minded and creative, you are the real truth-seeker. Being affectionate and friendly by nature, the Aquarius-born are very attractive and popular. However, their frankness can cut both ways.)
  • Pisces: Rubeus Hagrid (You are considered to be the proverbial dreamer, lovely, mystical and compassionate. Even though many people might view you as lazy and sensitive your stronger points come from being creative to the core, profound and intuitive.)
Theon Greyjoy: sex, relationships, and women

I think it’s pretty clear that sex plays a significant role in Theon’s life. He’s the boy who has “bedded more girls than he could name.” Who prefers no strings attached. Who sees every woman as a place to stick his dick. And while his behavior isn’t entirely excusable, I found myself wondering why Theon treats women the way he does, and how his experience as a hostage has affected his sex life.

And his sex life really is just a sex life.

By that I mean that Theon’s interactions with women consist entirely of sexual intercourse (prior to his imprisonment and torture at the hands of Ramsay Bolton). He does not have “girlfriends.” He does not have relationships. There’s no intimacy; only desire and physical gratification.

Let’s start with the captain’s daughter

In Theon’s first chapter in ACOK, we find him sleeping with the captain’s daughter, who only serves as a temporary amusement while Theon is at sea, and it’s obvious he doesn’t even like her very much. Throughout the chapter, this girl is repeatedly referred to as “stupid” within Theon’s perspective:

She looked rather stupid when she smiled, but he had never required a woman to be clever.

The stupid girl did not seem to be listening.

She was timid at first, but learned quickly for such a stupid girl, which pleased him.

I have to admit, the captain’s daughter doesn’t really seem like the sharpest tool in the shed, but her intelligence isn’t the point. Theon isn’t interested in her intelligence. He never required a woman to be clever. Theon is interested in one thing when it comes to this girl—what she’s got between her legs—and he shakes off any attempts she makes at taking their interaction a step beyond sex.

Fast forward to the scene where the captain’s daughter says goodbye to Theon. When the girl tries to publicly show affection toward him, this is Theon’s response:

When he took the pack, she made as if to embrace him, there in front of her own father and his priestly uncle and half the island.

Theon turned deftly aside. “You have my thanks.”

“Please,” she said, “I do love you well, milord.”

“I must go.” He hurried after his uncle, who was already well down the pier.

He can’t even bear for this girl to give him a farewell hug. He had no problem letting her put her lips around his ding-dong, and he made it no secret to the captain that he was banging his daughter, yet the idea of this girl embracing him in front of people is appalling to him. It’s like he automatically shies away from any kind of intimacy that isn’t sexual, almost as if he subconsciously fears it. The captain’s daughter also uses the word “love,” which causes Theon to hurry away from her, and he spends the rest of his time on Pyke trying his best to avoid her.

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Headcanon Wednesday: Quarian Children's Programming and Chatika vas Paus

The quarian flotilla operates in a precarious state: essentially every member of the society must contribute to keep the population as a whole from freezing, starving, asphyxiating, or all of the above. Accordingly, there are very few resources available for entertainment or cultural pursuits. While quarians keep their culture alive in song, story, and visual arts (particularly the fiber and textile arts that they use to decorate their suits and living spaces), the vast majority of quarians practice cultural pursuits in their off hours. Those who are particularly talented and skilled can petition their captain for an exemption from requisite ship service to study their art, but only the most exceptional are given leave to do so, simply because the ships can’t spare many bodies. All other quarian artists and entertainers ply their craft once the tasks of their assigned “day jobs” are complete.

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For #BiHealthMonth, E. shares their experiences with therapists who have been less than bi-competent.

By E.

I am bi. The terms I have used to describe myself have changed many times and continue to change, but I always see myself as under the bisexual umbrella. I am also someone who has spent 13 of their 25 years struggling with depression and anxiety (though I am in a really good place now). I won’t say these things are connected in my case, primarily because of the timeline and my high genetic risk, but for some people they are.

If I look at the data and research, it seems pretty likely that biphobia and monosexism negatively impact the mental health of our community. Fighting biphobia, monosexism, bisexual erasure, etc. is a long, arduous process, and we have to address our mental health care needs even as we try to prevent them from occurring.

I haven’t had the greatest experience when it comes to therapists who are informed about bi issues. I’ve had a number of providers over the years, and the ones with whom I have discussed my sexuality haven’t really gotten it. This does not mean I haven’t liked those therapists, but it has made me more hesitant to bring up relationships in the future or driven me to try to “prove” my bisexuality rather than just talk about what I need to talk about. Before I moved to the city I now live in, I talked about anxiety around dating and becoming sexually involved with a particular man. My therapist told me it was okay if I was really a lesbian. That would be okay, but I’m not a lesbian.

With my current therapist, I once spoke about my frustration around some recent relationships with men, in which I viewed the relationship as platonic and they did not. She responded with the idea that maybe men and women cannot be “just friends.” It’s a very heteronormative viewpoint, in my opinion, and I told her so. She corrected herself to “straight men and straight women,” which still missed the boat.

So to one therapist I was gay and to the other I was straight. I feel like that happens a lot. A friend of mine jokes about it being like little kids and lack of object permanence – if they can’t see something, it doesn’t exist. If I am not attempting to perform bisexuality at all times, monosexual people sometimes have trouble grasping the idea. I don’t want to drop therapists I already like over these things, because searching for someone new when I have someone who I like for some of my bigger issues feels like adding stress I don’t need. However, I can easily see how for someone else it would damage the therapeutic relationship and lead someone to leave services, either in search for a new provider or to quit therapy altogether.

I shouldn’t feel like I have to settle, though. Those who leave services shouldn’t have to miss out on a potentially great therapeutic relationship because their practitioner wasn’t bi-affirming. Our community is suffering and the people who are supposed to help us cope need to know about our issues and our struggles, but how can they when they have trouble recognizing our existence?

I hope to work in the mental health field myself, soon. I hope that in talking with my colleagues, I can help them learn to be more bi-affirming. I hope that more practitioners pay more than lip service to being inclusive and affirming with all kinds of identities and experiences, including bi ones. I hope that in the pursuit of cultural sensitivity and competence, they take the time to listen to what bi people are saying about what we need.

Because those of us who want/need mental health care services deserve services that are safe, inclusive, and affirming of who we are.  

The “universal basic income as life support for capitalism” idea is especially important to me because I remember explicitly advocating a UBI when I was a right-libertarian. Back during a usual day on campus in 2012, during a moment in which I thought I had achieved red-pill-level-clarity, I came up with this gem: 

“We ought to call ourselves socially liberal, economically conservative, and fiscally centrist. The economy itself should function with very little regulation; pure freedom. However, there should be a safety net so people are given a minimum living standard.”

You can tell that I knew what was going on there, and yet I still had to reconcile to myself – even if it naturally leaves millions in poverty, capitalism is the best system by default, so we must establish a basic income; this way, we can have our cake and eat it. Top-down ownership over the means of production was as natural to me as breathing; it couldn’t be transcended. I reasoned that, included in Freedom was the inalienable right to own as much socially-operated property as possible, and infringing upon that was tyranny – but if that was to be maintained without “emotional SJW chaos”, then the people needed livable scraps to remain satisfied.

It’s so obvious why people all over the political spectrum support UBI measures: it’s a feeding tube for a dying system. Everyone from Milton Friedman-loving capitalists to the most ardent Bernie-supporting social democrats seem to back these ideas, all so that the wheels of capitalism can continue treading despite the automation, organization, and tension this system keeps generating – all of which will prove to be its undoing in the end.

We can do better than a system that insists on tiered access to social institutions and life necessities. Rather than go through the convoluted process of business-as-usual with more assertive redistributive taxation, we ought to take matters into our own hands and rework the economy to function for human need rather than isolated profit. Democracy over the economic goals for societal necessities, followed by open access to creative/cultural/social pursuits during the abundant leisure time that automation in a democratized context could introduce.

TL;DR: Universal basic incomes are nice, but insufficient. Capitalism will not be able to cope with the Pandora’s Boxes it unleashes. Hyper-automated socialist democracy is a possible and viable alternative.

German Vocab (& History) - East Germany #2 - Political Structure

I’ll be doing a series on vocab related to East Germany, but not only will I put the vocab, I’ll also explain the historical context behind the term - e.g. if I just say “die Bodenreform means land reform” you’re gonna be nonethewiser.

This one is about the political structure of the DDR and the SED in general. In the notes I give, if I use a German term that you don’t know, look at my last East German vocab post and it’ll be there - enjoy! :)

Words (explanations at the bottom)

1. die DDR – the German Democratic Republic
2. die Sowjetische Kontrollkomission/die SKK – the Soviet Control Comisssion/the SKK
3. die Länderkammer – the Chamber of States
4. der Staatsrat – the Council of State
5. der Bezirk(e) – the county
6. der Demokratische Block &– the Democratic Block
7. die Blockparteien – the bloc parties
8. die DBD (Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands) – the Democratic Farmers‘ Party of Germany
9. die NDPD (National-Demokratische Partei Deutschlands) – the National Democratic Party of Germany
10. der Transmissionsriemen(-) – the transmission belt
11. die Massenorganisationen – the mass organisations
12. der FDGB (Freie Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund) – the Free German Trade Union Federation
13. die FDJ (Freie Deutsche Jugend) – the Free German Youth
14. der DFD (Demokratische Frauenbund Deutschlands) – the Democratic Women’s League of Germany
15. der KB (Kulturbund) – the Culture Association
16. die DSF (Gesellschaft für deutsch-sowjetische Freundschaft) – the Society for German-Soviet Friendship

–From here, the vocab. is based on the SED (die Sozialistische Einheitspartei)-

17. der Erste Sekretär/der Generalsekretär – the first secretary/general secretary
18. das Politbüro – the political office; sometimes kept as “the Politburo”
19. der Parteitag(e) – the party conference
20. das Zentralkomitee(s) – the central committee
21. der demokratisch Zentralismus – the democratic centralism
22. die Parteidisziplin – the party discipline
23. die Verstaatlichung – the nationalisation
24. die HO (Handels-Organisation) – the Trade Organisation
25. der VEB (volkseigene Betrieb) – the „people’s own company“
26. die Staatliche Plankommission – the State Planning Comission
27. die Volkspolizei – the People’s Police
28. das Ministerium des Innern – the Interior Ministry
29. die Stasi (das Ministerium für Staatssicherheit) – the Ministry for State Security
30. die IM (Informelle Mitarbeiter) – the Informal Collaborators
31. der [Un]Rechtsstaat(en) -  the [Un]Just State
32. das Justizministerium – the Justice Ministry
33. die Parteilichkeit – the partisanship
34. der Mitläufer(-) – the conformist/follower
35. die Gleichschaltung – the synchronisation


1. East Germany
2. Replacement of the SMAD and oversaw the leadership of East Germany. Active 10th October 1949 – 28th May 1953.
3. In East German’s parliament (Volkskammer), this was the chamber representing each state.
4. This replaced the president of the Volkskammer, Wilhelm Pieck, when he died & was jointly elected by the Volks- & Länderkammer.
5. The 5 states were split up into counties and thus the Länderkammer was dissolved.
6. Alliance of political parties and mass organisation fighting for democracy – it was later renamed die Nationale Front in 1950 and lasted until ’73.
7. The parties that allied with the SED in the bloc – the CDU, the LDPD, the DBD, and the NDPD.
8. Political party set up to encourage farmers about supporting socialism.
9. Political party set up to present socialism to reformed Nazi members.
10. Historian Herrman Weber uses this term to describe the bloc parties; because like transmission in a car, they were the gears enabling SED to put its policies to the whole nation.
11. Organisations that represented a certain group of society; were in die Nationale Front.
12. Trade union set up to convince workers of party policies and to avert strikes etc.
13. Youth group for 14-18 year olds; younger children belonged to die Pionierorganisation (often called the Young Pioneers).
14. Group mobilising women for socialism.
15. Group representing intellectual and cultural pursuits, from Opera to Chess.
16. Group demonstrating loyalty to communism by being friendly with the ‘mother country’.
17. The leader of the SED, 1st Secretary was name used in 1953-76 and General thereafter.
18. Group of 20 high-profile SED members led by the Secretary; issued political policy.
19. The SED’s party conference, held every 4/5 years.
20. 200 SED members elected at the Parteita; issued political policy but were beneath the Politburo.
21. An organisational system whereby all policy is managed and directed by a central government.
22. A principle in the SED where all party policy/instructions were binding on members.
23. Where a company goes from private ownership to state ownership – by the 50s most of DDR trades were nationalised.
24. State owned trading organisation with privileged access to goods; put many private businesses out of business.
25. Companies under control of the central ministries and the central economic plan.
26. Another organisation from the SED which oversaw control of VEBs.
27. Main police force in East Germany, but closer to a military in many circumstances.
28. Managed internal affairs in the DDR, e.g. Volkspolizei, the approval of Massenorganisationen.
29. Books have been devoted to this taskforce. The Stasi were secret police in the DDR and investigated anyone thought to be against socialism – their motto “Schild und Schwert der Partei” (Shield and sword of the party) shows their allegiance towards the SED. T’was formed 8th Feb. 1950 and had nearly 100,000 members.
30. A person who delivered secret information to the Stasi, hundreds and thousands of people worked as IMs.
31. In principle, the DDR was a “Just State” since it wasn’t doing anything unconstitutional, but based on how politicised the constitution was it was essentially an “Unjust State” in disguise.
32. SED department appointing Judges, Lawyers and deciding on the guidance of the law.
33. Strong devotion to political party – high sense of this in the DDR constitution.
34. Many people in the DDR acted like this and hid their anti-socialist feelings behind a façade.
35. The DDR arguably managed to achieve this in society better than the Nazis, in the sense of how “in sync” all institutions worked with each other.

Romans had been nursed on Greek literature and tradition since long before the inception of the Empire… They came to Greece as philhellenes, not to admire what they found there passively and uncritically, but to shape it according to their pre-existing idea of what Greece was. In terms of imperial policy they had no special interest in the provinces of the contemporary Greek world. What the Greek world did offer to Roman visitors and officials, in addition to what other provinces could provide, was a history the Romans were familiar with. Romans expected to find the past when they journeyed to Greece in their pursuit of culture; and if they did not find it, they could always lament its decline and proceed to reconstruct the Greece they had been taught to imagine, just as the modern philhellenes were to do many centuries later.
—  Simon Swain, “Past and Present” in Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World, AD50-250
Headcanon - Mantles

//In the City-State of Ionia there are unique decorations known as mantles that can be awarded for various noble acts. While not specifically attached to the Ionian defense force, many of these mantles are now possessed by veterans of the Ionian invasion. In reality however, any Ionian citizen can be given a mantle by the Ionian Elders, but it is a rare and coveted distinction in any of its forms.

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