Crusade era hand granade used by Islamic forces, 12th century

It is made of unglazed ceramic and embossed with grooves and tear drop-shaped designs. It has a domed top over a spherical body that tapers to a point. They were filled with incendiary material – petroleum, naphtha, Greek fire — and thrown or catapulted into the enemy camp where they exploded fire that water could not put out on their targets.

Sometimes You Have To Ask People To Help, Sometimes You Have To Order People To Help

Mehmed II became sultan of the Ottoman Empire when his father, Murad II, got tired and decided to retire and lead a quiet life of contemplation. Mehmed was 12 at the time. He was new, weak, and young. The nearby Christian nations thought it was the perfect time to go a-crusadin’ and take back some land from those barbarian Muslims. Wallachia and Hungary cooperated with Venice to organize a new crusader army, and after the pope gave his blessing they began preparations to invade.

So Mehmed did the smart thing, and asked his dear old dad to pretty please come back and lead his army into battle. Dear old dad refused. Enraged, Mehmed II wrote to his father  "If you are the Sultan, come and lead your armies. If I am the Sultan I hereby order you to come and lead my armies.“ Murad II wisely agreed to return. The Christian army was defeated, the Ottomans were free to expand into central and eastern Europe, and Murad II kept the throne until his death seven years later.