Mariska Hargitay, better known in the “Law & Order: SVU” criminal justice system as Lieutenant Olivia Benson, endorsed the Democratic nominee for president in a powerful blog for Elle on Monday.
“I stand with Hillary, enthusiastically and with all conviction,” the actress wrote. “I can’t think of a more succinct rallying cry for the anti-violence movement than Hillary’s campaign slogan: Stronger together.”
Given that Republican nominee Donald Trump has been accused of multiple accounts of sexual assault, Hargitay makes it clear that Clinton is the only candidate that will take these issues seriously.
“Whether it is arguing for change in how campuses address the epidemic of sexual assault, drawing attention to the use of rape as a weapon of war, or advocating for the criminal justice system to do all that it can to ensure victims of sexual assault have full access to all the tools at law enforcement’s disposal, including the mandatory testing of all rape kits, Hillary has a vision and a plan for action,” the actress wrote. “And after a lifetime dedicated to working for the rights of women and girls, her vision and her plan are informed, hard-won, and comprehensive.”
The actress also poked fun (and easily shut down) Donald Trump’s promise to be the “law and order candidate” of the election with a charming sign-off at the end of her endorsement of Clinton.
“Stand with me as I stand with her, as we all stand together, as people, as women and men, united in our conviction that we can be the country that leads the world in bringing this violence to an end,” Hargitay wrote. “And yes, Hillary, in case you were wondering, this makes you the ‘Law & Order’ candidate.”
The statistics won’t come as a shock to those aware of the “school-to-prison pipeline,” a series of policies and practices that push students, especially those most at-risk, from classrooms to the criminal justice system at a young age.
It’s time we change the conversation and the policy that leads to more incarceration, inequality and hopelessness for so many.
Join the Issue Time discussion on the school to prison pipeline.
to loud music, to seeking help after an accident, to walking towards someone or even just walking away from someone…racists and gun creeps™ (particularly in Florida) all seem to be trigger happy & afraid of their own damn shadows
I can almost guarantee you that the Black jurors are in a state of disbelief that they are having to fight tooth & nail to explain to the other jurors that, no, there really was no good reason for Michael Dunn’s drive by shooting and, no, loud music actually isn’t a life threatening situation. I really hope that they don’t tire out and give in like B-29 aka “Maddy” did
A hung jury will give the state a second shot at Dunn (although, twice now, in two Stand Your Ground cases, Angela Corey and her prosecution team have flatly refused to openly address what’s at the very heart of this case: abject racism. Dancing around Dunn’s proven hatred of Black people is beyond problematic. It’s infuriatingly frustrating, and it may cause a miscarriage of justice just as it did in the Zimmerman trial…but avoiding attacking Dunn as a racist is actually no different–at all–than how waayyy too many non-Black Americans tend to treat racism IRL: by not talking about it and pretending it isn’t at play. I’m no lawyer, but if Angela Corey and the state of Florida can prosecute & imprison Marissa Alexander for firing a warning shot into a wall without actually injuring anyone, then they also could have charged Michael Dunn with a hate crime)
Existing while Black should not be a legally sanctioned reason to be murdered in cold blood and this needs to stop
I hope Jordan Davis and his family get the justice they all deserve
Black People Killed by Police 2015 (Updated Nov 23rd):
—-(as of Nov 20th)—-
Michael Lee Marshall, 50, CO Steve Dormil, 27, FL Randy Allen Smith, 34, FL Marcus Deon Meridy, 44, MI Cornelius Brown, 25, FL Jeray Chatham, 30, TX Yohans Leon, 28, FL Demetrius Shelley Bryant, 21, SC Chandra Weaver, 48, MO Jamar O'Neal Clark, 24, MN Richard Perkins, 39, CA Stephen L. Tooson, 45, AL Ryan Quinn Martin, 32, MD Delvin Tyrell Simmons, 20, SC —-(as of Nov 6th)—- John Allen, 57, TX
James Covington Jr., 62, DC Bennie Lee Tignor, 56, AL
Yvens Seide, 33, FL Deaunte Lamar Bell, 25, OH Jerry Michael Graham Jr., 34, FL Tyrie Cuyler, 25, GA Anthony Ashford, 29, CA Kevin T. Brunson, 45, MD Marquesha McMillan, 21, DC Dominic Hutchinson, 30, CA Rolly Thomas, 34, FL Charles A. Pettit, Jr., 18, OK Adriene Jamarr Ludd, 36, CA Lawrence Green, 38, LA Dion Lamont Ramirez, 53, CA Corey Jones, 31, FL Paterson Brown Jr., 18, VA Dequan L. Williams, 28, PA Kaleb Alexander, 25, OH Jason Day, 40, OK Bernard Brandon Powers, 23, SC Jeffery McCallum, 31, IL Christopher LaShon Kimble Jr., 22, OH Brandon Johnson, 28, WV Junior Prosper, 31, FL James Anderson, 33, IL Ernesto Medina López, 42, FL Keith Harrison McLeod, 19, MD Jeremy McDole, 28, DE Bobby R. Anderson, 27, LA Tyrone Bass, 21 , LA Vincent E. Scott, 49, KS Carl Devince King, 52, NC Joseph Thomas Johnson-Shanks, 25, KY Clifford Butler, Jr., 67, OK Brandon Foy, 29, IN Tyrone L. Holman, 37, MO Angelo Delano Perry, 35, VA India Kager, 28, VA La'vante Trevon Biggs, 21, NC Cedric Maurice Williams, 33, WV James Carney III, 48, OH Felix Kumi, 61, NY James Marcus Brown III, 25, NV Bertrand Syjuan Davis, 43, TX Curtis Smith, 34, PA Thaddeus Faison, 39, NY Deviere Ernel Ransom, 24, MI Mansur Ball-Bey, 18, MO Frederick Roy, 35, TX Benjamin Peter Ashley, 34, CA Allen Matthew Baker III, 23, CA Asshams Pharoah Manley, 30, MD Garland Tyree, 38, NY Reginald Marshall, 27, OH Redel Kentel Jones, 30, CA Nathaniel Wilks, 27, CA Andre Green, 15, IN Tsombe Jashon Clark, 25, NC Shamir Terrel Palmer, 24, SC Derrick Lee Hunt, 28, CA Charles Bertram, 22, TX Christian Taylor, 19, TX Troy Robinson, 32, GA Keshawn D. Hargrove, 20, VA Darius D. Graves, 31, IL Filimoni Raiyawa, 57, CA Khari Westly, 33, LA Bryan Keith Day, 36, NV Sandra Bland, 28, TX Donatae L. Martin. 34, OH Andre Dontrell Williams, 26, OK Devon Guisherd, 26, PA Samuel Dubose, 43, OH Darrius Stewart, 19, TN Albert Joseph Davis, 23, FL Edward Foster III, 35, FL Chacarion Avant, 20, FL Salvado Ellswood, 36, FL Freddie Blue, 20, GA George Mann, 35, GA Anthony Dewayne Ware, 35, AL Jonathan Sanders, 39, MS Jason M. Hendley, 29, CA Maximo Rabasa, 52, FL Robert Elando Manlone, 42, OK Kawanza Jamaal Beaty, 23, VA Victo Larosa III, 23, FL Kevin Lamont Judson, 24, OR Alfontish Cockerham, 23, IL Spencer Lee McCain, 41, MD Damien A. Harrell, 26, VA Tyrone Harris, 20, PA Zamiel Kivon Crawford, 21, AL Kevin Bajoie, 32, LA Trepierre Hummons, 21, OH Jermaine Benjamin, 42, FL Deng Manyoun, 35, KY arles Allen Ziegler, 40, FL Fritz Severe, 46, FL Isiah Hampton, 19, NY QuanDavier Hicks, 22, OH Ross Anthony, 25, TX Demouria Hogg, 30, CA Andrew Ellerbe, 33, PA Sherman Byrd, 24, PA Usaama Rahim 26 Massachusetts Richard Davis 50 New York Kevin Allen 36 New Jersey James Strong 32 Colorado Kenneth Dothard 40 Georgia Dalton Branch 51 New York Anthony Briggs 26 Alabama Caso Jackson 25 Michigan Javoris Washington 29 Florida Jerome Thomas Caldwell 32 South Carolina Markus Clark 26 Florida Marcus D. Wheeler 26 Nebraska Anthony Quinn Gomez Jr. 29 Pennsylvania D'Angelo Reyes Stallworth 28 Florida Kelvin Antonie Goldston 30 Texas Lionel Young 34 Maryland Dedrick Marshall 48 Louisiana Nephi Arriguin 21 California Brendon Glenn 29 California Jason Champion 41 New Jersey Nuwnah Laroche 34 New Jersey Elton Simpson 30 Texas Alexia Christian 25 Georgia Jeffery O. Adkins 53 Virginia Terrance Kellom 20 Michigan Todd Dye 20 Colorado Samuel Harrell 30 New York William L. Chapman II 18 Virginia Daniel Wolfe 35 New Jersey Freddie Gray 25 Maryland Norman Cooper 33 Texas Thaddeus McCarroll 23 Missouri Darrell Lawrence Brown 31 Maryland Frank Ernest Shephard III 41 Texas Tevin Barkley 22 Florida Colby Robinson 26 Texas Karl Taylor 52 New York Don Oneal Smith Jr. 29 Indiana Dexter Bethea 42 Georgia Desmond Willis 25 Louisiana Paul Anthony Anderson 31 California Justus Howell 17 Illinois Walter Scott 50 South Carolina Darrin A. Langford 32 Illinois Donald “Dontay” Ivy 39 New York Eric Courtney Harris 44 Oklahoma Robert Washington 37 California Phillip White 32 New Jersey Ricky Shawatza Hall 27 Maryland Dominick R. Wise 30 Virginia Jamalis Hall 39 Florida Angelo West 41 Massachusetts Meagan Hockaday 26 California Jeremy Lorenza Kelly 27 South Carolina Walter Brown III 29 Virginia Nicholas Thomas 23 Georgia Denzel Brown 21 New York Richard White 63 Louisiana Brandon Jones 18 Ohio Kendre Omari Alston 16 Florida Askari Roberts 35 Georgia Jonathan Ryan Paul 42 Texas Terry Garnett Jr. 37 Maryland Jamie Croom 31 Louisiana Theodore Johnson 64 Ohio Terrance Moxley 29 Ohio Cedrick Lamont Bishop 30 Florida Anthony Hill 27 Georgia Monique Jenee Deckard 43 California Andrew Anthony Williams 48 Florida Naeschylus Vinzant 37 Colorado Bernard Moore 62 Georgia Tony Terrell Robinson Jr. 19 Wisconsin Tyrone Ryerson Lawrence 45 Wisconsin Shaquille C. Barrow 20 Illinois Fednel Rhinvil 25 Maryland Charley Leundeu Keunang, “Africa” 43 California Thomas Allen Jr. 34 Missouri Darrell “Hubbard” Gatewood 47 Oklahoma Ian Sherrod 40 North Carolina Cornelius J. Parker 28 Missouri Glenn C. Lewis 37 Oklahoma Calvon A. Reid 39 Florida A’Donte Washington 16 Alabama Terry Price 41 Oklahoma Stanley Lamar Grant 38 Alabama Janisha Fonville 20 North Carolina Lavall Hall 25 Florida Phillip Watkins 23 California Anthony Bess 49 Tennessee Desmond Luster, Sr. 45 Texas Natasha McKenna 37 Virginia James Howard Allen 74 North Carolina Herbert Hill 26 Oklahoma Markell Atkins 36 Tennessee Yvette Henderson 38 California Ledarius Williams 23 Missouri Dewayne Deshawn Ward Jr. 29 California Edward Donnell Bright, Sr. 56 Maryland Jermonte Fletcher 33 Ohio Darin Hutchins 26 Maryland Tiano Meton 25 Texas Demaris Turner 29 Florida Isaac Holmes 19 Missouri Dewayne Carr 42 Arizona Terence D. Walker 21 Oklahoma Rodney Walker 23 Oklahoma Kavonda Earl Payton 39 Colorado Mario A. Jordan 34 Virginia Donte Sowell 27 Indiana Marcus Ryan Golden 24 Minnesota Artago Damon Howard 36 Arkansas Andre Larone Murphy Sr. 42 Nebraska Ronald Sneed 31 Texas Hashim Hanif Ibn Abdul-Rasheed 41 Ohio Brian Pickett 26 California Leslie Sapp III 47 Pennsylvania Matthew Ajibade 22 Georgia
Black People Killed by Police in 2014
Jerry Nowlin 39 Oklahoma Travis Faison 24 North Carolina Michael D. Sulton 23 Mississippi Calvin Peters 49 New York Dennis Grisgby 35 Texas Thurrell Jowers 22 Mississippi Brandon Tate-Brown 26 Pennsylvania Xavier McDonald 16 Tennessee Antonio Martin 18 Missouri Carlos Davenport 51 Kansas Gregory Marcus Gray 33 District of Columbia Carlton Wayne Smith 20 Texas Terrence Gilbert 25 Illinois Aura Rosser 40 Michigan Quentin Smith 23 Florida Charles Emmett Logan 68 Minnesota David Andre Scott 28 Florida Jerame C. Reid 36 New Jersey Kevin Davis 44 Georgia David Yearby 27 New Jersey Eric Tyrone Forbes 28 Florida Christopher Bernard Doss 41 Texas Christopher M. Anderson 27 Illinois William Mark Jones 50 North Carolina Rauphael Thomas 29 Ohio Tanisha N. Anderson 37 Ohio Rumain Brisbon 34 Arizona Lincoln Price 24 Oklahoma John T. Wilson, III 22 Nevada Cinque DJahspora 20 Tennessee Darnell Dayron Stafford 31 New Jersey Cecil Chaney Tinker-Smith 37 Washington Akai Gurley 28 New York Keara Crowder 29 Tennessee Myron DeÕShawn May 39 Florida Leonardo Marquette Little 33 Florida Tamir E. Rice 12 Ohio Eric Ricks 30 Texas Lashano J. Gilbert 31 Connecticut Qusean Whitten 18 Ohio Latandra Ellington 36 Florida Elisha Glass 20 Ohio OÕShaine Evans 26 California Tracy A. Wade 39 Kentucky Miguel Benton 19 Georgia Balantine Mbegbu 65 Arizona Iretha Lilly 37 Texas Vonderrit Myers Jr. 18 Missouri Aljarreau Cross 29 Nevada Adam Ardett Madison 28 Alabama Ronnie D. McNary 44 Ohio Alphonse Edward Perkins 50 California Terrell Lucas 22 Indiana Zale Thompson 32 New York Shawn DeCortez Brown, II 20 New Jersey Darrien Nathaniel Hunt 22 Utah Kaldrick Donald 24 Florida Christopher Mason McCray 17 North Carolina Kendrick Brown 35 Ohio Elijah Jackson 33 Tennessee Naim Owens 22 New York Ricky Deangelo Hinkle 47 Alabama Carrey Brown 26 Washington Kashad Ashford 23 New Jersey Ceasar Adams 36 Louisiana Michael Willis Jr. 42 Missouri Charles Smith 29 Georgia John Jolly Jr. 28 Kentucky Cameron Tillman 14 Louisiana Nolan Anderson 50 Louisiana Oliver Jarrod Gregoire 26 Texas Ronald Singleton 45 New York Jeremy Lewis 33 Florida Warren Robinson 16 Illinois Darius Cole-Garrit 21 Illinois Eugene Williams 38 Missouri Marlon S. Woodstock 38 Florida Arvel Douglas Williams 30 Maryland Anthony Callaway 27 Georgia Javonta Darden 20 Georgia Ennis Labaux 37 Louisiana Robert Baltimore 34 Louisiana Anthony Lamar Brown 39 Florida Dominique Charon Lewis 23 Michigan Eugene N. Turner III 28 Mississippi Cedric Stanley 35 Florida Jacorey Calhoun 23 California Briant Paula 26 Massachusetts Michael Laray Dozer 26 California Daniel Row 37 Ohio John Crawford III 22 Ohio Eddie Davis 67 Texas Michael Brown, Jr. 18 Missouri Corey Levert Tanner 24 Florida Frederick R. Miller 38 Maryland Ezell Ford 25 California Dante Parker 36 California Andre Maurice Jones 37 California Luther Lathron Walker 38 California Michelle Cusseaux 50 Arizona David Ellis 29 Pennsylvania Kajieme Powell 25 Missouri Roshad McIntosh 18 Illinois Cortez Washington 32 Nebraska Vernicia Woodward 26 Georgia Desean Pittman 20 Illinois Jerry Dwight Brown 41 Florida Jacqueline Nichols 64 Michigan Icarus Randolph 26 Kansas Christopher Jones 30 Missouri Charles Goodridge 53 Texas Tommy Jackson 39 Florida Tyshawn Hancock 37 Ohio Tommy Ray Yancy 32 California Lawrence Campbell 27 New Jersey Eric Garner 43 New York Donovan Bayton 54 Maryland Vamond Arqui Elmore 37 South Carolina Jonathan L. Williams 25 Arizona Harrison Carter 29 Florida Charles Leon Johnson, II 29 Georgia Briatay McDuffie 19 Maryland Patrick Small 27 South Carolina Frank McQueen 34 Pennsylvania Thomas Dewitt Johnson 28 Florida Lonnie Flemming 31 Tennessee David Latham 35 Virginia Michael Reams 47 California Steven Thompson 26 Florida Roylee Vell Dixon 48 Alabama Broderick Johnson 21 Georgia Frank Rhodes 61 Mississippi John Schneider 24 Georgia Jason Harrison 38 Texas Devaron Ricardo Wilburn 21 North Carolina Ismael Sadiq 30 Texas Samuel Shields 49 Maryland Denzell Curnell 19 South Carolina Antoine Dominique Hunter 24 California Juan May 45 Texas Lavon King 20 New Jersey Paul Ray Kemp Jr. 40 California Samuel Johnson 45 California Rodney Hodge 33 Texas Dennis Hicks 29 Delaware Quentin Byrd 21 Georgia Londrell Johnson 31 Wisconsin Nyocomus Garnett 35 Texas Eddie Macon Jr. 39 Michigan Pearlie Golden 93 Texas Armand Martin 50 New Mexico Jerome Dexter Christmas 44 Louisiana Devante Kyshon Hinds 21 Alabama Jonathan Lee Asuzu Alabama Joseph Givens 34 Ohio Justin Griffin 25 Mississippi George V. King 19 Maryland James Renee White Jr. 21 California Charles D. Broadway Jr.24 Kansas Howard Wallace Bowe Jr. 34 Florida Jovon Allen 21 Arkansas Shiquan M. Krouser 27 New York Damion Foster 37 Florida Dominique Franklin, Jr 23 Illinois Jermassioun Viondrey Rodgers 20 Florida Michael Myers 62 Illinois Quintico Goolsby 36 Indiana Montez Dewayne Hambric 26 North Carolina Duane Erick Strong 18 Florida Jose Valerio 17 Louisiana Terry Darnell Heath 45 Ohio Sandy Jamel McCall 33 North Carolina Etoine Baucum 44 New Jersey Dustin Keith Glover 27 Texas Jameel Kareem Ofurum Harrison 34 Maryland Gregory Towns 24 Georgia Daniel Christoph Yealu 29 California Matthew Walker 55 Florida Emmanuel Wooten Mississippi Joe Huff 86 Illinois Adrian Williams 29 Pennsylvania Dontre H. Hamilton 31 Wisconsin Tyrone Davis 43 Mississippi Emerson Clayton Jr. 21 Alabama Treon “Tree” Johnson 27 Florida Gabriella Monique Nevarez 22 California Kenny Clinton Walker 23 California Daniel Martin 47 Oklahoma Douglas Cooper 18 Rhode Island Winfield Carlton Fisher III 32 Maryland Deosaran Maharaj 51 Florida DeAndre Lloyd Starks 27 Oklahoma Earnest Satterwhite 68 South Carolina Anneson Joseph 28 Florida Raason Shaw 20 Illinois Anthony Bartley 21 Florida Zikarious Jaquan Flint 20 Georgia Alton Reaves 31 South Carolina D'Andre Berghardt Jr. 20 Nevada Stephon Averyhart 27 Missouri Yvette Smith 45 Texas Keith Atkinson 31 Alabama Kenneth Christopher Lucas 38 Texas Cornelius Turner 19 Wisconsin McKenzie Cochran 25 Michigan Kendall Alexander 34 Louisiana Jordan Baker 26 Texas Gregory Vaughn Hill Jr. 30 Florida Henry Jackson 19 Oklahoma Jeffrey Ragland 50 New York Marquise Jones 23 Texas Paul Smith 58 California Eldrin Loren Smart 31 Louisiana
Notes 1-This was put together on Nov 9th using information from www.killedbypolice.net. This is my favorite source because it only takes names from confirmed news sources. 1.5-About half of reported civilian deaths by police officers do not include the race. There are most definitely more that we do not know of. 2-Police are not required to report the people they kill, so we know that there has to be more than this that is not reported. Currently the best government data we have on police killings is from the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting but these killings are self-reported by law enforcement and participation in the database is voluntary – only about 750 agencies contribute to it, a fraction of the 17,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States. 3-This passes no judgment on guilt or innocence, just a full list. I am sure some of these names are actual criminals, but the world will never know other than taking the police’s word. Police are not the judge, jury and executioners and these people should be alive to face their crimes or prove their innocence in a court of law. (We have also learned from Walter Scott that police lie on the reports and plant evidence) 3.5-IF they were criminals, does not excuse the police from violating these people’s Fifth Amendment Rights. They were deprived of life without due process of law. Many of these people are shot in the back or unarmed (see below). The major problem is we have violent White criminals like Ted Kaczynski, Timothy McVeigh, James Eagan Holmes, Jared Lee Loughner, Dylann Storm Roof who are all terrorists who collectively killed hundreds of people and were apprehended without being shot. Meanwhile, black people are being shot for non-violent crimes like jaywalking, having a busted taillight and so on. 4-This does not include police brutality cases like Floyd Dent, Martese Johnson or so many more. 5-This not include people like Travon Martin or Jordan Davis, who were killed by “stand your ground” laws by civilians. 6-This also does not include people like Lennon Lacy and Otis Byrd in what looks like lynchings 7-I also did not include anything pre-2014 since that is when the whole “black lives matter” movement started. This is not a new occurrence. 8-yeah, yeah … not all cops. I am sure they have a hard job, but it does not excuse this list or especially how long it is. There were 127 total police deaths in 2014, including unrelated car accidents, heart attacks and even one 9/11 related illness. It is MUCH more dangerous to be black than a police officer. 9-Yes, there were plenty of white people killed by police. “All lives matter”, BUT black people are 4x more likely to be killed by police than whites. Only 16% of white people killed were unarmed while 47% of black people killed were unarmed. There are deep racial disparities that come from a system of oppression.
However, this list is important. Sure Michael Brown, Eric Garner, Tamir Rice, Freddy Gray get the headlines, but every name needs to be remembered.
Mike Anderson was sentenced to 13
years in prison. When his order to report
to jail never came, he turned his life
around, started a family, and opened his
own business. The jail discovered the
error on his ‘release date’ 13 years later
and imprisoned him for 10 months, but a
judge let him go because he was a
'changed man’ and jail no longer
served a purpose. SourceSource 2
Samaria Rice is taking the role of leader seriously. Earlier this year, Rice helped lead the call to replace Prosecutor Timothy J. McGinty, who declined to bring criminal charges against the two police officers who shot her son.
The people of Ferguson have the absolute power to remove the ENTIRE city council and the mayor, and to do so within six months. They can then put into place a city council that will appoint a city manager who will fire the Chief of Police and replace that Chief with a Chief of Police who will replace the ENTIRE FORCE.
And they have more than enough numbers to make it all happen.
They just have to organize, register, and sign the petitions for recall.
The people have all the power in this. They just don’t realize it.
Ten years ago, when I started my career as an assistant district attorney in the Roxbury neighborhood of Boston, I viewed the American criminal justice system as a vital institution that protected society from dangerous people. I once prosecuted a man for brutally attacking his wife with a flashlight, and another for sexually assaulting a waitress at a nightclub. I believed in the system for good reason.
But in between the important cases, I found myself spending most of my time prosecuting people of color for things we white kids did with impunity growing up in the suburbs. As our office handed down arrest records and probation terms for riding dirt bikes in the street, cutting through a neighbor’s yard, hosting loud parties, fighting, or smoking weed – shenanigans that had rarely earned my own classmates anything more than raised eyebrows and scoldings – I often wondered if there was a side of the justice system that we never saw in the suburbs. Last year, I got myself arrested in New York City and found out.
What exactly is the school to prison pipeline? What studies have proven the practices within this to be true?
The school-to-prison pipeline is the process by which some youth are at an elevated risk of contact with the criminal justice system due to the growing alliance between our systems of education and criminal justice. Beginning in the late 1990s, many urban school districts began to implement and enforce disciplinary policies, using a “zero tolerance” approach, that would use severe penalties, usually suspension and expulsion, for even minor violations of a school’s code of conduct. Around the same time, public school systems began incorporating a “universal carceral apparatus” into the schools by using metal detectors, surveillance cameras (e.g., in Chicago Public Schools video feeds go directly to the Chicago Police Department), embedded police officers with arrest authority, etc. to provide “safety and security.” However, it has become clear that strict zero-tolerance policies and a highly visible police presence do not contribute to learning environments, and many of these penalties are disproportionately punishing our most marginalized youth. As I argue in my book, Unequal City, not only are these contacts with police in the institutional setting of a school shaping young people’s perceptions about police and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, they are also shaping their life trajectories. For some youth, particularly those who are the bottom of America’s racial/social strata, the contacts with police in school are simply the beginning of what are likely to be repeated contacts with the state and its representatives at deeper and deeper levels of severity.
The school-to-prison pipeline refers to the specific practices of punishing students, particularly young people of color, in ways that put them in direct contact with jails and prisons. These practices include the overuse of suspensions and the inclusion of police officers in school, who can arrest students for school-based infractions.
The school to prison pipeline is a set of policies and practices in schools that push kids out of the education system and into the criminal justice system. It includes excessive use of detention and expulsion, and has law enforcement address student misbehavior that when I was growing up would have been handled by teachers and parents.
By bringing students into the criminal justice system, we also see the mirror effect of the criminal justice system coming into schools, which more and more resemble prisons rather than places of learning, with metal detectors, heavy surveillance, and other tools that make students feel like they are constantly being punished. The Sentencing Project and others have looked at the detrimental effects of these policies.
The “school to prison pipeline” refers collectively to practices that push students out of the education system and into the criminal justice system. Punitive practices like suspension, removal to an alternative school, and arrest are applied, too often for minor infractions like “disruption” or “defiance.” When students experience these consequences, they miss out on educational time and it can be hard to catch up. Experiencing punitive discipline can also make students feel less attached to their school, a critical factor in school success and graduation. Often, punitive discipline takes the place of positive supports as a very short-term solution to behaviors that may result from a disability or from other physical or psychological stresses in a young person’s life. This can end up exacerbating challenging behaviors. Rather than working to keep young people educationally engaged, the school to prison pipeline pushes them out. It’s not very surprising then, that students who experience exclusionary discipline like suspensions are less likely to complete school and more likely to have future contact with the juvenile and criminal justice system. Sometimes, the criminal justice system end of the pipeline actually reaches into schools. For example, some schools have police officers regularly patrolling the halls, and breaking a school rule can become a criminal violation.
Students of color and students with disabilities are more likely to be harmed by the school to prison pipeline. There is a large body of research demonstrating disparities in school discipline. The most recent data collection from the U.S. Department of Education found that, across the U.S., Black students were 3.8 times more likely to receive a suspension than were white students. This included Black girls, who were 8% of students, but 14% of suspensions. American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and multiracial boys were also disproportionately suspended. Students with disabilities were more than twice as likely to be suspended. One factor that contributes to the school to prison pipeline is implicit bias. For example, one study found that Black students were more likely to be disciplined for less serious and subjective offenses (categories like “disrespect,” which depend upon personal perception) and that fewer disparities existed in categories of more serious and objectively defined offenses (something like alcohol possession).
'After an analysis of a random sample of hip hop songs released on platinum-selling albums between 2000 and 2010 [it was] concluded that the main law enforcement-related themes in hip-hop are not pleasure and pride in aggressive and criminal acts, but the unfairness of the criminal justice system and the powerlessness felt by those targeted by it. Lyrics about law enforcement...frequently portrayed cops as predators exercising an illegitimate power. Imprisonment, likewise, was blamed for weakening familial and community relationships and described a modern method of oppression.'