counterinsurgence

I sat down with former FBI agent Wes Swearingen, who explained just how far the FBI went to neutralize the black liberation movement, particularly the Black Panthers on the West Coast. He exposed the murder of Bunchy Carter in his interview, explaining how they not only wanted to neutralize Bunchy but to discredit him. In his own words, he said that the FBI originally planned for Bunchy to die in Watts in a drug-deal-gone-bad scenario, but — and these are his words — sometimes informants don’t do what you tell them to do. Instead, on January 17, 1969, Bunchy Carter was killed in Campbell Hall on the campus of UCLA. That revelation was definitely a smoking gun for me. Blacks in America have always been written off as conspiracy theorists, even though some of these things have manifested before our own eyes. But when we try to point some of these things out, they almost mockingly say that our accusations have no credibility, can’t be proved. The murder was not only a smoking gun, but a confirmation that behind the scenes, strings are definitely being pulled.
—  [Bone, “The Bastard Question”]

all across the Afrikan Nation the occupying Union Army - supposedly the “saviors” and “emancipators” of Afrikans - invaded the most organized, most politically conscious Afrikan communities. In particular, all those communities where the Afrikan masses had seized land in a revolutionary way came under Union Army attack. In those areas the liberation of the land was a collective act, with the workers from many plantations holding meetings and electing leaders to guide the struggle. Armed resistance was the order of the day, and planter attempts to retake the land were rebuffed at rifle point. The U.S. Empire had to both crush and undermine this dangerous development that had come from the grass roots of their colony.


In August, 1865 around Hampton, Virginia, for example, Union cavalry were sent to dislodge 5,000 Afrikans from liberated land. Twenty-one Afrikan leaders were captured, who had been “armed with revolvers, cutlasses, carbines, shotguns.” In the Sea Islands off the south Carolina coast some 40,000 Afrikans were forced off the former plantations at bayonet point by Union soldiers. While the Afrikans had coolly told returning planters to go - and pulled out weapons to emphasize their orders - they were not able to overcome the U.S. Army. In 1865 and 1866 the Union occupation disarmed and broke up such dangerous outbreaks. The special danger to the U.S. Empire was that the grass-roots political drive to have armed power over the land, to build economically self-sufficient regions under Afrikan control, would inevitably raise the question of Afrikan sovereignty.

—  [The union did not fight for black freedom.]
4

“I command thee to awaken! Dragonsoul Override – Kamui Junketsu!!

神板純潔

[GODPLATE JUNKETSU]

-Kiryuuin Satsuki-hime, counterinsurgency commander for Queen Kiryuuin Ragyou


Here it is! Junketsu, reimagined as a possessed suit of armor forged from the remains of an ancient dragon of the same name. For my Kill la Kill AU Project RYUU.

With official Satsuki designs (©TRIGGER) for comparison ^^

Counterinsurgency theory as pioneered by ARC Trooper Alpha-17.

Before there was Omega Squad, before Rex and Cody and all the rest, there was but one Named Clone Character ™, and that was everyone’s favorite badass ARC trooper. Alpha’s excellence at soldiering combined with his ruthless pragmatism and dry wit made him a blast to read alongside Obi-Wan and Anakin, and I always thought it was a crying shame he never showed up in any of the novels. He left a lasting imprint on the franchise by training the new generation of Clone Commanders (did that make it over with the NEU reboot?), and it was awesome when he got bought back in Obsession. Not even General Grievous could take him down. Only questionable choices of character fates, and a continuity snarl then reboot could do that.

So here’s to Alpha. I like Rex and all, but he’s not nearly as good as the original.

3

THE US-DUTERTE REGIME IS NO FRIEND OF THE FILIPINO PEOPLE

July 24: As President Rodrigo Duterte delivers his second State of the Nation Address (SONA) today, Anakbayan joins the Filipino people in massive protest actions expressing indignation against the extension of martial law in Mindanao, his long list of broken promises, and his regime’s triple wars of death and destruction. We are one with the Filipino people in strongly condemning Duterte’s genocidal “war on drugs” that has killed an estimated 12,000 people. We strongly oppose his regime’s disastrous “anti-terror war” that has led to the destruction of Marawi. We denounce his “all-out war” against the revolutionary movement.

After a year of unfulfilled promises, it has become clear that no fundamental change is forthcoming under Duterte. Inspired by the ex-dictator Ferdinand Marcos and fixated with bloody killings and the iron-fist as his only solution to all the country’s problems, Duterte has stepped up increasingly virulent fascist attacks against the populace. Duterte has stacked up his cabinet with military men like Lorenzana, Año, and Esperon who are notorious human rights violators. He now threatens to expand martial law nationwide, using the revolutionary forces as scapegoat to justify open military rule.

Duterte has proven himself to have no real interest in making the peace talks with the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP) a success by discussing socio-economic reforms that will solve the roots of armed conflict. Instead, Duterte insists on finalizing a bilateral ceasefire before tackling reform measures like genuine agrarian reform and national industrialization. He has used political prisoners as hostages to force the surrender of the revolutionary movement and carried on the implementation of US-designed counterinsurgency doctrine Oplan Kapayapaan.

For all his anti-US posturing, Duterte has had no concrete steps to remove US military forces from the country. Instead, he now coyly seeks US support for martial law in the guise of fighting terrorism. His economic team continues neoliberal policies that keeps the economy dependent on foreign investments and loans, favor rich oligarchs, and hit the poor the hardest. He has not junked contractualization, failed to freely distribute land to farmers, and now wishes to impose new and harsher taxes. Meanwhile, particular concessions like conditional free tuition for students of state universities and colleges giving free homes to homeless Kadamay members, among others, were achieved not because of the benevolence of Duterte but were the results of hard-won mass struggles by different sectors for their democratic rights.

The US-Duterte regime is no friend of the Filipino people. As we march today in angry protest, we hold no more illusions that Duterte is fundamentally any different from past regimes that have been subservient mainly to the interests of US imperialism and the oligarchic ruling classes. The Filipino youth and people has no other recourse but to intensify our mass struggles against Duterte’s fascist, anti-national, and anti-people policies and programs. We must assert our democratic rights and interests and advance the national democratic struggle against a rotting ruling system which now has at its apex the ruling militarist US-Duterte clique.

Oppose martial law and fascism of the US-Duterte regime!
Down with US imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat capitalism!
Forward the struggle for national democracy with a socialist perspective!

Via Anakbayan

Politically speaking, “Akira” has a really interesting setting. It takes place in a mega-city where rule of law and government control have broken down and lawlessness has taken over, but civil society hasn’t fully broken down yet. I believe David Kilcullen and some others in counterinsurgency and urban conflict call it a “feral city,” like Mogadishu.

COLOMBIA. Huila. Algeciras. May 11, 2011. Soldiers from the counterinsurgency unit No. 9 watching a football game during their time off. Soldiers from the counterinsurgency unit No. 9 are participating in an operation against the Teofilo Forero mobile column of the FARC.

Photograph: Alvaro Ybarra Zavala/Archivo Macondo

5

Callsign “Chaos”

Mattis, whose nicknames include “Mad Dog” and the “Warrior Monk,” has had a leading hand in some of the U.S. military’s most significant operations in the past 20 years. As a one-star general, he led an amphibious task force of Marines that carried out a November 2001 raid in helicopters on Afghanistan’s Kandahar province, giving the Pentagon a new foothold against the Taliban after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. Using the call sign “Chaos,” he commanded a division of Marines during the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 and returned there the following year to lead Marines in bloody street fighting in the city of Fallujah.

Mattis continued to rise through the ranks and establish his credentials as a military thinker, co-authoring the U.S. military’s new counterinsurgency manual with then-Army Lt. Gen. David H. Petraeus while Mattis was a three-star general at Quantico, Va.

He was considered a leading contender to become commandant of the Marine Corps in 2010 but was bypassed in favor of Gen. James F. Amos. Instead, Mattis replaced Petraeus as the chief of Central Command, overseeing U.S. military operations across the Middle East.

Pictured: Six-Star General John “Blackjack” Pershing poses for a photo with US-backed counterinsurgents during the Mexican Revolution. (1916, colorized)

Colonization function[s] on multiple levels, through several interlocking modalities of hard and soft power, from the structural to the psychological. Economically it [is] accumulation by dispossession; politically it [is] authoritarian state control; militarily it [is] occupation and counterinsurgency; ideologically it [is] cultural hegemony leaving its stamp through linguistic retraining and epistemic violence. Striving for total decolonization would mean working on all these levels in addition to (but not instead of) tackling capitalism and the state, without reducing the struggle to either the material or ideological discursive plane.
—  Ramnath, (Maia) (2011), Decolonizing Anarchism
Jihad in America

Daniel Greenfield supplies a bracing example of Sharia law.

Islam is peaceful. Just ask Rafiqi Islam, a loving husband, who told his wife that he had a present for her, blindfolded her to make it a surprise and then cut off her fingers. Then the rest of the Islam family mopped up the blood, while Mr. Islam threw her fingers into the trash, and after a few hours took her to the hospital where they warned her to tell the doctors that she had an accident.

The proximate cause of this event was that Mrs. Islam wanted to continue her education and Mr. Islam being a good Emirati Muslim was not so fond of the idea.

This is the sort of thing that Mr. Islam does from time to time. Diners in London got a surprise from Mr. Islam, three of him, who began stabbing and slashing their way through some trendy nightspots. The blindfold had been slapped on them by their own government and their own media.

Close your eyes while hundreds of thousands of Muslim migrants show up in America and Europe. Keep your eyes closed and Mr. Islam will give you a great big surprise.

For Europe, it’s more likely to be somewhere on the order of seven million. But that doesn’t mean America isn’t affected. John Guandolo gives us a synopsis of what he’s covered the last several years in his own work.

From Minneapolis (MN) to Hamtramck (MI) to Falls Church (VA) to Paterson (NJ) and many other towns and cities across the fifty states, the Islamic Movement is quietly conquering America.

The federal government sleeps, many state governments – including those controlled by Republicans – do their best to accommodate muslims waging Civilization Jihad against America, and the hard-left Marxists – including nearly all of the local and national media – are collaborators in the enemy’s efforts.

As UTT has previously reported, Minneapolis, Minnesota is currently enemy-held territory and will require force to take back.

Hamtramck, Michigan is a small suburb of Detroitistan, and is the first town in America to have a majority muslim city council. This formerly Polish-Catholic town has been overrun by sharia-adherent muslims who have already achieved accommodations for sharia in the community.

Falls Church, Virginia is home to the Muslim Brotherhood/Hamas’ Dar al Hijra Islamic Center. The Muslim Brotherhood leader of Dar al Hijra, Sheikh Shaker Elsayed (former President of the MB’s Muslim American Society), recently gave a lecture promoting female genital mutilation. Dar al Hijra is a jihadi factory whose property is owned by the MB’s bank NAIT (North American Islamic Trust).

Al Qaeda’s Anwar al Awlaki was the Imam of the Dar al Hijra beginning in January 2001 and serving for over a year there.

The community around Dar al Hijra has been taken over by sharia-adherent muslims. Law enforcement calls the two twin apartment buildings in the area “Taliban Towers,” and the number of jihadis in this area of Northern Virginia, only minutes from the nation’s capital, is significant.

Historically, Paterson, New Jersey has been a melting pot of Irish, Germans, Dutch, Italians, Eastern Europeans and others. Christians and Jews made a home in this town approximately 20 miles outside of New York City.

Now, estimates put the number of muslims in Paterson at over 30% of the total population. This number – possibly over 40,000 – makes Paterson, New Jersey the town with the one of the highest concentrations of muslims in the United States. Many Turks and Syrians are a part of the muslim community, but the majority are Palestinians/Hamas. Many citizens are concerned for their safety and security.

He goes on, but then it’s so easy to do just that. As for the U.K., Islamists are already part of the warp and woof of the culture. It cannot be eradicated by closing the borders. A Firearms Officer with the Metropolitan Police thinks that more police are necessary to bring security. But he uses language reminiscent of the counterinsurgency experience in Northern Ireland. Attempts to use the British experience there is why the British failed in both Basra and the Helmand Province.

In Northern Ireland the British were dealing with a people who were like minded in culture and (even though you might think differently) religion. What the U.K. faces now is totally different, and would require a major paradigm shift in thinking as well as a rearming of the British people, not just LEOs. This – they will not do. I judge the U.K. as finished because of this. Subjects of the crown will always be just that: subjects of the crown.

Here in America we face a different enemy. The proximate enemy might be the uber-powerful state, or it might be Islam. There are many dangers. But the immediate danger has to do with the thought framework within which we function. So here I am going to address something that needed to have been said long ago.

While my reputation might be one of throwing around tough language when it’s necessary, or just whenever I feel like it, in the end I am still a Christian. I eat with you, live among you, worship with you, and know how you think. I am not addressing those outside my own world view. To be sure, I take great amusement in drilling holes in opposing world views. If you believe that upon death the body cools to ambient temperature and that’s the end, you certainly have the freedom to believe that way, unimpeded by me.

If you want to tackle me for my world and life view, as I said, I find great amusement and pleasure in such things. But you don’t make me the least bit nervous about my own views. I took all the course work in philosophy, systematic theology and apologetics to hold my own in such a throw down. But that’s a subject for a different time. Right now I want to address Christians, because the Christian community in America is in need of a major intervention. You know it’s true.

I’ve addressed it before, this idea that God expects us to defend ourselves and others because of the image of God. But there is no end to the silly and trite pacifists who think they are being brave by eschewing self defense. So let’s say it again. Jesus demanded that his disciples seek weapons for their own defense, and not only did He do that, He told them to become criminals by doing so.

… for some evidence, see Digest 48.6.1: collecting weapons ‘beyond those customary for hunting or for a journey by land or sea’ is forbidden; 48.6.3.1 forbids a man ‘of full age’ appearing in public with a weapon (telum) (references and translation are from Mommsen 1985). See also Mommsen 1899: 564 n. 2; 657-58 n. 1; and Linderski 2007: 102-103 (though he cites only Mommsen). Other laws from the same context of the Digest sometimes cited in this regard are not as worthwhile for my purposes because they seem to be forbidding the possession of weapons with criminal intent. But for the outright forbidding of being armed while in public in Rome, see Cicero’s letter to his brother relating an incident in Rome in which a man, who is apparently falsely accused of plotting an assassination, is nonetheless arrested merely for having confessed to having been armed with a dagger while in the city: To Atticus, Letter 44 (II.24). See also Cicero, Philippics 5.6 (§17). Finally we may cite a letter that Synesius of Cyrene wrote to his brother, probably sometime around the year 400 ce. The brother had apparently questioned the legality of Synesius having his household produce weapons to defend themselves against marauding bands. Synesius points out that there are no Roman legions anywhere near for protection, but he seems reluctantly to admit that he is engaged in an illegal act (Letter 107; for English trans., see Fitzgerald 1926).

He told them it doesn’t matter what the state says. They are to arm themselves. Period. The most high God said so. It wasn’t an option. It was a commandment. And yet, we still see supposed Christians who are reluctant to arm up, raised in the “Jesus was a Bohemian Hippie Flower Child” culture of Christianity.

But the second problem is one that is a bit harder to fisk. It has to do with eschatology. Bear with me for a moment. Millions upon millions of Christians in America believe in something called dispensationalist, premillennial eschatology. In brief, it holds that the Church is a “parenthesis” in history, a divine “uh oh.” Didn’t mean for that to happen. God’s people are still the Jews, and this parenthesis ends when he “raptures” the church out of the world and deals with Israel.

The church gets to sit on its ass, do nothing, watch stupid night time sitcoms, avoid affecting the world around them, and look like the rest of the world, and then avoid what it has created with its sloth, laziness and inaction. It’s a magic solution that let’s the church go blindly into the future thinking that everything is going to be okay regardless of what they do or don’t do.

But at no time in history has God ever allowed His church to neglect affecting the world and yet avoid the wake of judgment that creates. The times this has happened in history are too numerous to cite, but suffice it to say that the Jews aren’t special, there will be no thousand year peaceful reign in Jerusalem, there will be no rapture, and God doesn’t suffer His church to become fools.

Trouble is coming, and in fact it is already here. Things are going to get a lot worse, not better, at least for a while, and for the Christians reading this who have flirted with this ridiculous ideology, you’d better gun up. Moreover, you need to think hard about these things. To be sure, you need to be in decent physical shape by staying active when you can, whether it is carrying body armor and doing squad rushes, or simply hard exercise. You also need to be practicing with your weapons.

But the root of the problem lies deeper. You need to develop a thought framework for violence. When is it acceptable? Under what conditions? What would it take to meet that threshold? What do you do when that threshold is met? How prepared are you mentally to accept the challenges that will bring? Do you have a plan?

If you don’t know the answers to those questions, you need to do some serious reflection. The theologians aren’t going to help you. They’re lost in a world of racial reconciliation and a theology of togetherness. Or you might be like the writer I cited earlier who thinks he is being brave by ignoring defense of his family. Very well. Your girls will wear hijabs and marry child molesters, your sons will pray to Mecca five times a day, your wife will be so fearful of losing her life she doesn’t even go out of the house, and you will work your entire life to enrich pagans and barbarians if they don’t kill you first.

Time is short, and the situation is serious. The shortness of the time calls for an honest appraisal. Within what mental and intellectual framework will you operate?

Islamic Facism,Islamists,Religion

I put together a reading group with some of my fellow organizers, thinking about how we organize post-Trump. Here’s the list of books:

We are reading The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich in chunks, meeting monthly, and reading one other book besides. This is a list long enough to keep us meeting for five years, which is not the intention - but we’re randomly generating five books each month and voting on which one of those we’d like to read. 

  • Raising Expectations (and Raising Hell), Jane McAlevey
  • The Invention of the White Race, Theodore Allen
  • The Children of NAFTA: Labor Wars on the US/Mexico Border, David Bacon
  • Rise of the Warrior Cop, Radley Balko
  • My Face is Black Is True: Callie House and the Ex-Slave Pensions Movement, Mary Frances Berry
  • Doing Theology in a Revolutionary Situation, Jose Miguez Bonino
  • The Spanish Anarchists: The Heroic Years 1868-1936, Murray Bookchin 
  • Beyond Bullets: The Suppression of Dissent in the United States, Jules Boykoff
  • Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Dee Brown
  • In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s, Clayborne Carson
  • Capitalism and Christianity, American Style, William Connolly
  • Languages of the Unheard: Why Militant Protest is Good for Democracy, Stephen D'Arcy
  • Broken Heartland: The Rise of America’s Rural Ghetto, Osha Gray Davidson 
  • Chain of Title: How Three Ordinary Americans Uncovered Wall St’s Great Foreclosure Fraud, David Dayen
  • Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi, John Dittmer
  • Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of the Twentieth Century, Mark Dowie
  • John Brown, W.E.B. Du Bois
  • Black Reconstruction, W.E.B. Du Bois
  • This Is An Uprising, Mark & Paul Engler
  • Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of Resistance and Change, Stephen Fisher
  • Four Futures, Peter Frase
  • Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, Eduardo Galeano
  • Gods of Blood: The Pagan Revival and White Separatism, Mattias Gardell
  • Resource Rebels: Native Challenges to Mining and Oil Corporations, Al Gedick
  • The Bending Cross: A Biography of Eugene V. Debs, Ray Ginger
  • The Populist Moment: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America, Lawrence Goodwyn
  • Selections from the Prison Notebooks, Antonio Gramsci
  • Migra! A History of the US Border Patrol, Kelly Hernández
  • Strangers in their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right, Arlie Hochschild
  • The Paranoid Style in American Politics, Richard Hofstadter
  • The Long Haul: An Autobiography, Myles Horton
  • How the Irish Became White, Noel Ignatiev
  • The Black Jacobins, CLR James
  • Hammer and Hoe: Alabama Communists in the Great Depression, Robin D. G. Kelley
  • Civil Rights Unionism: Tobacco Workers and the Struggle for Democracy in the Mid-Twentieth-Century South, Robert Korstad
  • The Accumulation of Capital, Rosa Luxemburg
  • Accompanying: Pathways to Social Change, Staughton Lynd
  • Active Hope: How to Change the Mess We’re In Without Going Crazy, Joanna Macy
  • Ruling the Void: The Hollowing of Western Democracy, Peter Mair
  • Fossil Capital, Andreas Malm
  • They Thought They Were Free: The Germans 1933-45, Milton Mayer
  • At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape and Resistance, Danielle McGuire
  • Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil, Timothy Mitchell
  • The Fall of the House of Labor, David Montgomery
  • Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital, Jason Moore
  • The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America, Naomi Murakawa
  • Unreal City: Las Vegas, Black Mesa, and the Fate of the West, Judith Nies
  • Governing the Commons, Elinor Ostrom
  • I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle, Charles M. Payne
  • Nixonland, Rick Perlstein
  • Poor People’s Movements, Frances Fox Piven & Richard Cloward
  • Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement, Barbara Ransby
  • Waging Nonviolent Struggle, Gene Sharp
  • Dixie Be Damned: 300 Years of Insurrection in the American South, Neal Shirley
  • First Majority Last Minority: The Transforming of Rural Life in America, John Shover
  • Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels, and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times, Amy Sonnie
  • Poor Workers’ Unions: Rebuilding Labor from Below, Annie Tait
  • Life During Wartime: Resisting Counterinsurgency, Kristian Williams (ed.)
  • The Gilded Rage: A Wild Ride through Donald Trump’s America, Alexander Zaitchik

I think the Left should realize that there is no revolution to wait for, no collapse to anticipate and no ending to organize towards. That suggests and accepts the liberal notion of American peace. The narrative of American peace obscures the daily violence of capitalism, patriarchy and white supremacy and says the ‘bad days’ are past us - we are now in a time of relative stability, security and peace.

The problem with this narrative is that the problems never went away. Every name you’ve heard of through Black Lives Matter, every statistic you’ve read on police violence, is only a drop in the bucket. This happens every. single. day. multiple times a day. in every American city. Why do you think urban and reservation Indigenous peoples have over 50% unemployment to this day? You’re shocked that there’s more homes than homeless people? That we throw away enough fresh food to feed every single person this planet times and times over? Surprised to hear there’s a nine year difference in life expectancy between rich and poor? This is every single day. Every single day the police act as agents of racial violence, of economic and class violence.

And despite what many liberals believe - these are not helpless and passive victims waiting for a savior. Why do you think there’s several riots in a decade? Why do you think people sell drugs and guns? Run scams? Rob corner stores and banks? Shoplift? People, including myself and my family and my community did all sorts of illegal or “unethical” things all the time and were never caught. People are doing this at rates you can’t imagine. Why do you think the Black population of Ferguson and Baltimore fought cops, threw back concussion grenades and masked up to prevent identification? Why do you think prison uprisings happen? Have you looked at the racial and class composition of these “crimes,” riots and uprisings? Have you looked at the racial and class composition of these “crimes,” riots and uprisings in the third world? Have you heard their words? America is killing them there and killing them here. This is not just to survive but to thrive - to live comfortably.

People fight and resist everyday. They know they’re being exploited. The Police then try to ‘keep the peace’ which means counterinsurgency. They try to contain the war - to fight it off for another battle. But the war is here. There’s no revolution to wait for, it is happening now and is constantly being repressed. In that case, what are you doing? What are you organizing towards? “The people’ are not passively waiting for their savior to come. There is no organizing towards a war at this point - only a response to it. You then must choose a side. Organizing should be done to help win this war and not pretend as if it doesn’t already exist.

youtube

Marine Raiders conduct 10-Day training exercise: RAVEN

Marine Raiders conduct a 10-day readiness exercise referred to as RAVEN, to enhance their readiness for worldwide deployment in support of global contingencies. During the exercise, the Critical Skills Operators and Special Operations Officers trained with conventional Marine Corps forces, and participated in a range of realistic military training including Direct Action, Special Reconnaissance, Preparation of the Environment, Security Force Assistance, Counterterrorism, Counterinsurgency, and Foreign Internal Defense.

2

Ben Franklin the Military Commander

Statesman, diplomat, political theorist, inventor, musician, oceanologist, physicist, polyglot, economist, civic activist, philanthropist, physician, meteorologist, demographer, founding father, printer, writer, and womanizer, all terms accurately describe the many roles Benjamin Franklin played throughout his long life.  One of the least known roles of “The Great Sage” was of soldier and military commander, which he would undertake in the year 1756 during the French and Indian War. In the spring and summer of 1755 British General Edward Braddock was sent west with an army to capture Fort Duquesne, located on the forks of the Ohio River, what is now downtown Pittsburgh. Franklin had actually personally warned Braddock that his expedition was doomed to failure due to poor tactics, flawed military doctrine, and an underestimation of the enemy. Before reaching Fort Duquesne, the army was ambushed by the French and their Native American allies, and forced to retreat, Braddock himself was killed in the ensuing battle. After the defeat of the British Army under Braddock, French and Native American forces began to conduct raids into the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania, sometimes striking only 80 miles from Philadelphia. By New Years of 1756, around 400 settlers had been killed in the raids.  Pennsylvania did not have a colonial militia, most likely as a result of the colony’s pacifist Quaker past.  The Pennsylvania Assembly quickly passed a bill written by Franklin to raise, train, and equip a colonial militia. Franklin was commissioned a colonel in the militia and charged with ending the raids.

Franklin and his regiment set out for the Moravian settlement known as Gnadenhutten, now present day Weissport in Carbon County. He made his son, William, second in command.  Careful not to repeat the mistakes of Gen. Braddock, Franklin ordered light infantry and scouts to patrol ahead of the army in order to fend off any possible ambushes and surprise attacks.  After warding off several such attacks, the regiment reached Gnadenhutten safely, Franklin ordered the construction of a large fort with 18 foot high walls, swivel guns, and port holes from which riflemen and musketeers could fire from.  He then ordered two other forts constructed 15 miles to the east and west, as well as a number of other outposts and checkpoints surrounding the area.  Then, he organized a system of random patrols consisting of scouts and soldiers with dogs throughout the area to protect settlements, guard his supply lines, root out guerrillas, and make it difficult for the enemy to conduct any surprise attacks.  Furthermore, he created good relations with local settlers and loyal Native American tribes, essentially setting up an intelligence network that would further serve as the eyes and ears of his regiment.

Essentially, Franklin was practicing what military strategists would call counterinsurgency warfare, and Franklin’s tactics were little different from what is being done by NATO forces in Afghanistan today. After several skirmishes the raids began to decline in frequency. Within the year, the raids were reduced to a minimum.  Of all of Franklin’s roles throughout his life, it was one he seemed to relish the least.  He never wore a uniform, never accepted pay, never had a military portrait painted (a traditional practice among high ranking officers), and although he held the rank of colonel, preferred to be called “Mister Franklin” rather than Colonel Franklin.  When he returned to Philadelphia after relinquishing his command, he learned that the citizens of Philadelphia had prepared a victory parade for him as he entered the city.  Rather than making a spectacle of his return, he quickly snuck into the city in the middle of the night. Though he was an effective military commander, Franklin was a lover, not a fighter.

Hoje faz exatamente um ano que Augustus Waters morreu. Não havia mais aqueles olhos azuis, não havia mais ligações durante a noite, nem metáforas. Só eu e meu câncer. Relembrar a morte dele era como ter água nos pulmões: Sufocante e doloroso, uma dor que nunca passava. Estava vivendo naquela terceira dimensão só nossa. Minha e do Gus. Desta vez, terrivelmente sozinha. Sou a paciente de uso contínuo mais longo do Falanxifor. O remédio funcionava para mim, mas não para todo mundo. Me sinto sozinha, e não vejo motivos para meus pulmões continuarem em sua luta contra essa praga de câncer. O dia começou como todos os outros. Me desliguei do biPAP, me liguei ao Felipe e assisti alguns episódios gravados de America’s Next Top Model na cama. Abri o email para reler os quatro anexos que Lidewij Vliegenthart havia lhe mandado um ano atrás. Isso era reconfortante, como se uma parte dele tivesse ficado comigo. Um novo email tinha chegado uma semana atrás, e eu nem tinha notado. “Querida Hazel, Desde que Peter leu as últimas cartas que Augustus escreveu, se encontra mudado. Parou de beber e começou a escrever um novo livro, sem nome definido ainda. Ele está contando sua história. De vocês, na verdade. Sua e de Augustus. E em breve te mandará os primeiros capítulos. Van Houten também pretende fazer uma continuação de Uma Aflição Imperial, contando o que aconteceu com a mãe da Anna, o Homem das Tulipas Holandês, Sísifo, o hamster e com todos os outros. Isso é o que podemos chamar de milagre não acha? Estou realmente muito feliz, acho que tudo vai dar certo agora. Espero te ver novamente. Sua amiga, Lidewij Vliegenthart.” Na mesma manhã, coloquei alguns sanduíches de tomate e queijo dentro de uma cesta de pique-nique, carregando o UAI e saí. Quando cheguei ao meu destino, sentei-me num banco e li um pouco do livro. Assim como Uma Aflição Imperial, a existência de Augustus foi, de certa forma, rápida, marcante e finita. Fui até a última página em branco, peguei uma caneta e comecei a escrever. “Augustus Waters, Uma vez, você me pediu um elogio fúnebre, e eu não disse nem a metade da metade do que deveria ter dito. Amo seu sorriso torto e amo sua voz. Amo o fato de me chamar de Hazel Grace, e não só Hazel como todos. Amo suas lindas pernas e o modo como você anda. É muito egoísmo da minha parte,mas queria ter morrido antes. Bem,o mundo não é uma fábrica de realização de desejos. Ah, Isaac está ótimo. Veio me ver alguns dias atrás - Não literalmente, claro. - E me contou que a Mônica apareceu em sua casa com o novo namorado para ameaçá-lo pelos ovos que vocês jogaram no carro. Ele apenas bateu a porta na cara dela e disse que no momento não sentiu nada, mas instantes depois foi jogar Counterinsurgence 2: O preço do alvorecer enquanto chorava. Sem troféus quebrados dessa vez. Seus pais espalharam mais encorajamentos pela casa. E está tudo bem com as suas irmãs. Meus pais choram bastante ultimamente. A unica coisa pior do que morrer com um câncer aos dezessete anos é ter um filho morrendo de câncer aos dezessete anos. Então respiro fundo - ou quase - E tento consolá-los. Sou uma granada, e aprendi que é impossível tentar salvar os outros de minha própria explosão iminente. E o que eu queria dizer aqui ainda não disse, não caberia nesse pequeno espaço em branco na folha. Afinal, não é todo dia que encontramos um cara que não tenha perna e ao mesmo tempo tenha as pernas mais lindas do universo. Um cara que gaste seu único desejo pra me levar à Amsterdã e beber estrelas comigo. E não, não me arrependo de ter ido à Disney, foi bem legal. “Meus pensamentos são estrelas que eu não consigo arrumar em constelações.” Você não é um escritor tão ruim assim sabia? Alguns infinitos são maiores que outros, Augustus. O nosso infinito durou muito pouco. Mas agora, farei com que ele se prolongue. Da sua, Hazel Grace.” Arranquei um pedacinho do livro e escrevi: “Fui atrás de Augustus Waters, esse é o meu destino. Me desculpa. Amo vocês.” Tirei a cânula e esperei que a escuridão viesse. - Okay. - Disse num último suspiro.
—  A culpa é das estrelas
Um fã que não sei o nome, criou uma continuação de ” A Culpa é das Estrelas”. Leia até o final, você não irá se arrepender. "Hoje faz exatamente um ano que Augustus Waters morreu. Não havia mais aqueles olhos azuis, não havia mais ligações durante a noite, nem metáforas. Só eu e meu câncer.Relembrar a morte dele era como ter água nos pulmões: Sufocante e doloroso, uma dor que nunca passava. Estava vivendo naquela terceira dimensão só nossa. Minha e do Gus.Desta vez, terrivelmente sozinha.Sou a paciente de uso contínuo mais longo do Falanxifor. O remédio funcionava para mim, mas não para todo mundo.Me sinto sozinha, e não vejo motivos para meus pulmões continuarem em sua luta contra essa praga de câncer. O dia começou como todos os outros. Me desliguei do biPAP, me liguei ao Felipe e assisti alguns episódios gravados de America’s NextTop Model na cama. Abri o e-mail para reler os quatro anexos que Lidewij Vliegenthart havia lhe mandado um ano atrás. Isso era reconfortante, como se uma parte dele tivesse ficado comigo.Um novo email tinha chegado uma semana atrás, e eu nem tinha notado.” Querida Hazel,Desde que Peter leu as últimas cartas que Augustus escreveu, se encontra mudado. Parou de beber e começo a escrever um novo livro, sem nome definido ainda. Ele está contando sua história. De vocês, na verdade. Sua de Augustus. E em breve te mandará os primeiros capítulos.Van Houten também pretende fazer uma continuação de Uma Aflição Imperial, contando o que aconteceu com a mãe da Anna, o Homem das Tulipas Holandês, com o hamster e com todos os outros. Isso é o que podemos chamar de milagre não acha? Estou realmente muito feliz, acho que tudo vai dar certo agora. Espero te ver novamente. Sua amiga,Lidewij Vliegenthart “ Na mesma manhã, coloquei alguns sanduíches de tomate e queijo dentro de uma cesta de pique-nique,carregando o UAI e saí.Quando cheguei ao meu destino,sentei-me num banco e li um pouco do livro. Assim como Uma Aflição Imperial, a existência de Augustus foi,de certa forma, rápida, marcante e finita.Fui até a última página em branco,peguei uma caneta e comecei a escrever.” Augustus Waters, Uma vez, você me pediu um elogio fúnebre, e eu não disse nem ametade da metade do que deveria ter dito. Amo seu sorriso torto e amo sua voz.Amo o fato de me chamar de Hazel Grace, e não só Hazel como todos.Amo suas lindas pernas e o modo como você anda.É muito egoísmo da minha parte,mas queria ter morrido antes. Bem,o mundo não é uma fábrica de realização de desejos.Ah, Isaac está ótimo. Veio me ver alguns dias atrás - Não literalmente,claro. - E me contou que a Mônica apareceu em sua casa com o novo namorado para ameaçá-lo pelos ovos que vocês jogaram no carro. Ele apenas bateu a porta na cara dela e disse que no momento não sentiu nada, mas instantes depois foi jogar Counterinsurgence 2: O preço do alvorecer enquanto chorava. Sem troféus quebrados dessa vez.Seus pais espalharam mais encorajamentos pela casa. E está tudo bem com as suas irmãs.Meus pais choram bastante ultimamente. A unica coisa pior do que morrer com um câncer aos dezessete anos é ter um filho morrendo de câncer aos dezessete anos. Então respiro fundo - ou quase- E tento consolá-los. Sou uma granada, e aprendi que é impossível tentar salvar os outros de minha própria explosão iminente.E o que eu queria dizer aqui ainda não disse, não caberia nesse pequeno espaço em branco na folha. Afinal, não é todo dia que encontramos um cara que não tenha perna e ao mesmo tempo tenha as pernas mais lindas do universo. Um cara que gaste seu unico desejo pra me levar à Amsterdã e beber estrelas comigo. E não, não me arrependo deter ido à Disney, foi bem legal.” Meus pensamentos são estrelas que eu não consigo arrumar em constelações. ” Você não é um escritor tão ruim assim sabia? Alguns infinitos são maiores que outros, Augustus. O nosso infinito durou muito pouco. Mas agora, farei com que ele se prolongue.Da sua,Hazel Grace. “Arranquei um pedacinho do livro e escrevi:”Fui atrás de Augustus Waters, esse é o meu destino. Me desculpa. Amo vocês.”Tirei a cânula e esperei que a escuridão viesse.- Okay. - Disse num último suspiro."